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Notes

Data are shown only for countries or areas with population size of 150,000 or more in 1995 as estimated by Population Division of Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat (Population Division/DESIPA). Two dots (..) indicate that data are not available. A dash (-) indicates that the amount is nil or negligible.

(1) Including Agalesa, Rodrigues and St. Brandon.

(2) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

(3) Including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island.

Total population

The mid-year population estimated by the Population Division/DESIPA. This indicator was included as a background indicator that approximates demand or need for basic social services. From World Population Prospects: the 1996 Revision (United Nations publication, forthcoming).

Percentage of population with access to health services

The percentage of the population that can reach appropriate local health services by the local means of transport in no more than one hour. From The State of the World's Children 1996 (UNICEF).

Contraceptive prevalence

The percentage currently using contraception, both traditional and modern methods, among currently married women of reproductive age, including, where possible, those in consensual unions. Letters next to the numbers indicate reference years.
A refers to a year 1990 or later

B refers to 1985 to 1989

C refers to 1975 to 1984

Contraceptive prevalence is affected by availability and accessibility of family planning services and information, which are given substantial emphasis in the Programme of Action of ICPD. From Levels and Trends of Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1994 (United Nations publication, ST/ESA/SER.A/146) and World Population Monitoring, 1996 (United Nations publication, forthcoming) and files maintained by the Population Division/DESIPA.

Underweight prevalence among preschool children

The percentage of children under 5 years of age who have a weight that is more than two standard deviations below the median weight-for-age of the standard NCHS reference population. Data are for the latest available year, and those before 1990 are shown in italics. Age ranges for preschool children vary by country, but the majority of data are for children under age 5. Variations in the age ranges do not have an important effect on the results shown here. From "The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1993, vol. 71, pp. 703-712; the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition (WHO, WHO/NUT/96.11) and updates from the database; The State of the World's Children 1997 (UNICEF).

Maternal mortality ratio

The number of deaths of women occurring over a year while pregnant, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death, per 100,000 live births in that year. The data were prepared by World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, and are taken from Revised 1990 Estimates of Maternal Mortality: A New Approach (WHO/UNICEF).

Infant mortality rate and under-5 mortality rate

The probability of dying before age 1 and the probability of dying before age 5 per 1,000 newborns. Estimated by the Population Division/DESIPA. From World Population Prospects: the 1996 Revision (United Nations publication, forthcoming) and supplementary tabulations.

Life expectancy at birth

The average number of years that a newborn could expect to live, if he or she were to pass through life subject to the age-specific mortality rates of a given period, estimated by the Population Division/DESIPA. From World Population Prospects: the 1996 Revision (United Nations publication, forthcoming).

Gross enrolment ratio for primary and secondary school combined

The total enrolment, regardless of age, in primary and secondary education as a proportion of the population of primary- and secondary- school age according to national regulations. Data are shown for the latest available year. Data before 1990 are shown in italics. School-age ranges vary by country, but are typically 6 to 11 years for primary school and 12 to 17 years for secondary school. It should be noted that the gross enrolment ratio can exceed 100, since it includes all pupils whatever their ages, whereas the population is limited to the range of official school ages. From UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1996 (UNESCO publishing and Bernan Press).

Adult illiteracy rate

The proportion of the population who are illiterate, expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years or above. A person is illiterate who cannot, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. From Compendium of Statistics on Illiteracy - 1995 Edition (UNESCO). Recent data are not available for many developed countries; UNESCO estimates that illiteracy averaged around 1 per cent in those countries in 1995.

Percentage of population with access to safe water

The percentage of population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Information was provided by Governments for the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Words in italics were defined at country level. Access was interpreted as actual use by the population. From Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Monitoring Report 1996 (WHO/UNICEF).

Percentage of population with access to sanitation

The percentage of population with access to a sanitary facility for human excreta disposal in the dwelling or located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Information was provided by Governments for the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Words in italics were defined at country level. Access was interpreted as actual use by the population. From Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Monitoring Report 1996 (WHO/UNICEF).

Floor area per person

The median floor area of a unit divided by the average household size. This measures the adequacy of living space in dwellings. A low value for the indicator is a sign of overcrowding. The floor area includes all living space, along with bathrooms, internal corridors and closets. Floor area refers to a housing unit, defined as a separate and independent place of abode intended for habitation by one household at the time of the census or other inquiry. Data mostly come from censuses and national housing surveys. Those for dates before 1990 are shown in italics. From the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Indicators Programme.

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United Nations publication, (ST/ESA/SER.A/160), Copyright (C) United Nations 1997