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United Nations (1983). Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation (United Nations
      publication, Sales No. E.83.XIII.2).

Manual X


This report is an aid to demographers and population experts to carry out the best possible evaluation and exploitation of data sources, especially those that are incomplete or deficient. Manual X describes a wide range of time-tested techniques to make indirect estimates of demographic parameters. Each of the techniques presented is based on a mathematical model and explained in easy-to-follow examples.

Since Manual X is no longer available in printed form, it is made available here in electronic form in Adobe PDF format.


Preface and Table of contents (1,425 KB)

Introduction (947 KB)

Chapter I: Demographic models (1,374 KB)
Chapter II: Estimation of fertility based on information about children ever born (4,225 KB)
Chapter III: Estimation of child mortality from information on children ever born and children surviving (1,913 KB)
Chapter IV: Estimation of adult survivorship probabilities from information on orphanhood and widowhood (2,774 KB)
Chapter V: Estimation of adult mortality from information on the distribution of deaths by age (1,545 KB)
Chapter VI: Derivation of a smooth life table from a set of survivorship probabilities (753 KB)
Chapter VII: Fertility and mortality estimation using model stable age distributions (1,727 KB)
Chapter VIII: Estimation of fertility by reverse-survival methods (1,441 KB)
Chapter IX: Estimation of adult mortality using successive census age distributions (2,183 KB)

Annexes (5,463 KB)

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