List of PRED Bank variables

A.     Overview

For most of the indicators included in the databank comparable and recent national data as well as time-series are available. However the quality of the underlying data varies to a great extent. General remarks on these differences are given below. Specific explanations and additional information referring to a specific variable, country or source can be found in the footnotes, which accompany the data. 

 

 

1.      Population

 

 

Size and Distribution

 

 

V1

Total population (thousands)

 

 

V2

Urban population (percentage of total)

 

 

V3

Population density (persons per hectare)

 

 

Structure

 

 

Age

 

 

V4

Population aged below 15 (thousands)

 

 

V5

Population aged between 15 and 59 (thousands)

 

 

V6

Population aged 60 or over (thousands)

 

 

V7

Population aged 80 or over (thousands)

 

 

V8

Proportion of population aged below 15 (percentage)

 

 

V9

Proportion of population aged 15-59 (percentage)

 

 

V10

Proportion of population aged 60 or over (percentage)

 

 

V11

Proportion of population aged 80 or over (percentage)

 

 

V12

Median age

 

 

Gender

 

 

V13

Total female population (thousands)

 

 

V14

Total male population (thousands)

 

 

V15

Sex ratio of population aged 60 or over

 

 

V16

Sex ratio of population aged 80 or over

 

 

Dependency ratios

 

 

V17

Child dependency ratio (per hundred)

 

 

V18

Older population dependency ratio (per hundred)

 

 

Population dynamics

 

 

Fertility

 

 

V19

Crude birth rate (per 1,000 mid-year population)

 

 

V20

Total fertility rate (children per woman)

 

 

V21

Contraceptive prevalence (percentage)

 

 

Mortality

 

 

V22

Crude death rate (per 1,000 mid-year population)

 

 

V23

Life expectancy at birth (years)

 

 

V24

Life expectancy at birth, females (years)

 

 

V25

Life expectancy at birth, males (years)

 

 

V26

Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

 

 

V27

Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)

 

 

V28

Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)

 

 

Migration

 

 

V29

International migrant stock (numbers of persons)

 

 

V30

Percentage female of international migrant stock

 

 

Nuptiality

 

 

V31

Singulate mean age at marriage, female (years)

 

 

V32

Singulate mean age at marriage, male (years)

 

 

Demographic change

 

 

V33

Total population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

V34

Urban population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

V35

Rural population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

V36

Child population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

V37

Working age population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

V38

Older population: average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

 

2.      Resources

 

 

Land

 

 

Land area

 

 

V39

Total area (km2)

 

 

V40

Land area (km2)

 

 

V41

Population per cropland (persons per hectare)

 

 

Land use

 

 

V42

Cropland as a percentage of land area

 

 

V43

Forest as a percentage of land area

 

 

V44

Irrigated land as a percentage of cropland

 

 

V45

Land with crop production potential as a percentage of land area

 

 

V46

Land with rainfed potential as a percentage of land area

 

 

V47

Land with crop production potential in use as a percentage of land with crop production potential

 

 

Water

 

 

V48

Fresh water annual withdrawals as a percentage of total resources

 

 

V49

Fresh water resources (km3)

 

 

Energy

 

 

V50

Commercial energy use per capita (kg of oil equivalent)

 

 

V51

Consumption of traditional fuel as a percentage of total energy use

 

 

V52

GDP per metric ton of oil equivalent of commercial energy use

 

 

Food

 

 

V53

Cereal production (metric tons)

 

 

V54

Cereal yield (kg per hectare)

 

 

V55

Food aid in cereals (metric tons)

 

 

V56

Cereal trade, net (metric tons)

 

 

V57

Roots and tubers production (metric tons)

 

 

3.      Environment

 

 

Natural world

 

 

V58

Nationally protected area as a percentage of total area

 

 

V59

Total degraded land as a percentage of land area

 

 

V60

Lightly degraded land as a percentage of land area

 

 

V61

Moderately degraded land as a percentage of land area

 

 

V62

Strongly & extremely degraded land as a percentage of land area

 

 

V63

Land degraded by water erosion as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V64

Land degraded by wind erosion as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V65

Land with chemical deterioration as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V66

Land with physical deterioration as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V67

Land degraded by deforestation as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V68

Land degraded by overexploitation as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V69

Land degraded by overgrazing as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V70

Land degraded by agricultural activities as a percentage of total degraded land

 

 

V71

Annual percentage change in forest area

 

 

Emissions

 

V72

Carbon dioxide emissions (thousands of metric tons)

 

V73

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)

 

4.      Development

 

 

Economic development

 

 

Economic output

 

 

V74

Gross Domestic Produce (GDP) total (millions of US dollars)

 

V75

GDP per capita (US dollars)

 

V76

GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) (current international dollars)

 

V77

Agricultural share of GDP (percentage)

 

V78

Industrial share of GDP (percentage)

 

V79

Services share of GDP (percentage)

 

V80

GDP average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

V81

GDP per capita average annual growth rate (percentage)

 

Labour force

 

 

V82

Economically active population (percentage)

 

V83

Economically active population, females (percentage)

 

V84

Economically active population, males (percentage)

 

V85

Economically active population in agriculture (persons per hectare of cropland)

 

V86

Women as a percentage of the labour force

 

V87

Economically active population in agriculture as a percentage of labour force

 

V88

Economically active population in industry as a percentage of labour force

 

V89

Economically active population in services as a percentage of labour force

 

Income

 

 

V90

Population with income less than one US dollar per day (percentage)

 

V91

Income share of lowest 40 per cent of population (percentage)

 

V92

Income share of highest 20 per cent of population (percentage)

 

Social development

 

 

Nutrition and underweight

 

 

V93

Children underweight (percentage)

 

V94

Calorie supply (kilocalories)

 

V95

Percentage of the population undernourished

 

V96

Low birth weight infants (percentage)

 

Water and sanitation

 

 

V97

Access to safe water, total (percentage)

 

V98

Access to sanitation, total (percentage)

 

V99

Access to safe water in urban areas (percentage)

 

V100

Access to sanitation in urban areas (percentage)

 

V101

Access to safe water in rural areas (percentage)

 

V102

Access to sanitation in rural areas (percentage)

 

Education

 

 

V103

Adult literacy rate

 

V104

Adult literacy rate, females

 

V105

Adult literacy rate, males

 

V106

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary and secondary school, total

 

V107

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary school, total

 

V108

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, secondary school, total

 

V109

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary and secondary school, females

 

V110

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary school, females

 

V111

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, secondary school, females

 

V112

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary and secondary school, males

 

V113

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, primary school, males

 

V114

Adjusted net enrolment ratio, secondary school, males

 

Public expenditure

 

 

 

V115

Final international expenditures for population activities (thousands of US dollars)

 

 

V116

Total public spending on education (percentage of GNP)

 

 

V117

Total public spending on health (percentage of GDP)

 

 

5.      Policy

 

 

Population policy

 

 

 

V118

Government views on population growth

 

 

V119

Government intervention on population growth

 

 

V120

Government views on fertility level

 

 

V121

Government intervention on fertility level

 

 

V122

Government views on mortality level

 

 

V123

Government views on immigration level

 

 

V124

Government policy on immigration level

 

 

V125

Government views on emigration level

 

 

V126

Government policy on emigration level

 

 

International Treaties

 

 

 

V127

U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992)

 

 

V128

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985)

 

 

V129

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987)

 

 

V130

U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)

 

 

V131

Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.      Description of Variables

    1.      Population

    Size and distribution

 

Variable

Label

Unit

Time code

 

Description of variables

 

 

V1

Total population

Thousands

A

Mid-year de facto population estimated by the Population Division/ DESA of the United Nations Secretariat.  Estimates and medium-variant projections. 

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V2

Percentage urban

Percentage

O

Percentage of total population residing in urban areas. 'Urban' is defined according to the national census definition used in the latest available population census.  When necessary and if possible, urban data from earlier census and surveys were adjusted to be consistent with those from the latest census.

Source: United Nations (2001d)

 

 

V3

Population density

Persons per hectare

A

Mid-year population as compared to the surface area in hectares.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

  Structure

 

 

 

 

 

  Age

 

 

 

 

 

V4

Population aged below 15

Thousands

A

Number of persons aged under 15 years.  Estimates and medium-variant projections. Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V5

Population aged 15 – 59

Thousands

A

Number of persons aged 15-59 years.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V6

Population aged 60 or over

Thousands

A

Number of persons aged 60 years or over.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V7

Population aged 80 or over

Thousands

A

Number of persons aged 80 years or over.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V8

Population under age 15 as percentage of total population

Percentage

A

Relative size of population under age 15 as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V4/ V1.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

 

 

V9

Population aged 15-59 as percentage of total population

Percentage

A

Relative size of population aged 15–59 compared to total population, computed as: 100*V5/ V1.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

 

 

V10

Population aged 60 or over as percentage of total population

Percentage

A

Relative size of population aged 60 or over as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V6/ V1.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

 

 

V11

Population aged 80 or over as percentage of total population

Percentage

A

Relative size of population aged 80 or over as compared to total population, computed as: 100*V7/ V1.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

 

 

V12

Median age

Years

A

Age of the 50th percentile of the population age distribution.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 



  Gender

 

 

 

 

 

V13

Total female population

Thousands

A

Mid-year de facto female population.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V14

Total male population

Thousands

A

Mid-year de facto male population.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V15

Sex ratio ages 60 or over

Per hundred

A

Number of men per 100 women in the population aged 60 or over, computed as: 100* (Number of men over 60 / Number of women over 60).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V16

Sex ratio ages 80 or over

Per hundred

A

The number of men per 100 women in the population aged 80 or over, computed as: 100* (Number of men over 80 / Number of women over 80).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

Dependency ratios

 

 

 

 

 

V17

Child dependency ratio

Per hundred

A

Population aged under 15 compared to the working age population (15-59), computed as: 100 * V4/V5.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V18

Older population dependency ratio

Per hundred

A

Population aged 60 or over compared to the working age population (15-59) computed as: 100 * V6/V5.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

Population dynamics

 

 

 

 

 

Fertility

 

 

 

 

 

V19

Crude birth rate

Births per 1,000 people

C

Number of births occurring during the year per 1,000 mid-year population.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V20

Total fertility rate

Children per woman

C

Average number of children that would be born to a woman in her lifetime, if she were to pass through her childbearing years experiencing the age-specific fertility rates for a given period.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V21

Contraceptive prevalence

Percentage

E

Contraceptive prevalence refers to the percentage of currently married women (including, where possible, those in consensual unions) currently using contraception, either traditional or modern methods. Users of contraception are defined as women who are practicing, or whose male partners are practicing, any form of contraception, including female or male sterilization, injectable or oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, diaphragms, spermicides, condoms, withdrawal and periodic or long-term abstinence. However, prolonged breastfeeding and traditional post-partum abstinence are generally not counted as contraception.

Source: United Nations (2001b)

 

 

Mortality

 

 

 

 

 

V22

Crude death rate

Deaths per 1,000 people

C

Number of deaths occurring during the year per 1,000 mid-year population.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V23

Life expectancy

Years

C

Number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V24

Life expectancy at birth, females

Years

C

Number of years a female newborn would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of her birth were to stay the same throughout her life.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V25

Life expectancy at birth, males

Years

C

Number of years a male newborn would live if prevailing age patterns of mortality at the time of his birth were to stay the same throughout his life.  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V26

Infant mortality rate

Deaths per 1,000 live births

C

Number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year. It shows the probability of a newborn dying before reaching his first birthday. It is usually calculated as the number of infant deaths in a period divided by the number of births in the same period. Figures are quinquennial estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V27

Under 5-mortality rate

Deaths of children under 5 per1,000 live births

D

Number of deaths of children under 5 years of age per 1,000 live births. It shows the probability of a newborn dying before reaching his fifth birthday. Figures are quinquennial estimates and medium-variant projections .

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V28

Maternal mortality ratio

Women's deaths per 100,000 live births

E

A maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. The maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths over a year per 100,000 live births in that year.

Source: Hill, AbouZahr and Wardlaw (2001)

 

 

Migration

 

 

 

 

 

V29

International migration stock

Number of persons

F

Number of foreign-born persons or the foreign population within a country.

Source: United Nations (1998b)

 

 

V30

Women as a percentage of international migrants

Percentage

F

Women migrants as a proportion of international migrant stock.

Source: United Nations (1998b)

 

 

Nuptiality

 

 

 

 

 

V31

Singulate mean age at marriage, females

Years

G

Estimated mean age at first marriage for women among those who ever marry.

Source: United Nations (2000b)

 

 

V32

Singulate mean age at marriage, males

Years

G

Estimated mean age at first marriage for men among those who ever marry.

Source: United Nations (2000b)

 

 

Demographic changes

 

 

 

 

 

V33

Total population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

C

Average annual percentage growth rate of a population between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V1t2  / V1t1) / (t2 - t1).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V34

Urban population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

P

Average annual percentage growth rate of urban population.

Source: United Nations (2001d)

 

 

V35

Rural population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

P

Average annual percentage growth rate of rural population.

Source: United Nations (2001d)

 

 

V36

Child population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

C

Average annual percentage growth rate of population under age 15 between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V4t2  / V4t1  ) / (t2 - t1).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V37

Working age population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

C

Average annual percentage growth rate of population aged 15 - 59 between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V5t2  / V5t1) / (t2 - t1).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

Source: United Nations (2001c)

 

 

V38

Older population: average annual growth rate

Percentage

C

The average annual percentage growth rate of population aged 60 or older between dates t1 and t2 computed using the mid-year estimates and an exponential rate of increase: 100 * ln (V6t2  / V6t1  ) / (t2 – t1).  Estimates and medium-variant projections.

 

 

2.       Resources

 

  Land

 

 

 

 

 

  Land area

 

 

 

 

 

V39

Total area

Square km.

E

Total surface area of the country, comprising land area and inland waters, which include major rivers and lakes.

Source: United Nations (2001c; unpublished supplementary tabulation)

 

 

V40

Land area

Square km.

E

The total area of the country, excluding area under inland water bodies (square km.)

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V41

Population per cropland

Persons per hectare

B

Mid-year population (unrounded) as compared to the cropland area in hectares, computed as: 1000 * V1/ Cropland in hectares. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area.

Source: FAO (2001a for cropland in hectares)

 

 

  Land use

 

 

 

 

 

V42

Cropland as percentage of land area

Percentage

B

Land under temporary and permanent crops, temporary meadows, market and kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow as a proportion of land area. Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area (double cropped areas are counted only once). Computed as: 100 * Cropland in sq. km. / V40

Source: FAO (2001a for cropland in hectares)

 

 

V43

Forest area as percentage of land area

Percentage

E

The Forest Resources Assessment 2000 defines forests as follows: "Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectares (ha). The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters (m) at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground; or open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 percent or tree height of 5 m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest”. It includes: forest nurseries and seed orchards that constitute an integral part of the forest; forest roads, cleared tracts, firebreaks and other small open areas; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with an area of more than 0.5 ha and width of more than 20 m; plantations primarily used for forestry purposes, including rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands. It excludes land primarily used for agricultural practices.

Source: FAO (2001b)

 

 

V44

Irrigated land as percentage of cropland

Percentage

B

Areas equipped to provide water to crops, including full and partial control irrigation, spate irrigation, and equipped wetland or inland valley bottoms, as a proportion of total cropland area.  Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area (double-cropped areas are only counted once). Computed as: 100 * Irrigated land in sq. km./ Cropland in sq. km.

Source: FAO (2001a for irrigated land and cropland)

 

 

V45

Land with crop production potential as a percentage of land area

Percentage

E

Land with crop production potential is defined as irrigated arid and hyperarid land, with no crop production potential in its natural state, plus land with rainfed potential.  Land with rainfed potential is defined as the sum of land stocks of varying quality with potential for growing crops under rainfed conditions.  It was estimated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Soil Map of the World and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations inventory of climate regimes by assessing the suitability of homogeneous agroecological zones for growing 21 different crops under three levels of technology.  Any agroecological zone was classified as suitable for rainfed cultivation if at least one of the crops could be grown under any of the three levels of technology with a yield of at least 20 per cent of the maximum constraint-free yield. For technical details, see Alexandratos (1995: p.153-154 and endnotes of chapter 4). This variable shows the amount of land with crop production potential as compared to the total land area. This variable is available for developing countries only. Estimates should be interpreted with care due to limitations of basic data on land with rainfed crop-production potential. Computed as follows: 100 * land with crop production potential in sq. km. / V40

Source: Alexandratos (1995)

 

 

V46

Land with rainfed potential as a percentage of land area

Percentage

E

Relative amount of land suitable for rainfed crop production, calculated as: 100 * land with rainfed potential in sq. km. / V40, where land with rainfed potential is defined as the sum of land stocks of varying quality with potential for growing crops under rainfed conditions.

Source: Alexandratos (1995)

 

 

V47

Land with cropland production potential in use as a percentage of land with crop production potential

Percentage

E

This variable is calculated as land with crop production potential in use as a proportion of land with crop production potential, computed as: 100 * land with crop prod. potential in use / land with crop production potential, where land with crop production potential in use is defined as land currently in use for crop production. It does not include land in fallow at the moment of data collection. Land classified as non-suitable on the basis of this evaluation is used for rainfed agriculture in some countries. For this reason, the reported land in agricultural use in some countries exceeds the areas evaluated as having crop production potential. There are differences between this variable and "cropland area" (the numerator of V52), due to the fact that adjustments have been made for this variable by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to reflect a more realistic situation of cropping intensities. When the implicit cropping intensities reflected in differences between the area of cropland and the harvested area were unrealistically high, they were adjusted downwards by increasing the estimates of cropland.

For technical details, see Alexandratos (1995), Chapter 4.

Source: Alexandratos (1995)

 

 

  Water

 

 

 

 

 

V48

Fresh water annual withdrawals

Percentage

G

Annual fresh water withdrawals as a percentage of total resources. It refers to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporative losses from storage basins, as a percentage of internal renewable water resources and river flows from other countries. Annual internal renewable water resources refer to the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation.  Water withdrawals also include water from nonrenewable groundwater sources, river flows from other countries, and desalination plants in countries where that source is a significant part of all water withdrawals. Total withdrawals may exceed 100 per cent due to ground water drawdowns, withdrawals from river inflows, and the operation of desalinization plants.

Source: World Resources Institute (2000)

 

 

V49

Fresh water resources

Cubic km.

G

Annual internal renewable resources and river flows from other countries. The former refers to the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation. Caution should be used when comparing countries because estimates are based on different sources and dates.  These annual averages also disguise large seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations.

Source: World Resources Institute (2000)

 

 

  Energy

 

 

 

 

 

V50

Commercial energy use per capita

Kg. of oil equivalent

E

Commercial energy use refers to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports, air and marine bunkers, and unallocated commercial energy. The source provides a list of country coefficients to convert energy value from original units into coal equivalent. This variable compares the commercial energy use in kilograms of oil equivalent to the total population (V1).  It is computed as: Commercial energy use / (V1)

Source: United Nations (2000a, for commercial energy use)

 

 

V51

Traditional fuel use

 

Percentage

E

Consumption of fuelwood, charcoal, bagasse, and animal and vegetable wastes as a percentage of total energy use. Total energy use includes commercial energy and traditional fuels. Commercial energy use includes energy from solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, plus primary electricity. Primary electricity refers to electricity generated by non-combustible energy sources and includes nuclear, wind, tidal, wave, solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power sources. Fuelwood and charcoal consumption data are estimated from population data and country-specific per capita consumption figures. V51 is computed as: 100 * traditional fuel consumption / total energy use.

Source: United Nations (2000a)

 

 

V52

Energy use efficiency

US dollars per mt of oil equivalent

E

Energy use efficiency measures the GDP (at constant 1990 US $) per mt of oil equivalent of commercial energy use, computed as: V52 =  V74 / Commercial energy use in millions mt of oil equivalent.

Source: United Nations (2000a, for commercial energy use)

 

 

Food

 

 

 

 

 

V53

Cereal production

Metric tons

H

Cereal production includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. It refers to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed or silage or used for grazing are excluded. Due to the year-to-year volatility of crop production, it has been computed as a 3-year average centred on the reference year.

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V54

Cereal yield

Kilograms per hectare

H

Cereal yield represents harvested production in kilogrammes per hectare of harvested cereal products. Due to the year-to-year volatility of crop yield, it is computed as a 3-year average centred on the reference year.

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V55

Food aid in cereals

Metric tons

H

Data are shown for countries receiving cereal aid. Data pertain to food aid shipments for cereal commodities, on a total-grant basis or on highly concessional terms, including wheat and flour, bulgur, rice, coarse grains, and the cereal component of blended foods. Data are reported on a global trade year basis (July/June), so for instance quantities for 1970 should be interpreted as corresponding to the period July 1970 to June 1971.  Processed and blended cereals are converted into their grain equivalent by applying the conversion factors included in the Rule of Procedures under the 1995 Food Aid Convention (Rule 7, Article VI).

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V56

Cereal trade, net

Metric tons

B

Cereal trade refers to grain equivalents, defined as comprising all cereal in the standard international trade classification (SITC). It is computed as:

V56 = Cereal imports - Cereal exports

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V57

Roots and tubers production

Metric tons

B

Production of potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, yams, taro, yautia, and arrowroot. Root crops are dietary staples in certain areas where cereals are less widely grown, particularly in tropical Africa. Root crops grown principally for feed such as turnips, mangels and swedes are not included. Due to the year-to-year volatility in crop production it has been computed as a 3-year average centered at the reference year.

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

3.      Environment

 

 

 

 

 

Natural World

 

 

 

 

 

V58

Nationally protected area

Percentage

E

Total national protected area as a proportion of land area, not including locally or provincially protected sites, or privately owned areas. All protected areas combine natural areas of at least 1,000 hectares in five World Conservation Union (IUCN) management categories. Totally protected areas are maintained in a natural state and closed to extractive uses, encompassing: scientific reserves and strict nature reserves; national and provincial parks; and natural monuments and landmarks with unique geology or biodiversity. Partially protected areas may be managed for recreation, tourism, or for providing optimum habitat for certain species of wildlife. These areas encompass: nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries, and protected landscapes/seascapes (including scenically attractive cultural areas).

World Resources Institute (2000)

 

 

V59

Total degraded land as a percentage of land area

Percentage

E

All land degradation data come from the International Soil Reference and Information Centre/United Nations Environment Programme Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD) Database. The assessment covers the land surface between 72 degrees north and 57 degrees south and it categorizes soils degraded over 45 years prior to the assessment. Data are available for level, type and cause of degradation. When two categories of types or causes of degradation were identified on the same sample slot of land, half of the area was attributed to each of the two categories. Here all data are shown as percentage of either land area or of the totally degraded land. V59 includes all land showing changes in soil and land characteristics, which directly or indirectly affect the quantity or the quality of the land and its ability to produce food, fibre and timber. It is a summation of light, moderate, strong and extreme degradation.

Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V60

Lightly degraded land

Percentage

E

Light degradation corresponds to a slight decline in agricultural land quality where soil biotic functions remain largely intact and soil can be restored by changing land-use practices. For general information on the source database see V59. V60 is shown as a percentage of land area.

Source: United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V61

Moderately degraded land

Percentage

E

Moderately degraded land includes land where agricultural use of soil is still possible but biotic functions are partially destroyed and soil restoration requires action beyond the farm level. V61 is shown as a percentage of land area. For general information on the source database see V59.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V62

Strongly and extremely degraded land

Percentage

E

The variable “Strongly and extremely degraded land” was created by adding two levels of degradation, strongly and extremely degraded, shown as a percentage of land area. Land identified as strongly degraded is no longer suitable for agricultural use, and restoration of such soil requires major engineering works. Extreme degradation is defined as a state where the terrain is no longer suitable for agricultural use and beyond restoration. For general information on the source database see V59.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V63

Land degraded by water erosion

Percentage

E

Less productive land where nutrient-rich topsoil has been stripped away by water erosion. Water erosion on steep slopes is not included unless it is accelerated by human intervention. It is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V59.  V63+V64+V65+V66=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V64

Land degraded by wind erosion

Percentage

E

Land where nutrient-rich topsoil or soil material has been displaced by wind erosion (loss of topsoil and terrain deformation), or where wind-carried particles cover nutrient rich topsoil (overblowing). Wind erosion is widespread in arid and semiarid climates and is nearly always caused by a decrease in vegetation cover of soil by overgrazing or agricultural practices. Natural wind erosion is often difficult to distinguish from human-induced wind erosion, but natural wind erosion is often aggravated by human activities. Wind-eroded land is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V59.  V63+V64+V65+V66=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V65

Land degraded by chemical deterioration

Percentage

E

Land suffering from loss of nutrients and/or organic matter, salinization, acidification or pollution. Loss of nutrients and/or organic matter can be caused if agriculture is practiced on poor or moderately fertile soils, without sufficient application of manure or drained irrigation systems, excessive groundwater withdrawals in coastal areas and activities that lead to increased evapotranspiration in soils with salt- containing parent material or saline groundwater. Acidification can develop when pyrite-containing soils in coastal areas are drained or too much fertilizer is used. Pollution can be a result of a number of factors such as industrial and urban wastes, excessive pesticide use, airborne pollution, excessive manuring in feedlots and oil and chemical spills. Chemically degraded land is shown as percentage of total degraded land.

For general information on the source database see V59.  V63+V64+V65+V66=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V66

Land degraded by physical deterioration

Percentage

E

Land affected by compaction, waterlogging, deterioration and subsidence of organic soil that reduces the productivity of the soil. Compaction can be caused by heavy machinery or cattle trampling. Soils are more vulnerable if low in organic matter. Waterlogging includes flooding by river or rain water. Physically degraded land is shown as percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V59.  V63+V64+V65+V66=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V67

Land degraded by deforestation

Percentage

E

The percentage of land degraded due to deforestation, which is defined as removal of the natural vegetation of forested stretches of land. Deforestation can occur because of conversion of forestland to agriculture, urban use and large-scale logging. For general information on the source database see V59.  V67+V68+V69+V70=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V68

Land degraded by overexploitation

Percentage

E

Land degraded due to the use of the vegetation for fuelwood, fencing, and other purposes. Contrary to deforestation and removal of the natural vegetation, overexploitation of vegetation does not lead to complete removal of all vegetation. However, the remaining vegetation no longer provides sufficient protection to soil erosion. In dry areas, stripping land of vegetation for fuelwood also leads to wind and water erosion. Land degraded by overexploitation is shown as percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V59.  V67+V68+V69+V70=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V69

Land degraded by overgrazing

Percentage

E

Land degraded by overgrazing of vegetation by livestock as well as other effects of livestock, such as trampling. Overgrazing usually leads to a decrease in vegetative cover, and trampling, to compaction of the soil. Land degraded by overgrazing is shown as a percentage of total degraded land. For general information on the source database see V59.  V67+V68+V69+V70=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V70

Land degraded by agricultural activities

Percentage

E

This variable shows the percentage of land degraded by improper agricultural activities such as insufficient or excessive use of fertilizers, improper irrigation and cultivation of steep slopes. It is shown as percentage of total degraded land.  V67+V68+V69+V70=100 per cent.

United Nations Environment Programme (1990)

 

 

V71

Annual change in forest area

Percentage

E

The annual average percentage change in forest area. Figures for the period 1980-1990 are taken from the Forest Resources Assess- ment Report (FRA) 1990 and are available only for developing countries. Data for 1990-2000 were taken from FRA 2000 and also cover developed countries. The numbers for 1980-1990 were calculated in the UNPD using FRA 1990 data. The definition of “forest” as well as methods of assessment differ between FRA 1990 and FRA 2000. (The area that a forested parcel had to occupy in order to count as “forest” was larger in FRA 1990 than in FRA 2000. Also the technical ability to discern ground cover for small areas improved over the decade. For the definition applied in FRA 2000 see V43).
Source: FAO (1990, 2001b)

 

 

Emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

V72

Carbon dioxide emissions

Thousands of metric tons

E

Carbon dioxide emissions from industrial processes, stemming from the burning of fossil fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous, gas flaring) and the manufacture of cement. In the process, 0.498 metric ton of carbon dioxide is released for each ton of cement production. For the same level of energy consumption, burning oil releases about 1.5 times the amount of carbon dioxide released by burning natural gas; and coal combustion releases about twice the carbon dioxide of natural gas. National data do not include emissions from bunker fuels. Emissions are calculated using global average fuel chemistry and usage. Although estimates of world emissions are probably within10 percent of actual emissions, individual country estimates may depart more severely from reality. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated in terms of their content of carbon. Their values were converted to the actual mass of carbon dioxide by multiplying the carbon mass by 3.664.

Source: Marland, Boden and Andres (2000)

 

 

V73

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita

Metric tons

E

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita is computed by dividing the total emissions by the 1997 population of each country.

Source:  Marland, Boden and Andres (2000)

 

 

4.      Development

 

 

 

 

 

Economic development

 

 

 

 

 

Economic output

 

 

 

 

 

V74

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Millions of US dollars

I

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant 1990 US $ measures the total market value of final goods and services produced by residents and non-residents within the geographic area of the economy during the period of account plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the constant value of the products. The GDP is considered to be the most comprehensive estimate of a country's domestic economic activity. Due to the relatively volatile character of the GDP, it is computed as a 3-year average. Thus: V74t = (  GDP t-1 + GDP t + GDP t+1 ) / 3

where t = 1975, 1980, ...1995

Source: United Nations (2001b)

 

 

V75

Gross Domestic Product per capita

US dollars

I

Gross Domestic Product per capita, at constant 1990 US $ refers to total GDP (V84) divided by total population (V8).  Due to the relatively volatile character of the GDP per capita, it is computed as a 3-year average. Thus: V75t = 1000 ( V74t  / V1)

where t = 1975, 1980, ...1995

 

 

V76

GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP)

Current international dollars

I

GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) are GDP estimates based on the purchasing power of currencies rather than on current exchange rates. These estimates are a blend of extrapolated and regression-based numbers, using the results of the international Comparison Programme (ICP). ICP benchmark studies are multilateral pricing exercises, where inter-country price comparisons are reported in several phases. PPP studies recast traditional national accounts through special price collections and the disaggregation of GDP by expenditure components. ICP details are reported by national statistical offices, and the results are coordinated by the World Bank, assisted by other United Nations agencies. International dollar-values, which are different from U.S. dollar values of GDP, are obtained using special conversion factors that equalize the purchasing powers of different currencies. This conversion factor, PPP, is defined as the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as one $ US would buy in the 'average' country. The average price-index thus equalizes dollar prices in every country so that cross-country comparisons of GDP based on them reflect differences in quantities of goods and services free of price-level differentials. PPP estimates tend to lower per capita GDPs in industrialized countries and raise per capita GDPs in developing countries. Mid-year de facto population figures are used for GDP, PPP per capita figures.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V77

Agricultural share of GDP

Percentage

B

Agricultural share of GDP refers to the agriculture value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$).  Agriculture value added measures the output of the agricultural sector less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V78

Industrial share of GDP

Percentage

B

Industrial share of GDP refers to the industry value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$). Industry value added comprises value added in mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. 

The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V79

Services share of GDP

Percentage

B

Services share of GDP refers to the services value added (current US$) as a proportion of GDP at market prices (current US$). Services value added include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V80

GDP growth

Percentage

K

GDP growth refers to the average annual percentage growth rate of GDP total computed as:

100 * ln ( V74t2  / V74t1 ) / ( t2 - t1 )

 

 

V81

GDP growth per capita

Percentage

K

GDP growth per capita refers to the average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita, computed as:

100 * ln ( V75t2  / V75t1 ) / ( t2 - t1 )

 

 

Labour force

 

 

 

 

 

V82

Economically active population

Percentage

N

Percentage of population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V83

Economically active population, females

Percentage

N

Percentage of female population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V84

Economically active population, males

Percentage

N

Percentage of male population aged 15 and over, who are economically active. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed men, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V85

Economically active population in agriculture per hectare cropland

Persons per hectare

B

Economically active population in agriculture refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the agricultural sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. Economically active population in agriculture (EAPA) per cropland in hectares is computed as: EAPA / Cropland in hectares.

Figures for crop areas generally refer to harvested areas, although for permanent crops data may refer to total planted area.

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V86

Women as a percentage of the labour force

Percentage

N

Percentage of the total economically active population who are females. Economically active population refers to all employed and unemployed women, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V87

Percentage of the economically active population in agriculture

Percentage

Q

Economically active population in agriculture refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the agricultural sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V88

Percentage of economically active population in industry

Percentage

Q

Economically active population in industry refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives in the industrial sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

V89

Percentage of economically active population in services

Percentage

Q

Economically active population in services refers to all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, covering employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, unpaid family workers, members of producers' cooperatives and members of the armed forces in the services sector. The figures are based on the activity rates and sectorial ratios assessed by International Labour force (ILO) in 1997 using information from the 1990s round of national population censuses and labour-force surveys. It is shown as a percentage of the total economically active population.

Source: ILO (1997)

 

 

Income

 

 

 

 

 

V90

Population with income of less than 1 US$ /day

Percentage

G

The proportion of the population whose earnings are below one US$ per day. The commonly used $1 a day standard is measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPP).

(For more information on PPP, please refer to V76).

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V91

Income share of lowest 40 per cent of the population

Percentage

G

The share of total income received by the lowest 40 per cent of the population, ranked either by per capita expenditure or by per capita income. Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution indicators are not strictly comparable across countries.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V92

Income share of highest 20 per cent of the population

Percentage

G

The share of income of the highest 20% of the population, ranked either by per capita expenditure or by per capita income. Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution indicators are not strictly comparable across countries.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

Social development

 

 

 

 

 

Nutrition and underweight

 

 

 

 

 

V93

Children underweight

Percentage

E

Underweight prevalence among preschool children refers to the percentage of children under 5 years of age who have a weight that is more than two standard deviations below the median weight-for-age of the standard reference population of the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The standard reference population is commonly referred to as the NCHS/WHO international reference population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V94

Calorie supply

K-calories

B

Calorie supply per capita per day refers to the calorie equivalent of the food supplies available for human consumption in a country, expressed as kilocalories, divided by the total population, per day. It is calculated as the sum of the calorie-equivalent per capita supply for each food item. The per capita supply for each food item is obtained by dividing the total quantity of foodstuffs produced in a country added to the total quantity imported and adjusted for changes in stock and exports, by the total population actually partaking of the food supplies. Calorie supply figures therefore do not indicate what is actually consumed by individuals.

Source: FAO (2001a)

 

 

V95

Population under-nourished

Percentage

L

Estimated percentage of the population for whom access to food falls below the minimum energy requirement considered adequate. Assessing malnutrition involves the specification of the distribution of the available food among individuals in the country and the application of an assumed minimum for energy requirement. Methodology: a) The distribution of available food (in terms of energy) among individuals in a country is derived by combining information on the average consumption level (per capita daily dietary energy supply) and the inequality in distribution (summarized by the coefficient of variation) estimated on the basis of the available household food consumption or expenditure survey data;  b) estimation of the minimum energy requirement below which the average individual's consumption is considered inadequate. The cut-off point for intake inadequacy is based on the calculation of the minimum energy requirements by sex-age groups and then aggregating the results (using the sex-age composition of the population as weights);  c) application of the minimum energy requirement as the cut-off point on the distribution of food availability. The methodology to calculate the energy requirements is based on the recommendations of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on energy and protein and requirements.

Source: FAO (2000)

 

 

V96

Low birth weight infants

Percentage

E

The percentage of babies born weighing less than 2,500 g.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

Water and sanitation

 

 

 

 

 

V97

Access to safe water, total

Percentage

E

Access to safe water is measured by the proportion of population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V98

Access to sanitation, total

Percentage

E

Access to sanitation is measured by the percentage of population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V99

Access to safe water in urban areas

Percentage

E

Access to safe water in urban areas is measured by the proportion of the urban population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V100

Access to sanitation in urban areas

Percentage

E

Access to sanitation in urban areas is measured by the percentage of urban population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V101

Access to safe water in rural areas

Percentage

E

Access to safe water in rural areas is measured by the proportion of rural population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “access”, “adequate amount”, “safe”, “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

V102

Access to sanitation in rural areas

Percentage

E

Access to sanitation in rural areas is measured by the percentage of rural population with access to a sanitary facility for disposal of human excreta in the user's dwelling or located within a convenient distance of the user's dwelling. Under the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, the words “sanitary facility” and “convenient distance” were defined at the country level. “Access” is interpreted as actual use by the population.

Source: UNICEF (2001)

 

 

Education

 

 

 

 

 

V103

Adult literacy rate

Percentage

H

Adult literacy refers to the proportion of the adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years or above.

It has been observed that some countries apply definitions and criteria for literacy which are different from the international standards, or equate persons with no schooling to illiterates, or change definitions between censuses. Practices for identifying literates during actual census enumeration may also vary, and errors in literacy self-declaration can affect the reliability of literacy statistics.

Source: UNESCO (2001)

 

 

V104

Adult literacy rate, female

Percentage

H

Female adult literacy refers to the proportion of the female adult population who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the female population aged 15 years or above.

(See note for Adult literacy rate, total).

Source: UNESCO (2001)

 

 

V105

Adult literacy rate, male

Percentage

H

Male adult literacy refers to the proportion of the male adult population who cannot, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on everyday life. Here, the literacy rate is expressed as a percentage of the male population aged 15 years or above.

(See note for Adult literacy rate, total).

Source: UNESCO (2001)

 

 

V106

Adjusted net enrolment primary- secondary school (total)

Ratio

J

Enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary and secon- dary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V107

Adjusted net enrolment primary school (total)

Ratio

H

Enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V108

Adjusted net enrolment secondary school (total)

Ratio

J

Enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V109

Adjusted net enrolment primary- secondary school, female

Ratio

J

Female enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding female population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary and secondary) of female children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of female pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the female population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V110

Adjusted net enrolment primary school, female

Ratio

H

Female enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding female population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of female children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of female pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the female population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V111

Adjusted net enrolment, secondary school female

Ratio

J

Female enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding female population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of female children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of female pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the female population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V112

Adjusted net enrolment primary-secondary school, male

Ratio

J

Male enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding male population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary and secondary) of male children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of male pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the male population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V113

Adjusted net enrolment primary school, male

Ratio

H

Male enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding male population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here primary) of male children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of male pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the male population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

V114

Adjusted net enrolment secondary school, male

Ratio

J

Male enrolment of the official age-group for a given level of education expressed as a percentage of the corresponding male population. It shows the extent of participation in a given level of education (here secondary) of male children or youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the level of education. It is calculated by dividing the number of male pupils (or students) enrolled who are of the official age-group for a given level of education by the male population for the same age-group and multiplying the result by 100.

The term “adjusted” indicates that the population groups used in deriving these ratios for a particular region have been obtained by taking into account the structure of education of each country in the region.

Source: UNESCO (1999a,b)

 

 

Public expenditure

 

 

 

 

 

V115

Final international expenditures for population activities

Thousands of US dollars

J

Data, which were collected from donors, refer to final international expenditures for population assistance in family planning services, reproductive health services, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS activities, and basic research and development policy analysis. “Final expenditures” refers to funds which have been provided by a primary or an intermediate donor for population activities in (or for the benefit of) a developing country or region in the year shown. For the years 1992 through 1996, the administrative cost entailed in providing assistance is not included in the final expenditure figures.  For the years 1987 through 1991, the administrative costs entailed in providing assistance were not ascertained and may or may not be included in the final expenditure figures shown. Development bank loans are not included in the final expenditure figures, as the banks, primary funds fluctuate widely. Their primary funds reflect large blocks of loan agreements made in a single year but intended to be spent over several years and, in view of their conditions or line of credit, possibly not used in full.

Source: UNFPA (1996, 1998, 2000)

 

 

V116

Total public expenditure on education

Percentage of GNP

J

Total public expenditure on education (current and capital) is expressed as a percentage of the Gross National Product (GNP). Public expenditure on education expressed as a percentage of total and current government expenditure respectively.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

V117

Total public expenditure on health

Percentage of GDP

M

Total public expenditure on health is expressed as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds.

Source: World Bank (2000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.      Policy

 

 

 

Population policy

 

 

 

V118

Views on population growth

Governments’ perception of the acceptability of the population growth rate. It is expressed in three categories:
The rate is too high; the rate is satisfactory; the rate is too low.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V119

Intervention on population growth

Governments’ intervention policy to modify the population growth rate. It is expressed in four categories:
To raise the rate; to maintain the rate; to lower the rate; no intervention reported.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V120

Views on fertility level

Governments’ perception of the acceptability of the fertility level.
It is expressed in three categories:
The rate is too high; the rate is satisfactory; the rate is too low.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V121

Intervention on fertility level

Governments’ intervention policy to modify the level of fertility.
It is expressed in four categories:
To raise the rate; to maintain the rate; to lower the rate; no intervention reported.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V122

Views on mortality level

Governments’ perception of the acceptability of the current mortality level. It is expressed in two categories:
Acceptable; unacceptable.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

 

V123

Views on immigration level

Governments’ perception of the immigration level.
It is expressed in three categories:
Immigration level is too low; immigration level is satisfactory; immigration level is too high.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V124

Policy on immigration level

Governments’ intervention policy to modify the level of immigration. It is expressed in four categories:
To raise the level; to maintain the level; to lower the level; no intervention reported.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V125

Views on emigration level

Governments’ perception of the acceptability of the emigration level. It is expressed in three categories:
Emigration is too high; emigration level is satisfactory; emigration level is too low.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

V126

Policy on emigration level

Governments’ intervention policy to modify the level of emigration.
It is expressed in four categories:
To raise the level; to maintain the level; to lower the level; no intervention reported.

Source: United Nations (1998a)

International Treaties

V127

Climate change

Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992): the years signed and ratified.

Source: United Nations (1993)

V128

Ozone layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985): the years signed and ratified by individual countries.

Source: United Nations (1985)

V129

CFC Control

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer (1987): the years signed and ratified by individual countries.

Source: United Nations (1987)

V130

Law of the Sea

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982): the years signed and ratified by individual countries.

Source: United Nations (1982)

V131

Women

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979): The years and ratified by individual countries.

Source: United Nations (1979)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      Time Codes: 

A:   Available for years 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025, 2030, 2035, 2040, 2045, 2050.

B:   Available as possible for years 1960 (or 1961), 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 or 1999.

C:   Available for periods 1950-55, 1955-60, 1960-1965, 1965-1970, 1970-1975, 1975-1980, 1980-1985, 1985-1990, 1990-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005,2005-2010, 2010-2015, 2015-2020, 2020-2025, 2025-2030, 2030-2035, 2035-2040, 2040-2045, 2045-2050.

      D:   Available for 5-year periods from 1995-2000 to 2045-2050.

      E:   Available for a single time, single time-span, two times or two periods maximum.

      F:   Available for years 1965, 1975, 1985 and 1990.

      G:   Available at various years for different countries.

H:   Available as possible for years 1965 and/or 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1996, 1997, 1998 or 2000.

      I:    Available as possible for years 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 1998.

      J:    Available as possible for years 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 1996 and/or 1997 and/or 1998.

      K:   Available for periods 1975-1980, 1980-1985, 1985-1990, 1990-1995, 1995-1998, 1975-1998.

      L:   Available for three- or more years average: 1979-1981, 1990-1992, 1996-1998.

      M:  Available for years 1990, 1995, 1997, 1998.

      N:   Available for years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000.

      O:   Available for years 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000.

      P:   Availalbe for 5-year periods from 1950-1955 to 2000-2005.

Q:   Available for years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990.

 

Back to top