11 June 2001
MOST AFFECTED BY HIV/AIDS ARE LEAST ABLE TO PAY
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
of people are infected with HIV, and millions more are likely potential victims.
Life expectancy has already dropped precipitously in some countries.
As parents die of AIDS-related causes, their children become orphans and
face uncertain futures. The ability
to cope with the demands and consequences of HIV and AIDS is limited by the
funds available for health care.
the hopeful side, more and more governments are responding to the crisis by
acknowledging that AIDS is a major concern, by establishing high-level
coordinating bodies, and by taking measures to prevent the spread of AIDS.
The global challenge of HIV/AIDS is to intensify international action to
fight the epidemic and to mobilize the resources needed.
These are among the findings from the wall chart, entitled “HIV/AIDS: Population Impact and Policies 2001”, published by the United Nations Population Division. The wall chart is a timely backdrop to the United Nations General Assembly special session on HIV/AIDS that will convene in New York from 25 to
27 June 2001. Included in the chart are data for each country on total population, number and percentage of adults living with HIV/AIDS, number of deaths from AIDS, number of AIDS orphans, life expectancy at birth with and without AIDS, condom use, and health expenditure per capita. Policy considerations include government’s level of concern about AIDS, measures taken to prevent the spread of AIDS, and existence of a governmental AIDS policy coordination body.
More than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV/AIDS, more than two thirds of them in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 2 million infected adults live in each of five countries: Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. In five African countries -- Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe -- at least one in five adults has HIV or AIDS.
African countries will have lost at least 17 years of life expectancy to the
AIDS epidemic by 2000-2005, namely, Botswana,
Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
In Botswana, life expectancy in 1995-2000 is already 23 years less than
it would have been if there had been no AIDS-related mortality, and the
shortfall will be 34 years by 2000-2005. Outside
Africa, AIDS deaths will decrease life expectancy by at least three years in the
Bahamas, Cambodia, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti and Myanmar by 2000-2005.
of the deaths caused by AIDS occur to people in younger age groups; the loss of
these young lives disproportionately affects productivity and economic growth
and the social fabric of family and society.
About 310,000 persons died in 1999 of AIDS in India.
Ethiopia and Nigeria also each had at least a quarter of a million AIDS
deaths. AIDS caused more deaths in
India than in any other country.
13 million children have been orphaned because their parents died of AIDS.
Three countries – Ethiopia, Nigeria and Uganda – each have more than
900,000 AIDS orphans. The number of AIDS orphans will continue to grow in countries
where the epidemic is still gathering momentum. Four other countries – India, Kenya, United Republic of
Tanzania and Zimbabwe – all have at least half a million orphans due to the
have established high-level agencies to confront the challenge of AIDS.
Activities to prevent the spread of AIDS
are widespread and include information and education campaigns and
use of condoms, which would protect users from HIV transmission, is rare in most
condoms is the cheapest and most effective form of protection against the
transmission of the HIV virus during sexual contact.
However, in most countries, condom use is minimal.
Nearly all countries in Africa have use rates of less than 5 per cent.
Only four countries in Asia and four in Latin America and the Caribbean
have condom use rates of 10 per cent or more.
The highest rates of condom use occur in Europe, particularly in Northern
systems cannot cope with the demands of HIV/AIDS, and countries most affected by
the disease are generally least able to pay for prevention and treatment.
In the 10 countries most severely affected by AIDS, per capita health
expenditure ranges from $3 to $246. In
Africa, most countries spent less than $100 per person annually.
“HIV/AIDS: Population Impact and Policies 2001” (Sales No. E.01.XIII.6) is available for $5.95 from the Sales Section, United Nations, New York or Geneva, through booksellers worldwide, or by writing to the Director, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA. The wall chart is available in English and French versions.