List of variables

A. Overview

For most of the indicators included in the databank comparable and recent national data as well as time-series are available. However the quality of the underlying data varies to a great extent. General remarks on these differences are given below. Specific explanations and additional information referring to a specific variable, country or source can be found in the footnotes, which accompany the data.

1. Population

Size and Distribution

V1Total population (thousands)
V2 Urban population (percentage of total)
V3 Population density (persons per hectare)

Structure

Age

V4 Population aged below 15 (thousands)
V5 Population aged between 15 and 59 (thousands)
V6 Population aged 60 and over (thousands)
V7 Population aged 80 and over (thousands)
V8 Proportion of population aged below 15 (percentage)
V9 Proportion of population aged between 15 and 59 (percentage)
V10 Proportion of population aged 60 and over (percentage)
V11 Proportion of population aged 80 and over (percentage)
V12 Median age

Gender

V13 Total female population (thousands)
V14 Total male population (thousands)
V15 Sex ratio of population aged 60 and over
V16 Sex ratio of population aged 80 and over

Dependency ratios

V17 Child dependency ratio (per hundred)
V18 Older population dependency ratio (per hundred)

Population dynamics

Fertility

V19 Crude birth rate (per 1,000 mid-year population)
V20 Total fertility rate (children per woman)
V21 Contraceptive prevalence (percentage)
V22 Proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals

Mortality and Health

V23 Crude death rate (per 1,000 mid-year population)
V24 Life expectancy at birth (years)
V25 Life expectancy at birth, females (years)
V26 Life expectancy at birth, males (years)
V27 Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
V28 Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
V29 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
V30 Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15 to 49 years old

Migration

V31 International migrant stock(number of persons)
V32 Percentage female of international migrants

Nuptiality

V33 Singulate mean age at marriage, female (years)
V34 Singulate mean age at marriage, male (years)

Demographic change

V35 Total population: average annual growth rate (percentage)
V36 Urban population: average annual growth rate (percentage)
V37 Rural population: average annual growth rate (percentage)
V38 Child population: average annual growth rate (percentage)
V39 Working age population: average annual growth rate (percentage)
V40 Older population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

2. Resources

Land

V41 Total area (km2)
V42 Land area (km2)
V43 Population per cropland (persons per hectare)
V44 Cropland as a percentage of land area
V45 Forest as a percentage of land area
V46 Irrigated land as a percentage of cropland
V47 Land with crop production potential as a percentage of land area
V48 Land with rainfed potential as a percentage of land area
V49 Land with crop production potential in use as a percentage of land with crop production potential

Water

V50 Fresh water annual withdrawals as a percentage of total resources
V51 Fresh water resources (km3)

Energy

V52 Commercial energy use per capita (kg of oil equivalent)
V53 Traditional fuel use as a percentage of total energy use
V54 Energy use efficiency (US dollars per metric ton of oil equivalent
of commercial energy use)

Food

V55 Cereal production (metric tons)
V56 Cereal yield (kg per hectare)
V57 Food aid in cereals (metric tons)
V58 Cereals, imports (metric tons)
V59 Cereals, exports (metric tons)
V60 Roots and tubers (metric tons)

3. Environment

Natural world

V61 Nationally protected area as a percentage of total area
V62 Total degraded land as a percentage of land area
V63 Lightly degraded land as a percentage of land area
V64 Moderately degraded land as a percentage of land area
V65 Strongly and extremely degraded land as a percentage of land area
V66 Land degraded by water erosion as a percentage of total degraded land
V67 Land degraded by wind erosion as a percentage of total degraded land
V68 Land with chemical deterioration as a percentage of total degraded land
V69 Land with physical deterioration as a percentage of total degraded land
V70 Land degraded by deforestation as a percentage of total degraded land
V71 Land degraded by overexploitation as a percentage of total degraded land
V72 Land degraded by overgrazing as a percentage of total degraded land
V73 Land degraded by agricultural activities as a percentage of total degraded land
V74 Annual percentage change in forest area

Emissions

V75 Carbon dioxide emissions (thousands of metric tons)
V76 Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)

4. Development

Economic development

Economic output

V77 GDP total (millions of US dollars)
V78 GDP per capita (US dollars)
V79 GDP per capita PPP (at current international dollars)
V80 Agricultural share of GDP (percentage)
V81 Industrial share of GDP (percentage)
V82 Services share of GDP (percentage)
V83 GDP average annual growth rate (percentage)
V84 GDP per capita average annual growth rate (percentage)

Labour force

V85 Economically active population (percentage)
V86 Economically active population, females (percentage)
V87 Economically active population, males (percentage)
V88 Economically active population in agriculture (persons per hectare of cropland)
V89 Women as a percentage of the labour force
V90 Economically active population in agriculture as a percentage of labour force
V91 Economically active population in industry as a percentage of labour force
V92 Economically active population in services as a percentage of labour force

Income

V93 Population with income less than one US dollar per day (percentage)
V94 Income share of lowest 20 per cent (percentage)
V95 Income share of highest 20 per cent (percentage)

Social development

Nutrition and underweight

V96 Children underweight (percentage)
V97 Calorie supply (kilocalories)
V98 Population undernourishment (percentage)
V99 Low birth weight infants (percentage)

Water and sanitation

V100 Access to safe water, total (percentage)
V101 Access to sanitation, total (percentage)
V102 Access to safe water in urban areas (percentage)
V103 Access to sanitation in urban areas (percentage)
V104 Access to safe water in rural areas (percentage)
V105 Access to sanitation in rural areas (percentage)

Education

V106 Adult literacy rate
V107 Adult literacy rate, females
V108 Adult literacy rate, males
V109 Young adult literacy rate (15-24 years old), total
V110 Young adult literacy rate (15-24 years old), female
V111 Young adult literacy rate (15-24 years old), male
V112 Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, total
V113 Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, female
V114 Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, male
V115 Net enrolment ratio, primary school, total
V116 Net enrolment ratio, primary school, female
V117 Net enrolment ratio, primary school, male
V118 Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, total
V119 Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, female
V120 Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, male
V121 Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, total
V122 Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, female
V123 Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, male

Public expenditure

V124 Final international expenditures for population activities (thousands of US dollars)
V125 Total public spending on education (percentage of GNP)
V126 Total public spending on health (percentage of GDP)

5. Policy

Population policy

V127 Views on population growth
V128 Intervention on population growth
V129Views on fertility level
V130Intervention on fertility level
V131 Views on mortality level
V132 Views on immigration level
V133 Policy on immigration level
V134 Views on emigration level
V135 Policy on emigration level

International Treaties

V136 Convention on Climate Change (1993)
V137 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985)
V138 Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987)
V139 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)
V140 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)

 

B. Description of Variables

1. Population

Size and distribution

VariableLabelUnitTime CodesDescription of variables
V1Total populationThousandsAMid-year de facto population estimated by the Population Division/ DESA of the United Nations Secretariat. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V2Percentage urbanPercentage BPercentage of total population residing in urban areas. 'Urban' is defined according to the national census definition used in the latest available population census. When necessary and if possible, urban data from earlier census and surveys were adjusted to be consistent with those from the latest census.
Source: United Nations (2004e)
V3Population densityPersons per hectareAMid-year population as compared to the surface area in hectares. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)

Structure

Age

V4Population under age 15ThousandsANumber of persons aged under 15 years. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V5Population aged 15 – 59ThousandsANumber of persons aged 15-59 years. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V6Population aged 60 or overThousandsANumber of persons aged 60 years or over. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V7Population aged 80 or overThousandsANumber of persons aged 80 years or over. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V8Population under age 15 as percentage of total populationPercentageARelative size of population under age 15 as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V4/ V1. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V9Population aged 15 to 59 as percentage of total populationPercentageARelative size of population aged 15–59 compared to total population, computed as: 100*V5/ V1. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V10Population aged 60 or over as percentage of total populationPercentage ARelative size of population aged 60 or over as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V6/ V1. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V11Population aged 80 or over as percentage of total populationPercentageARelative size of population aged 80 or over as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V7/ V1. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V12Median ageYearsAAge of the 50th percentile of the population age distribution. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)

Gender

V13Total female populationThousandsAMid-year de facto female population. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V14Total male populationThousandsAMid-year de facto male population. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V15Sex ratio ages 60 or overPer hundredANumber of men per 100 women in the population aged 60 or over, computed as: 100* (Number of men over 60 / Number of women over 60). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V16Sex ratio ages 80 or overPer hundredAThe number of men per 100 women in the population aged 80 or over, computed as: 100* (Number of men over 80 / Number of women over 80). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)

Dependency ratios

V17Child dependency ratioPer hundredAPopulation aged under 15 compared to the working age population (15-59), computed as: 100 * V4/V5. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V18Older population dependency ratioPer hundredAPopulation aged 60 or over compared to the working age population (15-59) computed as: 100 * V6/V5. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)

Population dynamics

Fertility

V19Crude birth rateBirths per 1,000 peopleCNumber of births occurring during the year per 1,000 mid-year population. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V20Total fertility rateChildren per womanCAverage number of children that would be born to a woman in her lifetime, if she were to pass through her childbearing years experiencing the age-specific fertility rates for a given period. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V21Contraceptive prevalencePercentageDContraceptive prevalence refers to the percentage of currently married women (including, where possible, those in consensual unions) currently using contraception, either traditional or modern methods. Users of contraception are defined as women who are practicing, or whose male partners are practicing, any form of contraception, including female or male sterilization, injectable or oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, diaphragms, spermicides, condoms, withdrawal and periodic or long-term abstinence. However, prolonged breastfeeding and traditional post-partum abstinence are generally not counted as contraception.
Source: United Nations (2004c)
V22Proportion of births attended by skilled health professionalsPercentageERefers to the proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals (nurses or doctors). It is calculated by dividing the number of births attended by skilled health professional in a given year by the total number of births in this year.
Source: UNICEF (2005)

Mortality and Health

V23Crude death rateDeaths per 1,000 peopleCNumber of deaths occurring during the year per 1,000 mid-year population. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V24Life expectancyYearsCNumber of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V25Life expectancy at birth, femalesYearsCNumber of years a female newborn would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of her birth were to stay the same throughout her life. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V26Life expectancy at birth, malesYearsCNumber of years a male newborn would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of his birth were to stay the same throughout his life. Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V27Infant mortality rateDeaths per 1,000 live birthsCNumber of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year. It shows the probability of a newborn dying before reaching his first birthday. It is usually calculated as the number of infant deaths in a period divided by the number of births in the same period. Figures are quinquennial estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V28Under 5-mortality rateDeaths of children under 5 per1,000 live birthsFNumber of deaths of children under 5 years of age per 1,000 live births. It shows the probability of a newborn dying before reaching his fifth birthday. Figures are quinquennial estimates and medium-variant projections .
Source: United Nations (2005)
V29Maternal mortality ratioWomen's deaths per 100,000 live birthsEA maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. The maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths over a year per 100,000 live births in that year.
Source: AbouZahr and Wardlaw (2003)
V30Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15 to 49 years oldPercentageERefers to the proportion of adults aged 15 to 49 years old infected with the HIV virus. It is calculated by dividing the number of adults aged 15 to 49 years who are found to be infected with HIV in a given year by the population of adults of the same age group.
Source: UNAIDS (2004)

Migration

V31International migrant stockNumber of personsGNumber of foreign-born persons or the foreign population within a country.
Source: United Nations (2004b)
V32Women as a percentage of international migrantsPercentageGWomen migrants as a proportion of international migrants
Source: United Nations (2004b)

Nuptiality

V33Singulate mean age at marriage, femalesYearsDEstimated mean age at first marriage for women among those who ever marry.
Source: United Nations (2004c)
V34Singulate mean age at marriage, malesYearsDEstimated mean age at first marriage for men among those who ever marry.
Source: United Nations (2004c)

Demographic changes

V35Total population: average annual growth ratePercentageCAverage annual percentage growth rate of a population between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V1t2 / V1t1) / (t2 - t1). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V36Urban population: average annual growth ratePercentageHAverage annual percentage growth rate of urban population.
Source: United Nations (2004e)
V37Rural population: average annual growth ratePercentageHAverage annual percentage growth rate of rural population.
Source: United Nations (2004e)
V38Child population: average annual growth ratePercentageCAverage annual percentage growth rate of population under age 15 between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V4t2 / V4t1 ) / (t2 - t1). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V39Working age population: average annual growth ratePercentageCAverage annual percentage growth rate of population aged 15 - 59 between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V5t2 / V5t1) / (t2 - t1). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)
V40Older population growth ratePercentageCThe average annual percentage growth rate of population aged 60 or older between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V6t2 / V6t1 ) / (t2 – t1). Estimates and medium-variant projections.
Source: United Nations (2005)

2. Resources

Land

V41Total areaSquare km.ETotal surface area of the country, comprising land area and inland waters, which include major rivers and lakes.
Source: FAO (2004)
V42Land areaSquare km.EThe total area of the country, excluding area under inland water bodies (square km.)
Source: FAO (2004)
V43Population per croplandPersons per hectareIMid-year population (unrounded) as compared to the cropland area in hectares, computed as: 1000 * V1/ Cropland in hectares. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area.
Source: FAO (2004 for cropland in hectares)
V44Cropland as percentage of land areaPercentageILand under temporary and permanent crops, temporary meadows, market and kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow as a proportion of land area. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area (double cropped areas are counted only once). Computed as: 100 * Cropland in sq. km. / V42
Source: FAO (2004 for cropland in hectares)
V45Forest area as percentage of land areaPercentageEThe Forest Resources Assessment 2005 defines forests as follows: "Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. …Forest is determined both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters in situ. Areas under reforestation that have not yet but are expected to reach a canopy cover of 10 percent and tree height of 5 m are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas, resulting from human intervention or natural causes that are expected to regenerate… Includes areas with bamboo and palms provided that height and canopy cover criteria are reached; … forest roads, firebreaks and other small open areas; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest;… windbreaks, shelterbelts and corridors of trees with an area of more than 0.5 ha and width of more than 20 m;… [and] plantations primarily used for forestry or protection purposes, such as rubber-wood plantations and cork oak stands. … Excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems, for example in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems. The term also excludes trees in urban parks and gardens."
Source: FAO (2004a, 2005)
V46Irrigated land as percentage of croplandPercentageIAreas equipped to provide water to crops, including full and partial control irrigation, spate irrigation, and equipped wetland or inland valley bottoms, as a proportion of total cropland area. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area (double-cropped areas are only counted once). Computed as: 100 * Irrigated land in sq. km./ Cropland in sq. km.
Source: FAO (2004)
V47Land with crop production potential as a percentage of land areaPercentageELand with crop production potential is defined as land with rainfed potential plus arid and hyper-arid land with no crop production potential in its natural state but that would be suitable for cereal production if irrigated. Land with rainfed potential is defined as the sum of land stocks of varying quality with at least marginal potential for growing crops under rainfed conditions. It was estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Soil Map of the World and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations inventory of climate regimes, assessing the suitability of homogeneous agroecological zones for growing 21 different crops under three levels of technology. Any agroecological zone was classified as suitable for rainfed cultivation if at least one of the crops could be grown under any of the three levels of technology with a yield of at least 20 per cent of the maximum constraint-free yield. For technical details, see Fischer and others (2002). This variable shows the amount of land with crop production potential as compared to the total land area. Estimates should be interpreted with care due to limitations of basic data on land with rainfed crop-production potential. It should also be noted that in some countries a substantial portion of the land judged to be suitable for crop production is in forested zones, including protected areas. See Fischer and others (2002) for details. Computed as follows: 100 * land with crop production potential in sq. km. / V42.
Sources: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2002); Fischer and others (2002).
V48Land with rainfed potential as a percentage of land areaPercentageERelative amount of land suitable for rainfed crop production, as described in the note for v47. Calculated as: 100 * land with rainfed potential in sq. km. / V42, where land with rainfed potential is defined as the sum of land stocks of varying quality with potential for growing crops under rainfed conditions.
Sources: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2002); Fischer and others (2002).
V49Land with cropland production potential in use as a percentage of land with crop production potentialPercentageEThis variable is calculated as land in use for crop production during 1994-1996 as a percentage of land with crop production potential. Land in use for crop production does not include land in fallow at the moment of data collection. See notes to v47 for the criteria employed to judge agricultural suitability of land. Land classified as non-suitable on the basis of this evaluation is used for agriculture in some countries. For this reason, the reported land in agricultural use in some countries exceeds the area evaluated as having crop production potential. In addition, estimates of the extent of land currently in use and of land with crop production potential are subject to uncertainty. See the data sources for details.
Sources: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2002); Fischer and others (2002).

Water

V50Fresh water annual withdrawalsPercentageDAnnual fresh water withdrawals as a percentage of total resources. It refers to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporative losses from storage basins, as a percentage of internal renewable water resources and river flows from other countries. Annual internal renewable water resources refer to the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation. Water withdrawals also include water from nonrenewable groundwater sources, river flows from other countries, and desalination plants in countries where that source is a significant part of all water withdrawals. Total withdrawals may exceed 100 per cent due to ground water drawdowns, withdrawals from river inflows, and the operation of desalinization plants.
Source: World Resources Institute (2000)
V51Fresh water resourcesCubic km.EAnnual internal renewable resources and river flows from other countries. The former refers to the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation. Caution should be used when comparing countries because estimates are based on different sources and dates. These annual averages also disguise large seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations.
Source: World Resources Institute (2000)

Energy

V52Commercial energy use per capitaKilograms (kg) of oil equivalentECommercial energy use refers to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports, air and marine bunkers, and unallocated commercial energy. The source provides a list of country coefficients to convert energy value from original units into coal equivalent. This variable compares the commercial energy use in kilograms of oil equivalent to the total population (V1). It is computed as: Commercial energy use / (V1)
Source: United Nations (2004a, for commercial energy use)
V53Traditional fuel usePercentageEConsumption of fuelwood, charcoal, bagasse, and animal and vegetable wastes as a percentage of total energy use. Total energy use includes commercial energy and traditional fuels. Commercial energy use includes energy from solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, plus primary electricity. Primary electricity refers to electricity generated by non-combustible energy sources and includes nuclear, wind, tidal, wave, solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources. Fuelwood and charcoal consumption data are estimated from population data and country-specific per capita consumption figures. V53 is computed as: 100 * traditional fuel consumption / total energy use.
Source: United Nations (2004a)
V54Energy use efficiencyUS dollars per mt of oil equivalentEEnergy use efficiency measures the GDP (at constant 1990 US $) per mt of oil equivalent of commercial energy use, computed as: V54 = V77 / Commercial energy use in millions mt of oil equivalent.
Source: United Nations (2004a, for commercial energy use)

Food

V55Cereal production Metric tonsJCereal production includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. It refers to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed or silage or used for grazing are excluded. Due to the year-to-year volatility of crop production, it has been computed as a 3-year average centered on the reference year.
Source: FAO (2004)
V56Cereal yieldKilograms per hectareJCereal yield represents harvested production in kilogrammes per hectare of harvested cereal products. Due to the year-to-year volatility of crop yield, it is computed as a 3-year average centred on the reference year.
Source: FAO (2004)
V57Food aid in cerealsMetric tonsJData are shown for countries receiving cereal aid. Data pertain to food aid shipments for cereal commodities, on a total-grant basis or on highly concessional terms, including wheat and flour, bulgur, rice, coarse grains, and the cereal component of blended foods. Data are reported on a global trade year basis (July/June), so for instance quantities for 1970 should be interpreted as corresponding to the period July 1970 to June 1971. Processed and blended cereals are converted into their grain equivalent by applying the conversion factors included in the Rule of Procedures under the 1995 Food Aid Convention (Rule 7, Article VI).
Source: FAO (2004)
V58Cereals importsMetric tonsICereals imports refer to grain equivalents imported, defined as comprising all cereal in the standard international trade classification (SITC).
Source: FAO (2004)
V59Cereals exportsMetric tonsICereals exports refer to grain equivalents exported, defined as comprising all cereal in the standard international trade classification (SITC).
Source: FAO (2004)
V60Roots and tubersMetric tonsIProduction of potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, yams, taro, yautia, and arrowroot. Root crops are dietary staples in certain areas where cereals are less widely grown, particularly in tropical Africa. Root crops grown principally for feed such as turnips, mangels and swedes are not included. Due to the year volatility in crop production it has been computed as a 3-year average centered at the reference year.
Source: FAO (2004)

3. Environment

Natural World

V61 Nationally protected area PercentageETotal national protected area as a proportion of land area, not including locally or provincially protected sites, or privately owned areas. All protected areas combine natural areas of at least 1,000 hectares in five World Conservation Union (IUCN) management categories. Totally protected areas are maintained in a natural state and closed to extractive uses, encompassing: scientific reserves and strict nature reserves; national and provincial parks; and natural monuments and landmarks with unique geology or biodiversity. Partially protected areas may be managed for recreation, tourism, or for providing optimum habitat for certain species of wildlife. These areas encompass: nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries, and protected landscapes/seascapes (including scenically attractive cultural areas) Marine and littoral protected areas are not included.
Source: World Resources Institute (2000, 2004)
V62Total degraded land as a percentage of land areaPercentageEAll land degradation data come from the International Soil Reference and Information Centre/United Nations Environment Programme Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD) Database. The assessment covers the land surface between 72 degrees north and 57 degrees south and it categorizes soils degraded over 45 years prior to the assessment. Data are available for level, type and cause of degradation. When two categories of types or causes of degradation were identified on the same sample slot of land, half of the area was attributed to each of the two categories. Here all data are shown as percentage of either land area or of the totally degraded land. V62 includes all land showing changes in soil and land characteristics, which directly or indirectly affect the quantity or the quality of the land and its ability to produce food, fibre and timber. It is a summation of light, moderate, strong and extreme degradation.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V63Lightly degraded landPercentageELight degradation corresponds to a slight decline in agricultural land quality where soil biotic functions remain largely intact and soil can be restored by changing land-use practices. For general information on the source database see V62. V63 is shown as a percentage of land area.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V64Moderately degraded landPercentageEModerately degraded land includes land where agricultural use of soil is still possible but biotic functions are partially destroyed and soil restoration requires action beyond the farm level. V64 is shown as a percentage of land area. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V65Strongly and extremely degraded landPercentageEThe variable “Strongly and extremely degraded land” was created by adding two levels of degradation, strongly and extremely degraded, shown as a percentage of land area. Land identified as strongly degraded is no longer suitable for agricultural use, and restoration of such soil requires major engineering works. Extreme degradation is defined as a state where the terrain is no longer suitable for agricultural use and beyond restoration. V65 is shown as a percentage of land area. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V66Water erosionPercentageELess productive land where nutrient-rich topsoil has been stripped away by water erosion. Water erosion on steep slopes is not included unless it is accelerated by human intervention. It is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V67Wind erosionPercentageELand where nutrient-rich topsoil or soil material has been displaced by wind erosion (loss of topsoil and terrain deformation), or where wind-carried particles cover nutrient rich topsoil (overblowing). Wind erosion is widespread in arid and semiarid climates and is nearly always caused by a decrease in vegetation cover of soil by overgrazing or agricultural practices. Natural wind erosion is often difficult to distinguish from human-induced wind erosion, but natural wind erosion is often aggravated by human activities. Wind-eroded land is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V68Chemical deteriorationPercentageELand suffering from loss of nutrients and/or organic matter, salinization, acidification or pollution. Loss of nutrients and/or organic matter can be caused if agriculture is practiced on poor or moderately fertile soils, without sufficient application of manure or drained irrigation systems, excessive groundwater withdrawals in coastal areas and activities that lead to increased evapotranspiration in soils with salt- containing parent material or saline groundwater. Acidification can develop when pyrite-containing soils in coastal areas are drained or too much fertilizer is used. Pollution can be a result of a number of factors such as industrial and urban wastes, excessive pesticide use, airborne pollution, excessive manuring in feedlots and oil and chemical spills. Chemically degraded land is shown as percentage of total degraded land.
For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V69Physical deteriorationPercentageELand affected by compaction, waterlogging, deterioration and subsidence of organic soil that reduces the productivity of the soil. Compaction can be caused by heavy machinery or cattle trampling. Soils are more vulnerable if low in organic matter. Waterlogging includes flooding by river or rain water. Physically degraded land is shown as percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V70DeforestationPercentageEThe percentage of land degraded due to deforestation, which is defined as removal of the natural vegetation of forested stretches of land. Deforestation can occur because of conversion of forestland to agriculture, urban use and large-scale logging. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V71OverexploitationPercentageELand degraded due to the use of the vegetation for fuelwood, fencing, and other purposes. Contrary to deforestation and removal of the natural vegetation, overexploitation of vegetation does not lead to complete removal of all vegetation. However, the remaining vegetation no longer provides sufficient protection to soil erosion. In dry areas, stripping land of vegetation for fuelwood also leads to wind and water erosion. Land degraded by overexploitation is shown as percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V72OvergrazingPercentageELand degraded by overgrazing of vegetation by livestock as well as other effects of livestock, such as trampling. Overgrazing usually leads to a decrease in vegetative cover, and trampling, to compaction of the soil. Land degraded by overgrazing is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V73Degradation by agricultural activitiesPercentageEThis variable shows the percentage of land degraded by improper agricultural activities such as insufficient or excessive use of fertilizers, improper irrigation and cultivation of steep slopes. It is shown as percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V62
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)
V74Annual change in forest areaPercentageEThe average annual percentage change in forest area. Figures for the period 1980-1990 were taken from the Forest Resources Assessment Report (FRA) 1990 and are available only for developing countries. Data for 1990-2000 and 2000-2005 were taken from FRA 2005 and also cover developed countries. The numbers for 1980-1990 were calculated in the United Nations Population Division using data from FRA 1990. The data from FRA 1990 are not completely comparable to those of later assessments. In particular, the area that a forested parcel had to occupy in order to count as "forest" was larger in FRA 1990 than in later assessments, and the technical ability to discern ground cover for small areas has improved over time. For the definition of "forest" employed in FRA 2005, see V45.
Source: FAO (1995, 2005)

Emissions

V75Carbon dioxide emissionsThousands of metric tonsECarbon dioxide emissions from industrial processes, stemming from the burning of fossil fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous, gas flaring) and the manufacture of cement. In the process, 0.498 metric ton of carbon dioxide is released for each ton of cement production. For the same level of energy consumption, burning oil releases about 1.5 times the amount of carbon dioxide released by burning natural gas; and coal combustion releases about twice the carbon dioxide of natural gas. National data do not include emissions from bunker fuels. Emissions are calculated using global average fuel chemistry and usage. Although estimates of world emissions are probably within10 percent of actual emissions, individual country estimates may depart more severely from reality. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated in terms of their content of carbon. Their values were converted to the actual mass of carbon dioxide by multiplying the carbon mass by 3.664.
Source: Marland, Boden and Andres (2003)
V76Carbon dioxide emissions per capitaMetric tonsECarbon dioxide emissions per capita is computed by dividing the total emissions by the 1997 population of each country.
Source: Marland, Boden and Andres (2003)

4. Development

Economic development

Economic output

V77Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Millions of US dollarsKGross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant 1990 US $ measures the total market value of final goods and services produced by residents and non-residents within the geographic area of the economy during the period of account plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the constant value of the products. The GDP is considered to be the most comprehensive estimate of a country's domestic economic activity. Due to the relatively volatile character of the GDP, it is computed as a 3-year average. Thus: V77t = ( GDP t-1 + GDP t + GDP t+1 ) / 3 where t = 1975, 1980, ...2000
Source: United Nations (2003c)
V78Gross Domestic Product per capitaUS dollarsK Gross Domestic Product per capita, at constant 1990 US $ refers to total GDP (V84) divided by total population (V1). Due to the relatively volatile character of the GDP per capita, it is computed as a 3-year average. Thus: V78t = 1000 ( V77t / V1) where t = 1975, 1980, ...2000
Source: United Nations (2003c, 2005)
V79GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP)Current international dollarsLGDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) are GDP estimates based on the purchasing power of currencies rather than on current exchange rates. These estimates are a blend of extrapolated and regression-based numbers, using the results of the international Comparison Programme (ICP). ICP benchmark studies are multilateral pricing exercises, where inter-country price comparisons are reported in several phases. PPP studies recast traditional national accounts through special price collections and the disaggregation of GDP by expenditure components. ICP details are reported by national statistical offices, and the results are coordinated by the World Bank, assisted by other United Nations agencies. International dollar-values, which are different from U.S. dollar values of GDP, are obtained using special conversion factors that equalize the purchasing powers of different currencies. This conversion factor, PPP, is defined as the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as one $ US would buy in the 'average' country. The average price-index thus equalizes dollar prices in every country so that cross-country comparisons of GDP based on them reflect differences in quantities of goods and services free of price-level differentials. PPP estimates tend to lower per capita GDPs in industrialized countries and raise per capita GDPs in developing countries. Data are in constant 1995 international dollars. Mid-year de facto population figures are used for GDP, PPP per capita figures.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V80Agricultural share of GDPPercentageIAgricultural share of GDP refers to the agriculture value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$). Agriculture value added measures the output of the agricultural sector less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V81Industrial share of GDPPercentageIIndustrial share of GDP refers to the industry value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$). Industry value added comprises value added in mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V82Services share of GDPPercentageIServices share of GDP refers to the services value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$). Services value added include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V83GDP growthPercentageMGDP growth refers to the average annual percentage growth rate of GDP total computed as: 100 * ln ( V77t2 / V77t1 ) / ( t2 - t1 )
Source: United Nations (2003c)
V84GDP growth per capitaPercentageMGDP growth per capita refers to the average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita, computed as: 100 * ln ( V78t2 / V78t1 ) / ( t2 - t1 )
Source: United Nations (2003c)

Labour force

V85Economically active populationPercentageNPercentage of population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.
Source: ILO (1997)
V86Economically active population, femalesPercentageNPercentage of female population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.
Source: ILO (1997)
V87Economically active population, malesPercentageNPercentage of male population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed men, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.
Source: ILO (1997)
V88Economically active population in agriculture per hectare croplandPersons per hectareO Economically active population in agriculture refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the agricultural sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. Economically active population in agriculture (EAPA) per cropland in hectares is computed as: EAPA / Cropland in hectares. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area.
Source: FAO (2004)
V89Women as a percentage of the labour force PercentageNPercentage of the total economically active population who are females. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed women, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.
Source: ILO (1997)
V90Percentage of the economically active population in agriculture PercentagePEconomically active population in agriculture refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the agricultural sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.
Source: ILO (1997)
V91Percentage of economically active population in industryPercentagePEconomically active population in industry refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the industrial sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.
Source: ILO (1997)
V92Percentage of economically active population in servicesPercentagePEconomically active population in services refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces in the services sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.
Source: ILO (1997)

Income

V93Population with income of less than 1 US$ /dayPercentageDThe proportion of the population living on less than 1.08 US$ a day at 1993 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in previous editions for individual countries. (For more information on PPP, please refer to V79).
Source: World Bank (2004)
V94Income of lowest 20 per cent of the populationPercentageDThe share of total income received by the lowest 20 per cent of the population, ranked either by per capita expenditure or by per capita income. Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution indicators are not strictly comparable across countries.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V95Income of highest 20 per cent of the populationPercentageDThe share of income of the highest 20% of the population, ranked either by per capita expenditure or by per capita income. Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution indicators are not strictly comparable across countries.
Source: World Bank (2004)

Social development

Nutrition and underweight

V96Children underweightPercentageEUnderweight prevalence among preschool children refers to the percentage of children under 5 years of age who have a weight that is more than two standard deviations below the median weight-for-age of the standard reference population of the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The standard reference population is commonly referred to as the NCHS/WHO international reference population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V97Calorie supplyK-caloriesICalorie supply per capita per day refers to the calorie equivalent of the food supplies available for human consumption in a country, expressed as kilocalories, divided by the total population, per day. It is calculated as the sum of the calorie-equivalent per capita supply for each food item. The per capita supply for each food item is obtained by dividing the total quantity of foodstuffs produced in a country added to the total quantity imported and adjusted for changes in stock and exports, by the total population actually partaking of the food supplies. Calorie supply figures therefore do not indicate what is actually consumed by individuals.
Source: FAO (2004)
V98Population under-nourishmentPercentageQEstimated percentage of the population for whom access to food falls below the minimum energy requirement considered adequate. Assessing malnutrition involves the specification of the distribution of the available food among individuals in the country and the application of an assumed minimum for energy requirement. Methodology: a) The distribution of available food (in terms of energy) among individuals in a country is derived by combining information on the average consumption level (per capita daily dietary energy supply) and the inequality in distribution (summarized by the coefficient of variation) estimated on the basis of the available household food consumption or expenditure survey data; b) estimation of the minimum energy requirement below which the average individual's consumption is considered inadequate. The cut-off point for intake inadequacy is based on the calculation of the minimum energy requirements by sex-age groups and then aggregating the results (using the sex-age composition of the population as weights); c) application of the minimum energy requirement as the cut-off point on the distribution of food availability. The methodology to calculate the energy requirements is based on the recommendations of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on energy and protein and requirements.
Source: FAO (2004b)
V99Low birth weight infantsPercentageEThe percentage of babies born weighing less than 2,500 g.
Source: UNICEF (2005)

Water and sanitation

V100Access to safe water, totalPercentageEAccess to safe water is measured by the proportion of population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V101Access to sanitation, totalPercentageEAccess to sanitation is measured by the percentage of population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V102Access to safe water in urban areasPercentageEAccess to safe water in urban areas is measured by the proportion of the urban population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V103Access to sanitation in urban areasPercentageEAccess to sanitation in urban areas is measured by the percentage of urban population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V104Access to safe water in rural areasPercentageEAccess to safe water in rural areas is measured by the proportion of rural population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)
V105Access to sanitation in rural areasPercentageEAccess to sanitation in rural areas is measured by the percentage of rural population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.
Source: UNICEF (2005)

Education

V106Adult literacy ratePercentageJAdult literacy refers to the proportion of the adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years or above.Some countries apply definitions and criteria for literacy which are different from the international standards, or equate persons with no schooling to illiterates, or change definitions between censuses. Practices for identifying literates during actual census enumeration may also vary, and errors in literacy self-declaration can affect the reliability of literacy statistics.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V107Adult literacy rate, femalePercentageJ Female adult literacy refers to the proportion of the female adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the female population aged 15 years or above. (See note for Adult literacy rate, total).
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V108Adult literacy rate, malePercentageJ Male adult literacy refers to the proportion of the male adult population who cannot, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the male population aged 15 years or above. (See note for Adult literacy rate, total).
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V109Young adult literacy rate (15-24 years old), totalPercentageJYoung adult literacy refers to the proportion of the adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15-24 years or above. It has been observed that some countries apply definitions and criteria for literacy which are different from the international standards, or equate persons with no schooling to illiterates, or change definitions between censuses. Practices for identifying literates during actual census enumeration may also vary, and errors in literacy self-declaration can affect the reliability of literacy statistics.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V110Young adult literacy rate (15-24 years old), femalePercentageJYoung female adult literacy refers to the proportion of the adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15-24 years or above. It has been observed that some countries apply definitions and criteria for literacy which are different from the international standards, or equate persons with no schooling to illiterates, or change definitions between censuses. Practices for identifying literates during actual census enumeration may also vary, and errors in literacy self-declaration can affect the reliability of literacy statistics.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V111Young adult literacy rate (15-49 years old), malePercentageJYoung male adult literacy refers to the proportion of the adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15-24 years or above. It has been observed that some countries apply definitions and criteria for literacy which are different from the international standards, or equate persons with no schooling to illiterates, or change definitions between censuses. Practices for identifying literates during actual census enumeration may also vary, and errors in literacy self-declaration can affect the reliability of literacy statistics.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V112Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, totalRatioJ Gross enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V113Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, femaleRatioJ Female enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UN UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V114Gross enrolment ratio, primary school, maleRatioJ Male enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V115Net enrolment ratio, primary school, totalRatioJ Total enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V116Net enrolment ratio, primary school, femaleRatioJ Female enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding female population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of female children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of female pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the female population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V117Net enrolment ratio, primary school, maleRatioJ Male enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V118Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, totalRatioJ Gross enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V119Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, femaleRatioJ Female enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V120Gross enrolment ratio, secondary school, maleRatioJ Male enrolment, irrespective of age, for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled for a given level of education by the population for the official age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004).
V121Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, totalRatioJ Total enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V122Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, femaleRatioJ Female enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)
V123Net enrolment ratio, secondary school, maleRatioJ Male enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100. There is a break in the series between 1997 and 1998 due to the change from the previous version of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED76) to ISCED97.
Source: UNESCO (2004); World Bank (2004)

Public expenditure

V124Final international expenditures for population activitiesThousands of US dollarsRData, which were collected from donors, refer to final international expenditures for population assistance in family planning services, reproductive health services, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS activities, and basic research and development policy analysis. “Final expenditures” refers to funds which have been provided by a primary or an intermediate donor for population activities in (or for the benefit of) a developing country or region in the year shown. For the years 1992 through 1996, the administrative cost entailed in providing assistance is not included in the final expenditure figures. For the years 1987 through 1991, the administrative costs entailed in providing assistance were not ascertained and may or may not be included in the final expenditure figures shown. Development bank loans are not included in the final expenditure figures, as the banks, primary funds fluctuate widely. Their primary funds reflect large blocks of loan agreements made in a single year but intended to be spent over several years and, in view of their conditions or line of credit, possibly not used in full.
Source: UNFPA (1996, 1998, 2000, 2003)
V125Total public expenditure on educationPercentage of GNPSTotal public expenditure on education (current and capital) is expressed as a percentage of the Gross National Product (GNP). Public expenditure on education expressed as a percentage of total and current government expenditure respectively.
Source: World Bank (2004)
V126Total public expenditure on healthPercentage of GDPTTotal public expenditure on health is expressed as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.
Source: World Bank (2004)

5. Policy

Population policy

V127Views on population growthGovernments’ perception of the acceptability of the population growth rate. It is expressed in three categories: The rate is too high; the rate is satisfactory; the rate is too low.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V128Intervention on population growthGovernments’ intervention policy to modify the population growth rate. It is expressed in four categories: To raise the rate; to maintain the rate; to lower the rate; no intervention reported.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V129Views on fertility levelGovernments’ perception of the acceptability of the fertility level. It is expressed in three categories: The rate is too high; the rate is satisfactory; the rate is too low.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V130Intervention on fertility levelGovernments’ intervention policy to modify the level of fertility. It is expressed in four categories: To raise the rate; to maintain the rate; to lower the rate; no intervention reported.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V131Views on mortality levelGovernments’ perception of the acceptability of the current mortality level. It is expressed in two categories: Acceptable; unacceptable.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V132Views on immigration levelGovernments’ perception of the immigration level. It is expressed in three categories: Immigration level is too low; immigration level is satisfactory; immigration level is too high.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V133Policy on immigration levelGovernments’ intervention policy to modify the level of immigration. It is expressed in four categories: To raise the level; to maintain the level; to lower the level; no intervention reported.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V134Views on emigration levelGovernments’ perception of the acceptability of the emigration level. It is expressed in three categories: Emigration is too high; emigration level is satisfactory; emigration level is too low.
Source: United Nations (2003b)
V135Policy on emigration levelGovernments’ intervention policy to modify the level of emigration. It is expressed in four categories: To raise the level; to maintain the level; to lower the level; no intervention reported.
Source: United Nations (2003b)

International Treaties

V136Climate changeFramework Convention on Climate Change (1993): the years signed and ratified. Updated with ratifications and signatures as of 28 May 2004.
Source: United Nations (1993)
V137Ozone layerUN Environment Program. It refers to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985): the years signed and ratified by individual countries. Updated with ratifications and signatures as of 28 May 2004.
Source: United Nations (1985)
V138CFC ControlThe Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer (1987): the years signed and ratified by individual countries. Updated with ratifications and signatures as of 28 May 2004.
Source: United Nations (1987)
V139Law of the SeaThe UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982): the years signed and ratified by individual countries. Updated with ratifications and signatures as of 16 July 2004.
Source: United Nations (1982)
V140WomenThe Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979): The years and ratified by individual countries. Updated with ratifications and signatures as of 26 March 2004.
Source: United Nations (1979)

Time Codes:

A: Available for years 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025, 2030, 2035, 2040, 2045, 2050.
B: Available for years 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025, 2030.
C: Available for 5-year period from 1950-1955 to 2045-2050.
D: Available at various years for different countries.
E: Available for a single time, single time-span, three times or three periods maximum.
F: Available for 5-year periods from 1995-2000 to 2045-2050.
G: Available for years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000.
H: Available for 5-year periods from 1950-1955 to 2025-2030.
I: Available as possible for years 1960 (or 1961), 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995, 2000, 2001 or 2002.
J: Available as possible for years 1965 and/or 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2001 or 2002.
K: Available as possible for years 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000.
L: Available for years 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2002.
M: Available for periods 1975-1980, 1980-1985, 1985-1990, 1990-1995, 1995-2000.
N: Available for years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000.
O: Available for years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000.
P: Available for years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990.
Q: Available three-years averages for 1990-1992, 1993-1995, 1995-1997, 2000-2002.
R: Available for years 1985, 1990, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001.
S: Available for years 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2001.
T: Available for years 1990, 1995, 2000.