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National Implementation of Agenda 21

UGANDA

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Uganda to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

UGANDA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: National Environment Management Authority

Date: 14 January 1997

Submitted by: Dr. B.H. OGWANG

Mailing address: P.O. Box 22255, Kampala, Uganda

Telephone: 256-41-251064/5

Telefax: 256-41-257521

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

Uganda is actively involved in several initiatives aimed at implementing UNCED agreements which have a profound positive impact on the lives of her people. These include:

Actions aimed at food security including the national food strategy which is under discussion and the Farming Systems Support Programme.

The National Tropical Forest Action Plan is being formulated to enhance the role of forestry in national and local development.

The National Action Plan for Water Resource Development and Management has been developed and a water policy has been formulated.

The initiation of the national environment action process led to the formulation of a comprehensive National Environment Management Policy and the enactment of a National Environment Statute 1995. This law created the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) which is overseeing the implementation of Uganda's NEAP, whose main goal is to ensure sustainable development through sound management of the environment.

Mechanisms for the empowerment and involvement of marginalised sections/groups of the community have been put in place.

Constraints in implementing Agenda 21:

Agenda 21 is complex and its publication has been slow and inadequate to elicit the full response.

Financial resources to fund Agenda 21 programmes are inadequate.

Accessing funds from International Organisations is a complex and long process and the country has limited capacity to access these international sources, for example the GEF.

Institutional structures such as NEMA are just emerging and lack the capacity to initiate and implement programmes.

Conflicting national policies and priorities also create problems, for example the ever rising electricity tariffs in light of decreasing biomass resources.

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(Fact Sheet)

UGANDA

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

(1) National Environment Management Authority (NEMA);

(2) Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Dr. Henry Aryamanya Mugisha, NEMA.

Telephone: 256 41 251064/5

Fax: 256 41 257521

e-mail:

Mailing address: P.O. Box 22255, Kampala, Uganda

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

1. Ministry of Natural Resources; 2. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning; 3. Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities; 4. Ministry Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

1. NEMA; 2. Uganda National Council of Science and Technology; 3. Uganda National Parks; 4. Makerere University of Environment and Natural Resources (MUIENR).

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

1. DENIVA; 2. Uganda Manufacturers Association; 3. Natural Resources Management Forum; 4. Wildlife Clubs of Uganda.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

To coordinate activities aimed at promoting environmentally sound development.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name): Aryamanya Mugisha, Henry

Date: 16 January 1997

Ministry/Office: National Environment Management Authority

Telephone: 256 41 251064/5

Fax: 256 41 257521

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Uganda is a member of the Preferential Trade Area (PTA) and the newly formed Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA). For Uganda, like other developing countries, trade conditions are still unfavourable. The Government looks forward to improved and fair terms of trade to the benefit of all countries and in particular developing countries.

At the national level, trade and the provision of services have been liberalised. Marketing of agricultural products is now fully in the hands of the private sector. Uganda is preparing a study on Trade and Environment.

Uganda is a member of the East African Cooperation (EAC) which is an Intergovernmental Organisation established to steer the newly rekindled spirit of cooperation between the republics of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

A National Labour Policy is being prepared. Seed capital and revolving credit schemes have been introduced for the urban and rural poor.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: Poor communities and NGOs are involved in activities to address poverty through the Resistance Council System.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
There is no national definition of poverty.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

In general, changing consumption patterns is not a priority in Uganda, but steps have been taken to reduce energy consumption through the use and promotion of energy saving technologies like energy saving cooking stoves.

National targets

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest
199_
GDP per capita (current US$) 213 180 153
Real GDP growth (%) 0.0 4.1 -5.7
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita) 19a 19 20
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 1.3 1.6 2.1b
a 1989 b population based on 1992

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A Population Policy covering environmental issues has been prepared and an action plan developed to implement it. A National Report was forwarded to the 1994 Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. Uganda's population is fast growing and its level of morbidity and fertility are high, unevenly distributed spatially and with sizeable inter-district migration. Population is projected to double in 28 years. Data on population issues has improved significantly in the last decade.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Population Secretariat and the Census Office, both within the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, and the Department of Population Studies of the Makere University are concerned with demographic issues.

The Population Department in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, the Physical Planning Department in the Ministry of Lands and Housing and the Ministry of Local Government are engaged in the coordination of population, environment and development policies. The District Population Offices are responsible for the coordination of projects and programmes.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: NGO coordination and a women liaison officer have been established in the Population Secretariat. NGOs receive Government support in a number of ways, e.g. they pay no import-taxes.

4. Finance: The budget for population issues has increased during the last decade.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: UNFPA, USAID and DANIDA support the country's population programmes. There is still need for support in population programmes and related activities.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 17.949 19.940
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993) 3.5
Surface area (Km2) 241,038
Population density (people/Km2) 83
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Environmental Investment Programme covers the issue "Environmental Health and Pollution Management". The National Strategy for Children also addresses health issues.

The NRM Government manifesto stresses the importance of primary healthy care with a specific focus on:

1. Immunisation;

2. Nutrition;

3. Environmental health including malaria control;

4. Health education;

5. Dental Care;

6. Health problems of Uganda women.

The Action Plan on Poverty Eradication sets out the role of the health sector in addressing poverty. It strongly supports the existing focus on primary health care and especially in HIV preventive services. It recommends further consideration be given to strengthening health education efforts aimed at preventing HIV/AIDS and other major communicable diseases, the role of community health workers, assessing how user fees and prepayment schemes can be implemented without seriously undermining access of the poor, on monitoring health outcomes and on redefining the role of the main referral hospital.

Other human development related initiatives which complement and form the health policy include the White Paper on Education, the National Programme of Action for Children, the Water and Sanitation Master Plan and the National Environmental Action Plan.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: See Status Report.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: See Status Report.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

45.4

48.6

43.2

46.1

45

(M+F)
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 114 108 97c
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births) 300a 500b 506c
Access to safe drinking water (% of population) 11c
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
a 1984 b 1988/90 c 1995/96

Other data: The Ministry of Health has addressed the above health strategies and the following achievements have been made:

Parameter % of population

1. Immunisation coverage

a) measles 59%

b) overall 47.4%

2. Nutrition 38.3% stunted

3. Sanitation services 3.1% use flushing or V.I.P toilets

There is still a lot of effort needed in all these activities, main constraints are low funding and a low level of health education.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The National Housing Strategy was completed in 1992. A Land Tenure Policy has been prepared and services and planning have been decentralized.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-building for land use planning is urgently required.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population 11.2 12.5
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 5.8 5.8
Largest city population (in % of total population) 4.2 4.5
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A National Environmental Action Plan was developed and provides a broad framework for integrating environmental concerns into the national development planning process. The following steps have been completed:

- a National Environmental Management Policy has been developed,

- a Framework Law for Environmental Management has been developed,

- Guidelines on EIA were put in place,

- a plan was drafted for the development of an institutional framework,

- an Environmental Investment Programme was put in action; it addresses the areas of capacity-building for environmental management, environmental education and public awareness, biodiversity conservation and use, environmental health and pollution management and enhancement of resource productivity.

A National Environment Information Centre has been established. Its mandate is to provide accurate, timely and up-to-date information to policy and decision-makers.

Since UNCED policies have been established inter alia in the areas of demography, water management and wetland management, land tenure, labour and wildlife and biodiversity. Policies in other fields were assessed and found in line with UNCED.

With a view to integrating sustainable development aspects, about 90% of the national legislation has been reviewed since UNCED and 10% of it has been revised. Among the constraints found when implementing international legal instruments are lack of staff resources, lack of technical expertise and lack of funding.

Signing and ratification of international agreements is done through an established administrative and legal process. Several inter-ministerial committees have been established to coordinate the implementation of International Conventions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): See Status Report.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-building in environmental management is on-going at the district level. There is an urgent need for further capacity-building activities.

3. Major Groups: Local Authorities and the Ministry of Gender and Community Development are full members of the National Mechanism for Sustainable Development; the Wildlife Clubs of Uganda, the Natural Resources Management Forum and the Uganda Red Cross Society are advisory members. Major Groups have not been represented in the National Delegation to the CSD because lack of financial resources. If funding can be secured, the Government wants to include Major Groups in the Delegation to the CSD 1997. In addition local authorities have not yet developed, technical competence in environmental management and policy formulation.

4. Finance: Lack of funding is one of the main constraints to sustainable development activities.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Negotiations at an international level could be simplified by facilitating national consultative processes and by employing consultants to put together the different views which could be discussed once or twice in an international forum. The UN should provide financial and technical support to this consultative process and to the international meetings.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol was ratified in 1988, and the London Amendment in 1994.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified in 1993.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Government promotes policies and programmes for energy efficiency, industrial pollution control, sound land-use practices, management of toxic and other hazardous waste. Issues related to environmentally sound and efficient transportation are under consideration. A case study was carried out to identify and quantify ODS used in the country.

In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control the Government has facilitated exchange of data and information at the national and international levels.

Issues under the topic energy-transport-industry are of medium or high priority, the rehabilitation and modernization of power systems and EIA in energy production have very high priority. A review has been undertaken on new and renewable energy sources, specially hydropower, and a petroleum exploration programme has been carried out. Energy/emission-related taxes have not been introduced; first there is a need to set standards and formulate an energy policy.

Activities aimed at a less polluting and safer transportation system have been addressed in part. There are no observations yet on emissions from transport. The transportation system is similar to that in other countries of the region. Achievements have been made in mass transport systems, but urban commuter services have to be addressed.

In 1992, a national inventory on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases was undertaken, including recommendations on follow-up actions.

Concerning the phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting substances Uganda follows the schedule for article 5 par.1 "countries and will take advantage of the 10-year grace period for developing countries".

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Within the Ministry of Natural Resources, the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) is responsible for Protection of the Atmosphere. NEMA is a full member of the National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development. The most important legislation for this sector, the National Environment Management Statute, was reviewed in part in 1995.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Poorly maintained observation stations, lack of manpower and inadequate data processing facilities restrict work in this sector. Early detection systems, national capacity to predict changes and fluctuations and capacity-building in this field are rated "adequate". National capacity in the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution is rated "average". Lack of capacity restricts the establishment of early warning systems. There are no training opportunities in this area. The Industrialisation Policy promotes the development of environmentally friendly industries, and activities are being carried out to sensitize entrepreneurs on environmental issues.

3. Major Groups: NGOs and the private sector have contributed to activities under the programme area "promoting sustainable development".

4. Finance: From 1995 to 1997, the Government will receive US$ 64,515 through multilateral channels to address the issue of ozone-depleting substances.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: UN Organizations and IGOs have participated in the programme areas "scientific basis for decision-making", "promoting sustainable development" and "preventing stratospheric ozone depletion".

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest

199-

CO2 emissions (eq. million tons) 7.245
SOx emissions (eq. million tons)
NOx emissions (eq. million tons) 1.183
CH4 emissions (eq. million tons) 1.286
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)

Main sources of CO2 emissions are land use change and forestry, main sources of

NOx- and CH4-emissions are agriculture and savanna burning

Relative contribution of anthropogenic gases to the greenhouse effect:

CO2: 75% CH4: 13% NO2: 12

Uganda participates in the Global Climate Observing System with 30 observation stations (1990: 18 stations). Due to lack of funds, the stations are not operating at optimum level. There are no observation stations to participate in the Global Ozone Observing System.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Most activities under this chapter have been initially addressed, but implementation is often hampered due to limited financial resources. Policies and policy instruments have been developed and are to be approved from parliament. Planning and management systems will be addressed at a later stage. Information centres have been set up to strengthen information systems and to raise awareness. Promotion of public participation is planned.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The following are responsible for the integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources: the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ministry of Local Government. The National Environmental Bill addresses this chapter and a draft bill on land tenure has been prepared.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Scientific understanding of land-resources systems has been addressed and improved, but there is a lack of resources and trained human resources. Initial steps have been taken to improve technological capacity, institutions, education and training; further activities depend on the availability of financial resources.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Activities under this chapter are being supported by FAO, UNEP, UNDP, USAID and GTZ. These organizations have participated in reviewing national programmes and strategies, but they have not provided additional funding or human resources since UNCED.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: In 1995, a National Forestry Action Plan was formulated. The Government has embraced the Man and Biosphere Concept of zoning natural forests which promotes forest management for multiple use: 20% of the country's forests are to be designated as strict Nature Reserves, 30%, low intensity zone; and in the remaining 50% sustainable harvesting and non-consumptive uses shall be permitted.

Since 1992, a national biological inventory programme has been underway. Analysis of this data should lead to the establishment of a scientifically based Nature Reserve network throughout the natural forests of Uganda. Surveys were initiated to establish the extent of natural forests outside the reserves. The studies should lead to a strategy of how to conserve non-gazetted forests. The Ministry of Natural Resources in cooperation with NORAD is carrying out a National Biomass Study.

A national timber inventory was carried out. A planning unit integrating the biomass studies, biological and timber inventories is to be established. The planning team shall have the mandate to carry out forest resource assessments, design appropriate planting programmes and plan, and establish and monitor the nature reserve network in natural forests.

Forest extension officers have been posted at the district level. They have supporting staff at the county and sub-county levels. The Government supports the effective implementation of the "Non-legally binding Forest Principles".

Encroaching agriculture is the most "serious" cause for forest loss and damages; effects from logging and need for fuel wood are rated "moderate".

Since 1990, more than 110 km2 of encroached forest have been replanted within an ongoing restoration programme. In addition, 20 km2 of Eucalyptus plantations have been restocked with the support of NORAD, since during the time of political instability more than 100 km2 had been degraded around major urban centres. Reforestation of harvested coniferous plantations has been too little and almost insignificant, due to financial and logistical constraints.

There is growing awareness of the need to further engage in afforestation, but, again, lack of funding and logistical problems have hampered any meaningful afforestation programme. Potential exists to establish more plantations in the reserved forest in the Savannah woodlands. This would reduce pressure on the natural forests. In recent years 7.48 km2 has been added to the area of softwood plantations. Most of the agro-based industries continue to establish sizeable plantations in order to become self sufficient in terms of fuelwood. Annual private afforestation is about 3 km2.

In 1990, an estimated 22.3 million m3 of fuelwood were used for commercial and industrial energy requirements. The Government encourages local farmers to plant woodlots and trees on farms for both fuelwood and environmental amelioration.

A biological disease control programme was established to control an Arphid disease that broke out in plantations. Livestock and wildlife grazing does not pose a big threat to natural forests.

Since 1990, efficient harvesting and processing of wood is being promoted. The Forest Department runs a demonstration sawmill, where sawmillers are trained in sustainable logging techniques. Efforts are also under way to promote the sustained harvesting of non-timber products. Nature based tourism is popular in Uganda's forests and is still being promoted.

Development of peri-urban forests to provide for wood resources needs of five urban centres have been accomplished.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Within the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Forest Department is particularly responsible for deforestation issues. The Uganda National Parks and Game Department is also in charge since one third of all natural forests has been integrated into National Parks. The Forest Act from 1964 is under review.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Staff in forest management increased from 60 in 1980 to 140 in 1990 and 150 in 1995. There are 90 trained foresters working in forest management and forest protection. Thirty foresters are graduating every year. The staffing situation is rated "adequate" at the central and middle planning levels, but "below par" at the field level.

An in-service training programme in Natural Forest Conservation has been established to re-orient all cadres of forestry staff in the conservation and sustainable use of forest resources. Curricula for forestry courses at universities have been reviewed. 20 technical staff have been trained in biological inventory techniques.

Fire presuppression measures are put in place around those forests prone to seasonal fires. Fire patrols are carried out during critical fire seasons. Prior to the 1970s all major plantation blocks had field telephone networks installed, together with fire watch towers. These have since collapsed. Although provision was made to reactivate the fire protection system, not much has been done. This remains a priority in the forestry sector.

3. Major Groups: Mechanisms are being worked out to integrate local people in forest management and conservation, e.g. through the establishment of local natural resources management committees. Where this strategy has been tried, it has had the desired effect of reducing illegal activities in the reserved forests. The formulation of the National Forestry Action Plan has involved seminars and workshops for local groups and opinion leaders. Local people are consulted in choosing tree species for planting, on the collection, storage and germination of indigenous tree species and in the planning of eco-tourism. The rights of local communities are being recognised. Participatory rural appraisals (PRA) are being carried out. Rights to medicinal plants, cultural ceremonies and other non-consumptive uses are being recognised and incorporated in longterm natural resource management strategies. Local knowledge and skills are being used in planning appropriate interventions around protected areas.

NGOs support afforestation and reforestation projects.

4. Finance: Forestry contributions to the national GDP are about 20%. The national forestry budget was US$ 7 million in 1990 and US$ 5 million in 1994. Since 1988, about US$ 38 million has been allocated to the National Forestry Rehabilitation Project from different donors.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The following organizations support forest projects in Uganda: World Bank, IDA, EU, DANIDA, NORAD, IUCN, CARE, UNDP, FAO, UNEP. The GEF provides institutional support for protection of biodiversity, NORAD assists with the establishment of a GIS.

Although Uganda has not ratified the International Tropical Timber Agreement, the Government has studied the agreement and fully supports it.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2) 58,100 55,600
Protected forest area (Km2) 15,300a
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3) 12.1 14.2
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum) 500
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum) 20 26a,b
a According to Uganda's Guidelines for National Information to the CSD 1995

b average of reforestation activities 1990-1995

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: very high national priority
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

A country case study has been prepared as input to the inter-governmental negotiation committee of the convention to combat desertification.

There are three areas affected by desertification: the Karamoja Region, the Buruli-Luwero District and the Rakai District. Details have to be surveyed and more research is needed. A National Action Plan to Combat Drought and Desertification has been prepared but external funding is needed for its implementation. The Action Plan calls inter alia for education measures and raising awareness on desertification issues. Farmers and herdsmen are encouraged to diversify economic activities and find alternative livelihoods. Herdsmen are encouraged to settle in one place, and dams are being constructed. Tree planting is generally encouraged. Health services are being improved. Quick maturing crop varieties are being developed and introduced in dryland areas to improve food availability. Transport and communication infrastructure are being improved in dryland areas.

In 1994, 42 meteorological and hydrological monitoring stations were in use. This coverage is rated adequate and has improved since 1990. Soil and land monitoring is rated poor, as there are only two monitoring stations working. The Makarere University and the Kawanda Research Station make soil analysis and samples, but there is no feedback and advise to land users yet. Grazing and improper farming are the most serious desertification factors; effects from fuel wood collection, improper land use and natural causes are rated moderate.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries and the Ministry of Local Government are responsible for addressing desertification issues. Legislation was revised in 1995.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The staffing situation is rated "below par" at the central planning level and poor at the middle and field levels. There is a general shortage of trained staff and in particular a lack of management and planning skills and lack of early warning staff. Even trained staff lack performance, due to inadequate funding.

3. Major Groups: NGOs, women organizations and youth groups participate in combatting desertification at the field level. At the national level, they have advisory status.

4. Finance: An estimated US$ 20 million of local funding and US$ 70 million of external funding are needed until the year 2000 to implement the National Plan of Action to Combat Drought and Desertification.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Several international organizations are supporting the country's efforts to combat desertification, e.g. CARE, USAID, EEC, the World Bank, IFAD and IGADD. They have participated in reviewing national strategies and they have provided additional post UNCED funding and human resources. Coordination of and cooperation between programmes could be improved.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High
STATUS REPORT: There are four important mountain areas in the country: the Rwenzori Mountains, Mount Elgon, Mount Muhavura and the Debesian-Moroto-Kadam Mountains. The most important rivers in these mountains are Semliki, Manafwa and Kagera. Land use plans or surveys are not available.

Special programmes for mountain areas have not been developed, but country-wide development and conservation programmes also cover mountain areas. There are no incentives in place for farmers to undertake conservation measures in mountain areas. Income in mountain areas is partly generated from tourism (mountaineering).

All mountain areas are either vulnerable to or currently facing serious soil erosion, but detailed information on the areas affected is not available. Flooding and landslides have "significant" impact on mountain areas.

National Parks and animal reserves cover mountain areas. Controlled hunting areas have been established.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The following are responsible for mountain development issues: the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Local Government and the Ministry of Wildlife, Tourism and Antiquities. Legislation referring to mountain development was revised in 1995.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There is a lack of all modern mountain survey and monitoring technology. Environmental monitoring (air quality, meteorology, hydrology, monitoring of forests, soils, crops and biological resources) is rated as poor.

3. Major Groups: IUCN and WWF are involved in conservation projects, in tree planting projects and in the promotion of sustainable agriculture in mountain areas.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: very high national priority
STATUS REPORT: Agricultural policy fully addresses sustainable agriculture and rural development issues, though policy is being further revised especially to include community participation in rural development.

Working groups have been formed to address food security, rural welfare, demographic trends, international trade relations, farm productivity and ecosystem risks, self reliance of farmers, farm employment opportunities, the establishment of village level resource groups, survey of land degradation, institutional capacity for plant genetic resources, in situ conservation, R&D in plant breeding, breed development strategies, plant protection and animal health services. Some programmes have been established to address the issues mentioned.

Initial meetings were held to review land tenure and land-holding size, to collect data and establish databases, to strengthen land use and resource planning, to draw up land reclamation policy and establish programmes for degraded land, to increase food production, to make integrated pest management practices available to farmers, to maintain the integrated plant nutrition approach, to address soil productivity, to initiate the use of sound energy sources and to strengthen appropriate technology transfer and development.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries is responsible for sustainable agriculture. The Dairy Act and the Veterinary Act were amended in 1989.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A working group addresses the availability of know how and technology to farmers. Support is needed for training of local communities.

3. Major Groups: Women and youth organizations, local communities and small farmers' organizations are involved in activities to address sustainable agriculture.

4. Finance: National and external funding has been secured in part. Additional funding is needed for community based projects.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The World Bank, EEC, UNDP, FAO and GTZ are active in sustainable agriculture projects. They support, inter alia, seed and plant breeding projects, plant protection services, animal breeding schemes, a milk processing project and a farming systems support project.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2) 84,000 85,100
Agricultural land as % of total land area 35.6 36.1
Agricultural land (m2 per capita) 5,368.4 4,741.2
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers (kg/Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990) 5.9 9.4
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: very high national priority
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1993.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was ratified in 1991.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Wildlife Policy has been revised. The National Forest Action Plan has been prepared and the preparation of a National Biodiversity Strategy was initiated. A study has already been completed to identify costs, benefits and unmet needs in the field of biodiversity. National parks and game reserves and sanctuaries have been gazetted and forest conservation was re-emphasized to improve in situ protection. In the field of ex situ conservation, a tree seed project has been implemented aiming at the collection, processing, storage and distribution of high quality seeds. Information is being compiled on ecosystems to enhance conservation. Awareness is being raised in local communities on the importance of biodiversity conservation.

Habitat destruction and over-harvesting have a moderate impact on biodiversity loss of flora and fauna. The inappropriate introduction of foreign plants also has moderate impact on the loss of flora.

The Uganda Wildlife Authority has been created to undertake the management of wildlife resources. A National Wetland Policy has been formulated.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The following are responsible for biodiversity issues: the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Wildlife, Tourism and Antiquities. The National Environment Bill from 1994 refers to biodiversity issues.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A survey on biodiversity issues was carried out in 1992 and updated in 1994. Uganda has no access to biotechnologies. There is a lack of trained manpower and appropriate institutions in this field.

Capacity has been developed through the GEF-funded East African Regional Project for the Protection of East African Biodiversity. A Biodiversity Data Bank has been put in place at Makerere University, Institute of Environment and Natural Resources.

3. Major Groups: Local communities participate in tree planting programmes and are consulted in decision-making processes about policy issues regarding conservation.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: An agreement was signed between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the protection of Lake Victoria.

The GEF-funded regional biodiversity project "Institutional Support for the Protection of East African Biodiversity" has been completed.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area 7.9
1990
Latest
199_
Number of threatened species 40
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Policies addressing biotechnology are in place, but they have not been reviewed since UNCED. Some traditional technologies of indigenous people are recognized in policies. TV and radio programmes address biotechnology issues.

At the national level, an interministerial committee addresses requirements for safe handling and risk management of biotechnologies. At the community level, safety issues are discussed in community meetings. Current projects are trying to make cassava resistant to the mosaic virus and getting higher yields from beans and making them resistant to local pests and diseases.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) addresses biotechnology issues. It has six research institutes:

- the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute,

- the Forestry Research Institute - Nakawa,

- the Fisheries Research Institute - Jinja,

- the Livestock Health Research Institute (LIRI) - Tororo,

- the Namulonge Agriculture and Animal Productions Research Institute and

- the Serere Agriculture and Animal Productions Research Institute.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) has 154 staff members.

3. Major Groups: Safety issues of biotechnology are discussed at the community level.

4. Finance: In 1994/95, the budget of the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) was US$ 1.56 billion.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Uganda is a member of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed in 1982 and ratified in 1990.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

A Water Action Plan was approved by the Government.

A Water Statute was enacted by the Parliament in 1996.

A Water Policy was approved by the Government.

A National Wetlands Policy has been formulated and the National Wetlands Unit has made several achievements, including:

An Inter-Ministerial Committee of 17 members is in place to oversee activities of the programme.

A National Ramsar Committee has been formed.

The multi-disciplinary wetlands unit has technical staff with skills in wetlands management, conservation,

education, environment impact assessment, GIS and fisheries.

The Lake Victoria Environment Management Project is a 5-year regional project approved by the Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, and it is funded by the World Bank and GEF. It is aimed at sustainable utilization of Lake Victoria and its catchment area for the benefit of the riparian communities as well as the global community.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See Status Report.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See Status Report.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Guidelines for the management of toxic and hazardous products are contained in the National Environment Statute No. 4 of 1995.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal has not been signed.

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Policies addressing the management of hazardous waste including prevention of illegal international trade in hazardous waste are entrenched in the National Environment Statute No. 4 of 1995.

Draft Waste and Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 1996, are in place and currently being reviewed.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There are several projects in the country which contain major sanitation or solid waste disposal components:

non-piped sanitation water - the East Uganda Rural Water and Sanitation Project which includes a total of 20,000 demonstration latrines and 500,000 household latrines;

the Gulu, Lira and Mbarara projects which include a total of 6 treatment works;

the construction of the Mpererwe landfill for solid waste disposal for Kampala City.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The National Environment Statute, 1995, provides for sound use and safe disposal of radioactive materials.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information available.

3. Major Groups: No information available.

4. Finance: No information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 30 July 1980 and ratified on 22 July 1985.

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

No information available.

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

No information available.

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.

No information available.

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The Ministry of Gender and Community Development has submitted a proposal for funding under UNIFEM's programme for African Women Act on Agenda 21.

The Ministry of Gender and Community Development was created and strengthened to look after the interests of women, youth and children. National councils responsible for each of these groups have been put in place to promote their roles and views in national development.

Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in the national process: No information available.

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

No information available.

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21:

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): In 1993, a national strategy for children has been developed and a national council for children has been created.

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

No information available.

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

No information available.

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Major Groups have participated in the design and implementation of national sustainable development projects and policies, so they contribute to the National Environment Action Plan, to Wetlands Policy, the Water Action Plan and Developing Strategies for Natural Resources and Environmental Information Collection, Analysis, Dissemination and Use. Occasionally, Major Groups participate in environmental impact assessments at the local and national levels. The decentralisation of Environment and Natural Resources Management is an innovative approach to put local authorities in the forefront of sustainable development.

Local and national major groups' contribution to sustainable development is essential; contributions of regional and international major groups are constructive and helpful.

Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

There are at least ------ local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve ----% of population

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives:

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The Government gives financial and technical support to local authorities. Local communities are actively involved in development planning, especially in forestry matters and in the management of protected areas.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

No information available.

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

No information available.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Enterprises are currently being encouraged and required to include environmental concerns in their programmes and investments, for instance, EIAs are required by law.

Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information available.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Through the Uganda Farmers Association, farmers are mobilized and exposed to the promotion of sustainable farming practices and technologies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The implementation of programmes at the national and regional levels relies on external resources. However, as the country's economy improves, Uganda will be able to take up its share of the burden.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

Since 1992, the Government received the following new and additional grant funding for sustainable development:

US$ 49.0 million from the European Union

US$ 15.4 million from the United Nations

US$ 149.9 million on a bilateral basis (UK, Sweden, Austria, Norway, Netherlands,

Japan, Germany, Canada, Denmark, US, IDRC)

Loans received:

US$ 294.5 million from the International Development Association (IDA)

US$ 88.5 million from others (ADR, BADEA, ADF, IFAD, EIR, NDF)

Debt SWAP

US$ 4.3 million from Austria

US$ 4.6 million from Germany

National budget for sustainable development:

1992 US$ 16.9 million

1993 US$ 20.1 million

1994 US$ 27.3 million

1995 US$ 25.2 million

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: Environmental taxes or other economic instruments for sustainable development have not been introduced.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: Fees and royalties for forest, hunting, fisheries and products have been reviewed

ODA policy issues

Uganda is a recipient country.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: Information is available on technology in general. There is no differentiation between sound and un-sound technology. The Government proposes to carry out and publish such differentiation for technologies.

Sources for information on environmentally sound technology are:

- the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST),

- the National Environmental Management Authority,

- the Ministry for Industry.

The Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) cooperates with science and technology councils in Kenya and Tanzania and in other developing countries through the Commonwealth Science Council.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: Uganda has not yet adequately benefited from the transfer of appropriate, affordable and environmentally friendly technology.

Capacity building is particularly needed in the following areas:

- environmental economics,

- EIA and environmental audits

- environmental planning and monitoring,

- environmental law,

- land use planning,

Most programmes that have been developed after UNCED are based on national demands, but the participation of national professionals in the implementation is marginalised in preference for external experts. This undermines local capacity-building. The conditions attached to the funding related to purchase and recruitment of personnel for projects mostly favour the country of origin.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

The establishment of councils for science and technology is a step towards creating environmentally sound technology centres focusing on appropriate technology. All technology cooperation programmes stress the appropriateness of technology. Environmental concerns are slowly becoming issues. An assessment was carried out on energy technology options covering issues of affordability, availability, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and environmental impacts.

The National Environment Management Policy states that new investments must respect environmentally friendly principles. A tax exemption has been introduced for new investments.

In 1994, the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST), the Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) and UNIDO held a training for trainers workshop for technology options, negotiation and acquisition.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology are responsible for activities under this chapter. The Uganda National Council for Science and Technology Statute No. 1 from 1990 is the relevant legislation covering this chapter and is presently being reviewed. The Makerere University and the Mbarara University of Science and Technology both are advisory members for decision-making for environment and development at the national level.

Constraints have been found in linking policy makers and researchers. Migration of scientists to other countries and from the science sector to more lucrative professions are a serious problem and arise due to low salaries, lack of research facilities and limited advancement.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

Funding for scientific research in the field of environment and development was US$ 600,000 in 1980 and is now about US$ 4 million per annum.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of Education and Sports is responsible for this chapter. It is an advisory member of the National Coordinating Body for Sustainable Development. An intersectoral body has been established to deal with environmental education, it comprises the Ministry of Education and Sport, the Inspectorate Department National Curriculum Development Centre, the Makere University, Teacher Colleges, the Uganda National Examination Board and the Wildlife Clubs of Uganda.

A White Paper on Education has been prepared.

The UN and the GEF have provided financial assistance in support of educational programmes and have contributed to capacity and institution building.

The Makere University participates in international student exchange programmes and scholarships and has access to international data bases.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

Primary school age covers the age from 6 to 12 years; secondary education covers the age from 13 to 18 years. At the primary school level, curricula have been reviewed to address environment and development issues. A review is planned for all other levels in 1996/7. Printed material for environmental education is not being used. Occasionally, audio visual tools are used, and special classes and workshops are held. Programmes are planned to address tools for environmental education. The development of teaching and learning materials and teacher training have priority to reorient education towards sustainable development.

At all educational levels the following topics are being addressed in part: environmental health, safe drinking water, sanitation, food, ecosystems, recycling, energy saving. Environmental health and food are being fully addressed in specialized departments at university level, but there is still a need to design programmes.

b) Increasing public awareness

A National Tree Planting Campaign has been initiated and the TV-programme "Our Environment" has been produced to raise awareness on environmental issues. Main constraints to awareness raising activities are insufficient evaluation of programmes, untrained staff and financial constraints.

c) Promoting training

There is no pre-service training for the formal education sector, but pre-service is done in the informal sector for particular NGO programmes. A few in-service seminars are available.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

NGOs have been involved in awareness-raising activities, e.g. in Conservation Workshops.

The following steps have been undertaken to foster opportunities of women:

- education policy stresses are child enrolment,

- university policy awards 1.5 extra admission points for female candidates,

- education policy requires gender balance in school administration hierarchy.

Legislation has been adopted to affirm the rights of indigenous peoples:

- education policy stresses community participation in educational programmes,

- the National Environment Law decentralizes environment management to community committees.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

There is a lack of financial resources to improve training for teachers.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male 70
Adult literacy rate (%) Female 44
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97) 55
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education 1.2 1.3
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade X
3. Combating poverty X
4. Changing consumption patterns X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability X
6. Human health X
7. Human settlements X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making X
9. Protection of the atmosphere X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources X
11. Combating deforestation X
12. Combating desertification and drought X
13. Sustainable mountain development X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development X
15. Conservation of biological diversity X
16. Biotechnology X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources X
18. Freshwater resources X
19. Toxic chemicals X
20. Hazardous wastes X
21. Solid wastes X
22. Radioactive wastes X
24. Women in sustainable development X
25. Children and youth X
26. Indigenous people X
27. Non-governmental organizations X
28. Local authorities X
29. Workers and trade unions X
30. Business and industry X
31. Scientific and technological community X
32. Farmers X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building X
35. Science for sustainable development X
36. Education, public awareness and training X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building X
38. International institutional arrangements X
39. International legal instruments X
40. Information for decision-making X
Additional Comments

Within the National Environment Action Plan a "National Environment Management Policy for Uganda" has been developed which addresses policy issues including information for sustainable development. The National Environment Information Centre has the mandate to provide up-to-date information on the environment for development planning. The centre has developed an environment database (e-mail address: NEIC@Mukla.gn.apc.org), and it develops District Environmental Profiles and a National State of Environment Report. A User's Needs Assessment was carried out in 1990; an inventory of available data on the environment was carried out in 1993. Data are being collected on the physical environment in general and on natural and renewable resources, in particular. Sector and project specific data are collected. Traditional sources of information are being used. Special information is needed in the areas of toxicology, health and safety and environmental standards criteria. Main external sources for information on sustainable development are the World Bank, UNEP, the World Resources Institute, UNDP and IIED and ILO (on health and safety).

The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and the National Environment Information Centre are in charge of developing indicators for sustainable development. In cooperation with the World Resources Institute a program has been drawn up to develop and use such indicators, but no work has been done until now because of lack of funds.

Telecommunication infrastructure is inadequate: there are few computers available in the country and access to international telecommunication lines is limited. The insufficient number of trained personnel and high costs of telecommunication are further constraints in this field.

The National Environment Information Centre can access remote sensing data.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1989
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants 0.2 0.1
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997