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National Implementation of Agenda 21

SLOVENIA

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Slovenia to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

SLOVENIA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning

Date: 19 November 1996

Submitted by: Mr. Emil Ferjancic, M.A.

Mailing address: Zupanciceva 6, S1-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Telephone: +386 61 1785740

Telefax: +386 61 224548

E-mail: EMIL.FERJANCIC@MOP.SIGOV.MAIL.SI

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22.
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

In Slovenia, about 2 million inhabitants live in 20,000 square kilometers, most of whom live in densely populated urban clusters. The settlement pattern characteristically consists of dispersed and small settlements, which is also the reason for the great differences in population density. The average density is 98 people per sq. km. while in different areas it varies between 9 per sq km (in the most sparsely populated municipality) and 1000 per sq km. in Ljubljana, the capital.

A little less that half of the population lives in settlements with more than 5000 inhabitants, while around a third of the population lives in 15 towns with over 10,000 inhabitants. Burdens on the environment and its quality depend on complex mutual influences within the settlement pattern, mainly on the characteristics of the settlement network.

Slovenia is facing environmental and physical planning problems typical of most countries in transition. Slovenia, however, also has certain peculiar features which deserve special attention. Slovenia has never had the high concentration of heavy industry characteristic of a number of other former socialist countries. In addition, attention should be drawn to the exceptional biodiversity of Slovenia - a result of its three different climate belts, as well as the fact that the natural areas away from the main valleys and traffic networks are still largely preserved intact.

As for its economy, Slovenia is known as a relatively successful country in transition: the high gross domestic product and economic growth rate, as well as low inflation and foreign debt place it at the very top. (Slovenia thus meets three of the convergence criteria: those relating to the levels of unemployment, foreign debt and economic growth).

FACT SHEET

SLOVENIA

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s). Not yet founded. Tasks of such a mechanism are incorporated in the Ministry for Environment and Physical Planning for now.

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning

Telephone:+ 386 61 178 5380

Fax:+386 61 224548

E-mail: MARKO. SLOKAR@MOP.SIGOV.MAIL.SI

Mailing address: SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Mr. Marko Slokar, State Secretary

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Ministry of Environment

Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Education and Science

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name): Anita Velkavrh

Date: 15 November 1995

Ministry/Office: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Nature Protection Administration of the Republic of Slovenia

Telephone: +386 61 178 4534

Fax: +386 61 178 4611

E-mail: ANITA.VELKAVRH@MOP.UVN.SIGOV.MAIL.SI

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Slovenia is currently cooperating in several multilateral activities concerning environmental protection. On the basis of Pan European Biodiversity and Landscape Strategy, adopted the Sofia Ministerial Conference Environment for Europe (October 1995), Slovenia launched an initiative to set up a group under the auspices of IUCN and the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe in Budapest, to provide a forum for CEE countries to promote work on biodiversity. On the occasion of the sixth meeting of the Task Force for the implementation of the Environmental Action Program for CEE, the initiative was supported by a number of participants. It is about to begin with coordinating work for some CEE countries.

The activities of Slovenia in domestic policies in this field are primarily based on the White Paper of the European Union. Guidelines of the National Environmental Action Plan are considered and included in the other sectoral policies. A Pilot project of the environmental management system has been prepared.

During 1996, the Environmental Performance Review of Slovenia was in preparation. It is expected to be published by the end of 1997.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

Poverty is not an issue of major concern. The relevant legislation in force is the law of social care and the law of guaranteed personal income.

The status of poverty is ascertainable on the basis of indicators. According to these indicators, less than 0.1 % of population in Slovenia lives in poverty. Such people can request social help for their living.

Slovenia has a law for a guaranteed personal income. In March 1995, 0.4% of employed people were getting smaller wages than guaranteed by law.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1992
1993
Unemployment (%)
1.6
4.7
14.4
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

A policy debate on consumption and production patterns has not been held at the national level. In terms of "material efficiency", producers and households and in terms of "energy efficiency", producers, households and the civil society are targeted by the Slovenian Government. Regarding "waste reduction, reuse and recycling", producers, local authorities, central government and households are targeted by Slovenian policies. The central government assumes primary responsibility for all policy means and measures under this programme area. Local authorities assume primary responsibility for the policy measures "improving understanding and analysis" and "monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance". The impact of "applying tools for modifying behaviour" is expected to be especially significant for local authorities. For households and the civil society as well as producers the impact of all policy measures is expected to be especially significant.

A system of protection of the consumers is established in the country.

National targets

Work on the system of eco -labeling has already been undertaken; however the majority of work in this field is still to be done.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Beside the office for consumer's protection, several advisory centers for energetical questions are established.

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
1994
GDP per capita (current US$)
3,989
8,643
6,275
7,181
Real GDP growth (%)
1.1
-4.7
-5.6
5.3
Annual energy consumption per capita (Tonnes of oil equivalent per capita)
339
424
396
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
312
389
405
401
Other data

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local

authorities
Central

Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
X
X
Energy efficiency:
Transport
X
X
Housing
X
Other
X
X
X
Waste:
Reduce
X
X
X
X
Reuse
X
X
Recycle
X
X

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local

authorities

Central

Government
House-

holds
Civil

Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
R
R
I
Research
I
R
R
Evaluating environmental claims
I
I
R
I
I
Form partnerships
R
R
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
I
R
I
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
R
I
I
Regulatory instruments
I
I
R
Economic incentives/disincentives
I
R
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

I
I
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

I
R
Procurement policy
R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
I
R
R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT:

The Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs together with the National Committee for Population Policy are required to prepare an Action Programme on Population and Development. The Slovenian Government has also been involved in supporting NGO activities related to population, environment and development. In order to create awareness of the linkages among population, environment and sustainable development, the government provides funds for NGO projects which promote environment and sustainable development issues.

Governments view on population growth

Too low

Governments view on fertility level

Too low

Governments intervention on population growth

To raise the rate

Governments view on intervention on fertility level

To raise the rate

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs is most directly concerned with demographic issues. In February 1993, the Slovenian Government established the National Committee for Population Policy in the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs. Several experts and representatives from the Ministries of: Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, Environment and Physical Planning, Science and Technology, Health, the Government Office for Women's Affairs and the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia are engaged in integrated policy coordination in the field of population, environment and development policies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: As in Slovenia 47% of the active population are women, it has become politically clear that special promoting measures are needed to strengthen their participation in decision-making. Accordingly, a bill of law has been submitted to the parliament.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
1994
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
1,998
1,991
1,989
Surface area (Km2)
20,256
20,256
Population density (people/Km2)
98
98
1990 - 1993
Annual rate of increase
-0.1
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Preparation is underway for a National Environmental Health Action Programme in the framework of WHO, Regional Office for Europe. The preparation has demanded the cooperation of both environment and health sectors. The national Environmental Action Plan will be finished by the end of 1996.

The framework for preparing NEHAP and general guidance in assessing the priorities defined the Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe (EHAPE)

Special areas of concern:

Environmental health prevention and control systems

"capacity building" related to the improvement of environmental health management in the context of development and implementation of NEHAP

Environmental health information systems

Environmental health risk assessment

Environment Health Services (including legislation and enforcement)

Professional education and training

Environmental health research

Public information

Environmental health financing (economic incentives, cost-benefit analysis)

Sharing responsibilities among different levels of authorities, e.g., development of Environmental Health Action Plans by the Local Authorities (LEHAPs).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

69,5

77,38
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
6,47
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
10,1
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
100
100
100
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
100
100
100
Other data: Access to hygienic sewage disposal: 90% of population (1991)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Slovenia has adopted new social legislation and established an inter-ministerial national council for population policy. Legislation on spatial planning is being prepared as the basis for new national and local plans. Slovenia has also prepared a National Report about Human settlements in the last 20 years and contributed to the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements - Habitat II in June 1996.

After the adoption of the Agenda 21, NGO activities had sharply increased, i.e. more than 80 only in the year 1995. These institutions are involved in solving actual environmental problems, including spatial ones. In the year 1995 under the auspices of Umanoterra, Slovenian Foundation for Sustainable Development, Agenda 21 was published for Slovenia as a result of two national and four regional Workshops. The document had been prepared to encourage public debates and civil initiatives to tackle the sustainability goals. As the feedback to sustainable settlements, Chapter 7, and Local Community, Chapter 28, policy related to Agenda 21 projects is prepared, and 51 NGO's are taking part in it, with partial financing from the Ministry of the Environment. The Ministry of the Environment also supports financially the purchase of literature, text-books, video presentations.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
59.0
63.6
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
2.2
1.8
Largest city population (in % of total population)
13.6
13.7
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Basic principles are established by the Environmental Protection Act (1993). They are considered in the policy in other sectors. The national report on the state of environment, which was adopted by the Parliament, states that national programs and planning documents show prevailing general, but politically and professionally strong enough will to incorporate the environmental aspect in the policy of certain sectors.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): The main constraints to implement international legal instruments related to sustainable development, have been a lack of staff resources, technical expertise and funding and the enormous amount of legislature that must be reformulated.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Great attention is paid in the professional education. A lot of scholarships for experts in the country and abroad is being offered. In addition to that, some foreign advisors are delegated in the Slovenian Ministry of Environment on full-time job basis.

3. Major Groups: No information available

4. Finance: Incentives for development of professional knowledge and skills (foreign languages, computers etc.) are currently available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: As a number of international agreements have called for national strategies, plans and programmes in cross-sectoral and sectoral areas, there are attempts at the national level to review and coordinate the totality of these requests, and their interrelationships with regard to sustainable development. This review is undertaken by the functional Ministries. In signing and ratifying international agreements, an administrative and legal process that considers the relationship and overlaps between such agreements, is established.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 1992

London Amendment (1990) signed in 1992

Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed in 19--

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 19--

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was signed in 199-.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: The Government promotes policies and programmes in the fields of "energy efficiency" and "environmentally sound and efficient transportation". The issues of "industrial pollution control", "sound land-use practices", "sound management of marine resources" and "management of toxic and other hazardous waste" are under consideration. Studies on air pollution have been undertaken by the Scientific Community. The Government does not actively participate in strengthening the Global Observing System at the national level, and methodologies to identify threshold levels of atmospheric green house gas concentration have not been developed. In the area of environment and transport, there are selective limited ad hoc observations but continuous measurements of SO2 and NOx particles in thermal power plants, some ad hoc measurements in industry and yearly check-ups of vehicles. In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control, the Government has facilitated the exchange of data and information at national and international levels. Use of and safe technologies in energy production, research and development relating to appropriate methodologies in energy production, rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, development of new and renewable energy systems and awareness raising in the area of energy and fuel efficiency have very high priority. Use of and safe technologies in the area of transportation have high priority. Research and development relating to appropriate methodologies in industry, EIA within the energy production sector, EIA within industry as a whole and environmental audits have medium priority. Research and development relating to appropriate methodologies in transport have low priority. The Government has also reviewed current energy supply mixes regarding energy balances but there are no energy or emission-related taxes in Slovenia. In order to have a less polluting and safer transport system, transportation technologies, impacts on the environment and safety have been addressed comprehensively; relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems and the establishment of mass transit systems have been addressed in part. Since 1992, 50 regulations have been adopted by the Ministry of Transport. In comparison with other countries in the region, Slovenia rates its current transportation system "superior" in terms of transportation technologies, "equal" in terms of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, the establishment of mass transit systems and environmental quality. In terms of safety, the government rates its transportation system "inferior". Slovenia is neither involved in the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and land-use practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations nor it supports the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. In setting up one observation station for tropospheric 03 in 1995, the Government participates in the Global Ozone Observation System. In order to phase-out CFCs and other ozone depleting substances, Slovenia ratified the Vienna Convention, adopted the Montreal Protocol and the London, Copenhagen and Vienna Amendments. The Government has not established early warning systems and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution resulting from industrial accidents and natural disasters.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning is primarily responsible for the protection of the atmosphere but there is no National Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development. National legislation to protect the atmosphere has been reviewed and revised in part.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: At the national level, the national early detection system, national capacity to predict changes and fluctuations and capacity building and training to perform systematic observations and assessments are rated "poor". In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control, the Government has provided training opportunities. The Slovenian Government encourages industry to develop safe technologies by granting loans (ECO Found). Two projects are under consideration:

1) reduction of air pollution for whole Slovenia (PHARE Subvention 400,000 ECU and Credit of the World Bank US$23,8 million)

2) for the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances from technologies (US$6,2 million not refundable means of GEF).

On transboundary atmospheric pollution, the Government rates the country's capacity for observation and assessment and for information exchange "good" and for research "poor".

3. Major Groups: Scientific Communities carried out studies on air pollution. NGOs have also participated in efforts to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making and promoting sustainable development.

4. Finance: In 1996, Slovenia has received support of US$ 6,2 million through multilateral channels.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Slovenian Government has not taken any initiatives within the framework of the United Nations to convene regional conferences on transport and the environment. Slovenia has agreed to the CLRTAP (not explained in the text) on 6 July 1992. The United Nations bodies and intergovernmental organizations have participated in efforts to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making, preventing stratospheric ozone depletion and transboundary atmospheric pollution.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest

1995

CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
12.93
13.06
13.04
SOx "
0.25
0.21
0.15
NOx "
0.05
0.05
0.05
CH4 "
-
0.124
-
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Million tons)
-
-
0.015*
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
NA
NA
NA
Other data: The main sources for above-mentioned emissions are:

a) public power, cogeneration and district heating

b) public power, cogeneration and district heating

c) road transport

d) extraction of fossil fuels

* data available for 1993

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There is a National Policy of Spatial Development, which considers Agenda 21 and other international documents dealing with spatial planning and sustainable development. The Policy of Spatial Development sets the basis for planning and organizational aspects of dealing with the natural resources.

On the national level, a spatial plan is one of the most important mechanisms for nature resource management and for setting priorities - guidelines for plans in various other sectors. The basic guidelines of the national spatial plan are the obligatory starting point of the spatial plans.

Planning and management of natural resources is based on legislation on spatial planning and building, which is currently being adapted to modern principles.

Particular sectors form their own policies and programs. They are based on sectoral legislation which manages natural resources. Some of them were adopted in recent years (Forests Act) or are in the process of preparation (Farming Land Act, Water Act, Mining Act, etc.)

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The national strategy for the protection of forests is a part of the national strategy of sustainable forest management that was adopted by the National Assembly in 1996 under the title, The Forest Development Program of Slovenia (Program). The Program acknowledges the Helsinki Resolutions that were signed on the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe in 1993 as one of the most important international commitments and identifies the sustainable forest management with regard to biological diversity and all ecological, social and production functions as the primary goal. The guidelines of the Program have to be incorporated into forest management plans that have to be made for all forests, irrespective of ownership (70% of forests are owned privately).

The Program ensures sustainable management and protection of Slovenia's forests in the following way: Although forest area has been increasing incessantly and has reached 54% of the surface area of the country, it is only possible to clear forest on the basis of a permit issued by forestry authorities. Decisions concerning forest area and forest land are based on land-use plans that are for forested landscape made by the Slovenian Forest Service (SFS) and adopted in a procedure where all parties interested can express their opinion.

The current volume of the growing stock of 208 cubic meters per hectare is not low in comparison to many other European countries; however, it is the long-term goal of the Program that it should reach at least 300 cubic meters. At the same time the proportion of large-diameter trees should increase as well. Accumulation of the growing stock will improve the general protection functions of forests and their resilience to disturbances. Together with the restrictions of litter gathering, it will have an impact on carbon storage as well.

Disturbances that diminish forest ecosystem health and vitality are a serious problem. Twenty to thirty percent of the timber removals in Slovenia is caused by effects of air pollutants or by biotic and abiotic agents. Besides the investments in desulphurisation plants, the main strategy to stabilize forests is to enhance their resilience making them structurally more diverse. The main task of forest management in this sense is to mimic natural structures and species composition.

Since all forests in Slovenia are managed according to management plans and guidelines, the appropriate balance between growth and removals is ensured. For the decade 1991-2000 it is envisaged that only 57 % of growth will be cut. In order to improve the quality of forests, silvicultural activities are subsidized by the state after prior planning of the SFS. Among the non-wood forest products mushrooms and game are most important. A decree that limits mushroom picking was adopted recently, while hunting is also strictly controlled.

To ensure the overall biological diversity in forests it is most important that close-to-nature forestry is promoted. It is based on natural regeneration and moderate, small scale interventions. A network of strictly protected forest reserves, many of them remaining untouched for more than one-hundred years, was established. In accordance with the new methodology of evaluation of forest functions, the existing protection forests will be reconsidered, and then a law on protection forests will be issued.

In addition to the protection of threatened species, so-called eco-cells are being established. These are small and unique habitats, preserved and managed for enhancement of biological diversity.

Clearly, the endeavor towards the protection of forests is not only oriented towards forests but also towards people. In this sense the SFS provides information on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems for schoolchildren, public organizations and other groups of the general public. Besides mass media, forest nature trails are used to inform public about forests and forest management principles.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1985
1990
199-
Forest Area (Km2)
1,045,367
10,711,510
10,942,010
Protected forest area
56,550
104,210
Production of Raw Wood

Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)

2.58
1,79
1.94
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
53,406
2,435
2,255
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
29,488
21,200
9,921
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

Convention

No information

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: Desertification and drought are presently not issues of major concern for Slovenia. However, the process of this problem and the activity of the international community is being followed by the authorities and the professional public of Slovenia.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: ALPINE CONVENTION
STATUS REPORT: In november 1991, the countries sharing the Alps (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Switzerland, Slovenia) as well as the European Community signed the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention), an intergovernmental agreement by force of which the above countries engaged themselves to set up common policies for the protection and the durable development of the Alpine massif. From 1995 till 1997 Slovenia is the Chairing State.

The main working areas are:

population and culture

physical planning

preservation of fresh air

soil conservation

water management

nature conservation and landscape planning

mountain farming

mountain forest

tourism and free-time activities

traffic

energy

waste management

The signed protocols:

Physical Planning and Sustainable Development

Nature Protection and the Conservation of Landscape

Mountain Farming

Mountain Forest

are dealing also with sustainable mountain development.

Sustainable mountain development as an activity shall take part in preparing measures for the realization of protocols dealing with mountain farming and mountain forest. It refers also to the other fields of the Alpine Convention like soil, air and Water.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Parliament is responsible for decision-making in national frames. Among the parties to the Alpine Convention, the Ministerial "Alpine" Conference is the main decision-making structure.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Up to 3 persons within the Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning deal permanently with work on the Alpine Convention. The employees from other Ministries cooperate on specific working subjects/sectors.

3. Major Groups:

Permanent Committee

Working Groups on Protocols

Alpine Observation and Information System (SOIA)

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation takes place within the parties/signatories of the Convention as well as several participating observers (NGOs, transnational associations of regions etc.)

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There are serious environmental impacts associated with agricultural activities. A problem of particular concern is excessive enrichment of surface water, ground water and soils by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Pesticides also represent a problem in the areas with intensive agricultural land use because of their leaching into the ground water.

The quality of ground water is deteriorating, mostly because of increased pesticide and nitrate concentration which come from intensive agricultural activity. Intensive livestock farming in small areas, high concentrations of cattle and pigs and lack of storage of animal manure contribute to contamination of soils and ground water. The new legislation is under construction at the moment in order to regulate the input of fertilizers (both mineral and organic: manure or slurry) in soil particularly in areas with shallow ground water. The decree is trying to narrow the imbalance between fertilizers input and crop uptake with the following measures: limit input values for nutrients (fertilizers) regarding crop uptake, application of fertilizers at the proper time (in the growing season), sowing winter crops to minimize leaching losses, etc. The decree will also control the use of sewage sludge in agriculture and set limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in sludge.

Regarding pesticides, at the moment Slovenia is preparing the positive list of pesticides which can be used on the areas with ground water that is also used for water supply. The maximum and critical allowed values in soil will also be revised and set up in the new act of soil protection. This is particularly important for those soils, used to produce foodstuffs. Concentrations of seven classes of pollutants will be determined: heavy metals, inorganic pollutants, aromatic compounds, polycyclic hydrocarbons, chlorinated organic, pesticides and others (mineral oils). Values below the maximum allowed represents the uncontaminated soils, and values over critical concentrations means that a clean-up is necessary. Values between maximum allowed and critical value indicates that further investigation is required.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1994
Agricultural land (Km2)
8,706,64
8664,05
7,906,72
Agricultural land as % of total land area
0.42
0.42
0.39
Agricultural land per capita
0.42
0.42
0.39
1990/91
1992/93
1994/95
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
1.24
1.38
2.72
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity

Parties are to develop national strategies, plans and programmes for sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity and integrate them into general development plans.

Parties shall identify, monitor and maintain data on components of biodiversity.

Parties shall introduce appropriate procedures requiring EIAs for projects likely to have significant adverse effects on biological diversity.

Parties shall submit reports on measures which it has taken for the implementation of the Convention, at intervals to be determined.

Convention

Signed in 1992; and ratified in 1996

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Parties to take appropriate measures to enforce regulatory provisions and prohibit trade in specimens in violation thereof. Convention also governs treatment of animals in shipment.

Each party to prepare periodic reports on its implementation of the convention and to prepare: (a) an annual report listing export permits issued and species involved, and (b) a biennial report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken.

Convention signed in 19--.

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1996
Protected area as % of total land area
7
8
1990
1996
Number of threatened species:

of FLORA

OF FAUNA

543

800
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: At the moment, legislation concerning biotechnology is in the phase of preparation. The first draft of the law of genetic technology regulate the legal and ethical use the recombinant DNA technology in the Slovenian area. The law will cover the health care, agro- and food technology, environment and all the technology which is used in scientific purposes. The law will also provide measures in the case of ecological accidents, trading, manipulating, performing of fields experiments and using genetically modified organisms.

The law will regulate the use of genetically modified organisms in a liberal way, not to obstruct development in this area. At the same time, the law will prevent the performance of experiments (genetic diagnostic, genetic manipulation with various materials, both plants, animals), because of potential danger for humans and the environment. The draft law is prepared in accordance with Directives and Standards set by the EU and the OECD.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Ratified in 1995

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

Slovenia is planning a national policy on oceans which will be integrated into the National Sustainable Development Plan. A programme for integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas is being planned. Existing coastal zone or area management plans do not encompass all marine activities within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to 220 naut. miles. All activities under this programme area are rated "very important" or "important" but are poorly or not covered. Only preparation and implementation of land, water and siting policies, conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats, human resources development, training and development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria are well covered and gaps are being addressed. The preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management is in process. Regarding marine environmental protection, the National Report mentions that the Barcelona and Marpol Conventions have been difficult to implement. Required by the Environment Protection Act of the Republic of Slovenia, prior assessment of major activities with potentially significant adverse impact is a mandatory requirement for any proposed new development. In order to strengthen marine environmental protection, charges for water pollution have been introduced. All activities under the programme area "marine environmental protection" are rated "important" but are mostly poorly covered. The programme areas of guaranteed prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment and improvement of living standards of coastal population are well covered and gaps are being addressed. The National Report also mentions that the preparation of operative regional and national plans for coastal and marine areas is required, in order to solve future problems. To identify major types of pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, the Slovenian Government has appointed inspectors for the environment dealing with chemical and biological analysis of water. But, nevertheless, there are constraints regarding the access to technology that serve to identify major types of pollution. The National Report mentions unfinished (under construction) sewage treatment facilities due to a lack of funds, efforts in the preparation of missing programmes and getting funds and the settlement of a sewage treatment system in old municipals (Koper, Izola, Piran). Slovenia receives external funding for the regional coastal water supply (Rizana Waterworks). All sewage related issues are rated "important" but have been poorly covered. Government promotes the primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, government's support of the establishment and the improvement of regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge, and the promoted assessment and cooperation at regional levels are well covered and gaps are being addressed. Under programme area addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and climate change activities are rated "very important" and "important", are well covered and gaps are being addressed. The programme areas of coordinating national and regional observation programmes and providing improved forecasts of marine conditions are poorly covered. The Slovenian Government participates in and develops socio-economic and environmental indicators, systematic observation systems and mussel watch programmes. For integrated coastal management purposes, the GIS - Municipality of Koper is administrating planned land use, protected areas and infrastructure. These existing databases are rated "poor", they are not updated regularly but they are covering the areas of resources, cultural and socio economic characteristics, activities, uses, habitats, protected areas and sea grass beds in coastal zones. Marine degradation caused by land- and sea-based activities, estuaries, wetlands including mangroves and spawning and nursery areas are not covered. Due to a lack of finance, only limited but regular assessments are made of the state of the environment of coastal and marine areas. The National Report also mentions that Slovenia is able to measure improvements and changes in the coastal and marine environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning has primary responsibility for ensuring integrated planning and implementation but there is no national structure or body responsible for Sustainable Development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: For the operative activities, a Project Implementation Unit in the Slovenian coastal area was established. We participate actively in various international workshops and training, especially within the framework of the Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea. Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) is under implementation.

3. Major Groups: Major Groups are ad hoc participants in national processes at national and local levels, in the private sector and with small-scale artisanal fishermen.

4. Finance: The World Bank Group is financing Primoska Regional Water Supply with 30% participation

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The transboundary effects (pollution) of the river "Po" for the North Adriatic Sea requires cooperation between Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. To handle transboundary effects of North Adriatic Ports and Navigation Lines, dealing with the regular takeover of waste from ships in the port of Koper and the regular control of the Slovenian coast by an ecological boat require international cooperation. The Code of Conduct of Responsible Fishing will be incorporated to the ICZM Programme of Slovenian coastal region. A sea fishing law is in preparation. Slovenia also participates in the UNEP Regional Seas Programme - MEDPOL, the Fourth Framework Programme of the European Union - "Environment" and in the Alps Adria Programme - The Observation of the Northern Adriatic. The Slovenian National Report also mentions that there are policies to promote and support the integration of projects planned and implemented with UN system organizations. But the Slovenian Government does not participate in the Global Ocean Observing System.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
4,102
6,024
2,052

(1993)
Population in coastal areas
69,591

(1981)
75,929

(1991)
-
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

-
20%
30%
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (number of accidents)
8
18
8
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
172

(1983-88)
143

(1989-94)
-
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
1094

(1983-88)
843

(1989-94)
-
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
xx
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
0
***
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
x
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
x
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
x
***
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
0
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
xx
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
x
**
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
x
**
K. Human resource development and training.
xx
***
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
x
***
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
x
***
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
xx

TABLE II. TECNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
x
**
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that mey have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
xx
**
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
x
**
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
x
**
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contibute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
xx
**
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
x

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
x
**
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
x
**
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
x
**
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
xx
**
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
xx

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory an dmonitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
x
**
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.n
x
**
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
xx
**
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
x
**
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
x
**
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as euthrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
x
**
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
x
**
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
x
**
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
x
**
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.
x

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF

IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF

IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
x
***
B. Providing improved forescasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
x
***
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
xx
***
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
xx
***
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes os systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
xx
**
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
xx
**
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
xx

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)

AIR TRANSPORT

RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights) 1. Frequency (external shipping)
2. Frequency (in-country flights) 2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation 3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
4. Cooperation at international level 4. Cooperation at international level
5. Economic viability of national air line 5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
6. Economic viability of regional air line 6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
7. national level training in skills for air transport sector 7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region 8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
9. Access to international training for air transport sector 9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
10. Supportive of ICAO

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Use of the natural drinking water reserves
STATUS REPORT: According to the Environmental Protection Act, all waters in all forms of natural phenomena are the property of the State and generally protected as natural resources. The protection is not restricted to certain water bodies or water for special use.

Water Reserves in areas where drinking water, thermal, mineral and medicinal water are shipped are protected by Water Law. Local Authorities define protected areas and measures. New Water Law will define the respective responsibilities of Local Authorities and the State with respect to waters.

The Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning controls water resources registers and ground water balances. In an analysis made in 1994, it was determined that, of 890 treated water resources, 417 are not protected by decree. But most of the unprotected water resources already have technical ground for protection with decree.

In the programme of Nature Protection Authority for the year 1996, it is expected that there will be acceptance of a uniform methodology for protection of ground water, acceptance of new decrees of ground water protection zones and measures for ground water protection and, if necessary, renewal of accepted decrees. On the basis of the Environmental Protection Act, Slovenia will ensure more serious performance of accepted decrees. In the framework of performing this task, the country will consider the EU directions concerning that domain.

For acceptance of the new decrees, renewing or complementing already accepted decrees of protection of ground water, Slovenia will first have to accept the code of the government, concerning what is to be protected, why it is protected, how much is protected (for the purpose of drinking water or for the technological use of water, etc.). It will be necessary to define the number of protection zones inside of protected areas and the conditions of approval of different activities inside of protected area. On the ground of the accepted code of the determination of protection areas, the country will elaborate methodologies for determination of protection zones of the ground intergranular aquifers, fractured and karstic aquifers for unwarm and low mineralized waters, thermal waters, mineral waters and thermomineral waters.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

- Nature Protection Administration of Republic of Slovenia

_ Local Communities

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

- Collaboration between hydrogeologists, civil engineers, biologists, chemists and sanitary experts

- New methodologies and regulations are being prepared

3. Major Groups: Local Community water managements

4. Finance: Communal and governmental cofinancing

5. Regional/International Cooperation: There are connected local water pipe lines between communities in regional systems, as well as connected water pipe lines between Slovenia and Italy and Slovenia and Croatia Drinking water is sold to the neighbouring community or state, there is no regional or international cooperation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
428
457
440
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
6.7
-3.7
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There is an official register of chemicals which are on market. In the form of an interactive computerized data bank, which is constantly up-dated, there is an inventory of the imported potentially toxic chemicals and a register of pesticides on the domestic market (produced, imported and in use). Registration of household products, which contain potentially toxic substances began last year, and a register will be established on a step-by-step basis (first step - household insecticides).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Primarily role is played by the Ministry of the Environment, customs office and the police.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Parties shall cooperate to disseminate information on transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Parties shall cooperate to promote environmentally sound low-waste technologies, to transfer technology and cooperate in developing codes of practice. Parties to assist developing countries.

Parties shall immediately inform affected parties as to accidents. Prior to the end of each calendar year, parties shall provide the following information on the preceding calendar year: (a) the authorities handling Convention matters; (b) information regarding the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes; (c) measures adopted to implement convention; (d) available statistics on human health and environmental effects of generation, transport and disposal of hazardous wastes; (e) information on agreements entered into; (f) information on accidents; (g) information on disposal options; and (h) information on development of waste-reduction technologies;

Basel Convention

Ratified in 1992

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: There is an obligatory survey and control of industrial waste.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-building takes place through regular and active participation in the workshops of the Basel convention (on transboundary movement of hazardous waste) and the problems of waste within some other conventions.

3. Major Groups: Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Economic Activities, Chamber of Commerce, industry, NGOs

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Major cooperation in this field is established with the neighboring countries; however several other links exist, as well.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1993
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
36,380 m3

25,169t
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
6,000t
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Hazardous and special waste
820,230m3

445,350t
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In July, 1996, the Government adopted a waste management strategy which is based on the Strategic plan for Slovenia in the Area of Waste Management, the Fifth Action Program of the EU for the Environment and The European Community. It is under implementation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Preparation of strategy papers for the country level is in process in the MoE. Municipalities are preparing their own documents in this field, especially local environmental action programs.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Several experts participate in the international educational programs, and some are recipients of scholarships from abroad.

3. Major Groups: A major role is played by state and local administrations, the Chamber of Commerce (CoC has established a special working group for waste management), enterprizes and environmental non-governmental organizations.

4. Finance: The polluter pays principle is broadly applied within the country. However, the prices in this field are relativelly non-adjusted. Final adjustment is foresen in the period of 5 - 10 years.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Exchange of information is regular praxis with several countries. Due to specific needs, occasionally there are an exchange of experts and other forms of cooperation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
848,000
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Special waste
783,840m3

420,181t
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: NUCLEAR FACILITIES AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE SITES IN SLOVENIA

NPP Krsko: two-loop pressurized water reactor; installed power: 632 Mwe; start-up: 1981; supplier: Westinghouse El., USA; spent fuel storage capacity: 828 fuel assemblies; status: 442 fuel assemblies stored (as of 31 December 1995); w- and intermediate- level waste storage capacity: 2240 m3; status: 1900 m3 occupied (as of 24. May 1996).

Reactor Center of the Institute Jo`ef Stefan, Ljubljana: wimming pool research reactor TRIGA Mark II; thermal power (steady): 250 kW; thermal power (pulse): 1800 MW; start-up: 1966; supplier: General Atomics, USA; spent fuel storage for TRIGA fuel capacity: 1000 fuel assemblies; status: 193 fuel assemblies stored (as of 31 December 1995); interim storage of low- and intermediate- level waste from medicine, industry and research organizations; capacity: 800 m3; status: 31 m3 occupied (as of 31 December 1995).

@irovski Vrh Mine, Gorenja vas: (Uranium mine in decommissioning); in operation:1985-1990; lifetime production: 607,700 tons of ore, 452.5 tons (Uranium equivalent) of yellow cake; surface storage of 1,548,000 tons of mine waste, ore waste, and red mud; surface storage of 593,000 tons of mill tailings.

Zavratec by Idrija: temporary low- and intermediate- level non-licensed waste storage, containing 14 m3 of materials contaminated with 10 mCi of Radium-226. Planed to be relocated to interim storage next year.

The radioactive waste generated in nuclear installations and other facilities in Slovenia are stored at the sites. The only exception are the interim storage of low and intermediate- level waste from medicine, industry and research organizations and the Zavratec by Idrija which is being relocated to the interim storage at the Institute Jozef Stefan.

Two significant documents on high level radioactive management have been approved by the government in 1996: The Strategy on Spent fuel Management and the Decommissioning plan of the NPP Krsko.

The decision on long term spent fuel management is deferred. The decision whether to reprocess the spent fuel or to dispose it in a final repository has been postponed for several decades. In the mean time, problems related to spent fuel management will be solved by the use or eventual expansion of existing storage capacities and provision of additional capacities for intermediate storage. Problems will be solved for the NPP Krsko and RR TRIGA Mark II separately.

NPP Krsko: The final decision on the strategy on permanent nuclear spent fuel disposal and selection of site will be accepted in Slovenia by the year 2020. The options are the construction of repositories in Slovenia and/or Croatia. The disposal of the nuclear waste in third countries will also be considered. It is planed to find the final solution of this problem by the year 2050.

Research reactor TRIGA Mark II: In the Research Reactor Center there are two pools for the spent fuel. The capacities are sufficient to accommodate all spent fuel through the life span of the RR. The negotiations on return of the spent fuel back into country of origin are nearly finished. Therefore, it may be expected that part of the spent fuel will be re-exported into USA in 1997.

Both documents: the Strategy on Spent fuel Management and the Decommissioning plan of the NPP Krsko will be revised every 3-5 years.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The strategies in the field of nuclear waste management are approved by the government. According to national legislation, the safe management of radioactive wastes is the responsibility of the operators of the nuclear installations. The operators are controlled by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Some specific matters in this field are also the responsibility of the Ministry of Health (Health Inspectorate), Ministry of Defense (Administration for the Civil Defense and Rescue) and Ministry of Interior. For the post operational spent fuel management the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management was established by the government. This Agency is primarily responsible for the safe handling and management of the radioactive wastes after they are discharged from nuclear and other facilities.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The financing of radioactive waste management in nuclear and other facilities is included in the costs of operation. After the cessation of operation or when the radioactive wastes are discharged from nuclear and other facilities the safe radioactive waste management is financed by the government. The only exception is the future decommissioning of the NPP Krsko where the needed funds are collected through special additional costs, assessed to be 0.61 SIT per kWh, and added to the tariffs for the electricity generated in the NPP Krsko.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Slovenia initiated from the Former Yugoslavia international agreements with Italy, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary and Poland; all agreement cover co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. After its independence, Slovenia concluded additional agreements in the field of nuclear related matters with Hungary, Canada, Austria and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the USA

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

Signed in December 1979

Ratified in July 1992

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women:

in government % 6,7% (1 of 15) (1992);

in parliament % 14,4% (1992); 7,8% (1996)

at local government level % 10,84% (1996)

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

No action yet

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

Will be in place by 2000

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women:

Mechanisms are being developed

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): At the moment we are preparing the national programme for achieving equal rights between men and women. 12 groups of experts covering different areas were established; one of them deals with the relation between women and the environment.

Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important): No information

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in No information

the national process:

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

Youth unemployment 1992: No information 1996: No information

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21: No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

No information

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review A21 implementation.

NGOs inputs are adhoc.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Major Groups of Slovenia (UMANOTERA - the Slovenian Foundation for Sustainable Development, SEG - Slovenian Ecological Movement, Association of Engineers and Technicians for Forestry, Technical Faculty of Maribor, Open Circle - Odprti Krog, D.R.E.V.O) are not members of the National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism. Major Groups organizations participate in national and local environmental impact assessment projects but individuals are also legal entities to participate. The Slovenian Government has included representatives from Major Groups in the National Delegation to the CSD. To support the role and contribution of Major Groups to national sustainable development efforts, Slovenia provides financial and technical assistance for the following groups:

1. UMANOTERA (NGO) 700,000 SIT - project support

2. Tehniska fakulteta Maribor (NGO) 500,000 SIT - project support

3. D.R.E.V.O. (NGO) 450,000 SIT - project support

4. SEG (NGO) 300,000 SIT - project support

The overall contribution of local major groups, regional major groups and international NGOs and major groups to national sustainable development initiatives and activities is rated "quite helpful" whereas national major groups have not participated.

Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

There are at least ------ local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve ----% of population

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives: No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The overall contribution of local major groups is rated as "quite helpful".

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

No information

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area: No information

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

No information

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No accurate financial estimates are yet available for the cost of NEAP implementation. It has been estimated that arround 1.5% of GDP per annum is required, of which approximately two-thirds should come from public resources. This will necessitate a substantial increase of the current 0.45-0.48% of GDP spent on the environment in the early 1990's. As an indication of the cost of individual components, the waste management strategy is estimated to cost 20 M ECU in the first 2 years of implementation for feasibility studies, preparation of legislation and project development alone.

At the time being, two kinds of economic instruments exist, both in the field of water resource management:

a tax for water straining and a charge on use of water. Both decrees were issued on the basis of Environmental Protection Act.

Long-term reservations, which can be assured in the process of restructuring the economy, are an especially important instrument.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: For the near future, Slovenia plans to introduce modern mechanisms for financing environmental protection - primarily economic instruments, all in complete accordance with EU guidelines. Activities in this field are conducted daily.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information

ODA policy issues

Donor country: No information

Recipient: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: Slovenia has developed a network for an environmental information system. To support environmentally sound technology transfer, capacity building and institutional development, MoE and the Environmental Protection Development Fund are granting loans.

In the framework of the process Environment for Europe, activities for establishing a Clean Environmental Center have begun. The last also supports restructuring of the economy towards its environmentally sound orientation, including the interrelationship between long-term reservations and burdens to the environment.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: An investment cofinancing scheme is being developed with the EcoFund with the objective of developing it as the primary source of investment funding for the implementation of the NEAP and the accession process. Phare cofinancing will focus on the industrial/corporate sector and will therefore allow the Eco Fund to increase its exposure in this sector for the financing of projects identified as NEAP priorities.

An initial 5 MECU are foreseen for investment support with a first tranche of 2.5 MECU released in 1997, and the second tranche released in 1998 upon successful implementation in 1997.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: Due to the fact that Slovenia is a small country with a relatively small administration, the coopertaion of the scientific sector is permanently requested. Previous research and recommendations of scientists provide a professional basis for several governmental measures aimed at sustainable development.

In this correlation, cooperation and interdependence of diverse sectors is especially important and necessary for an integral approach to the solution of particular problems.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: Experts from the scientific sector are regularly involved in activities for the preparation and implementation of the NEAP and several operative projects in this regard.

Scientists are included in specialist research within international cooperation, and some scholarships are being delivered.

New study programs (graduate and post graduate), relevant primarily to sustainable development, have already been established.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1995
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development
10,404

7,031
10,359

6,143
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No Information
STATUS REPORT:

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

The Ministry of Education, has developed a national strategy on education. It has also established a non formal consultative body composed of professors of chemistry, biology, physics and geography. There is a single national curriculum determined at the state level; at college and university level, curricula have been reviewed and revised to address environment and development as a cross cutting issue, revisions of curricula at primary and secondary school levels and in vocational schools are being undertaken. At primary school and university level, printed material is often used, at secondary school level and in vocational schools it is used occasionally. Audio visual tools and special classes, workshops and seminars are occasionally used at primary and secondary school and university levels and in vocational schools. Development of new curricula, teacher training and public awareness campaigns are priority areas of action for reorienting education towards sustainable development. Schools and universities are not part of a national, regional or international network addressing environment and development issues. At all school levels and at university level the topics of "environmental health", "safe drinking water", "sanitation", "food", "ecosystems", "recycling" and "energy saving" are fully covered or dealt with in part.

b) Increasing public awareness: The Ministry of Education encourages partnerships, mobilizes resources and assesses the needs of different population groups. United Nations agencies and organizations have supported educational programmes on environment and sustainable development by providing publications and initiating multilateral pilot projects and international conferences.

c) Promoting training: Professors of the consultative body provide teaching subjects with environmental dimensions. The Ministry of Education prepares a National Education Strategy and provides relevant information. Steps have been taken to foster opportunities for women in non-traditional fields and eliminate gender stereotyping in curricula. Regarding the establishment of training facilities for teachers, administrators, educational planners and non-formal educators in all sectors concerning the nature and methods of environmental and development education, no pre-service and in-service training programmes are available. Educational reform, also concerning teaching programmes, is ongoing.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: To raise public awareness, a campaign to call an anti-nuclear power plant referendum and an anti-smoking campaign are initiated by NGOs.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information available

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Adult literacy rate (%)
97
98
99
Population reaching grade 5 of primary education (%)
100
100
100
Mean number of years of schooling
8.9
8.3
8.6
% of GNP spent on education
*
3.6
5.69
Females per 100 males in secondary school
50
50
50
Women per 100 men in the labour force
*
47
45.5
ENROLEMENT OF STUDENTS:
1990
1995
First or Primary school level

Male

Female

51.6

48.4
Secondary school level

Male

Female

50*

50*
Vocation schools

Male

Female

45.2

54.8

50*

50*
College/University

Male

Female

45.0

55.0
Other data: * no data available

First/Primary school covers ages 6.5 to 15. Secondary school covers ages 15 to 19.

* estimation

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: For implementation of the National Environmental Action Program, several workshops and seminars are undertaken. Special emphasis is given to strengthening and capacity building on the local level and to the bilateral and multilateral exchange of experts with other countries.

NGOs in Slovenia are active in various fields and levels of environmental protection. They often act as a catalyst to the governmental decisions and actions

An additional aspect to this question is contributed by the university and schools, which also provide a different type of education in this field.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: After Slovenia gained independence and recognition in 1991, numerous inter-governmental connections had to be established which had until then been the exclusive remit of the Yugoslav federal authorities. Not only was it necessary to ensure Slovenia's participation in existing forms of cooperation, but also the independence of Slovenia was simultaneous with the launching of the Environment for Europe campaign, which after 1991 significantly accelerated international cooperation and increased the scope of various links in the field of environmental protection in Europe.

When Slovenia was admitted to membership of the UN, it also became a member of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and joined the activities of the European Economic Commission. After joining the Council of Europe, possibilities for participating in its activities also opened up. After independence, participation in the Central European Initiative and Alps-Adriatic Working Community resumed comparatively quickly, while a number of important projects for the protection of certain regions are already underway (for example, for the Mediterranean, for the Danube basin; contacts with working communities and various governmental and non-governmental organisations involved in environmental protection).

Slovenia participates in the Environment for Europe campaign. Its delegation, consisting of the representatives of the government, the Chamber of Commerce and non-governmental organisations, participated in the Environment for Europe ministerial conferences in April 1993 in Lucerne and in October 1995 in Sofia. From the very beginning Slovenia participated in the preparation of the joint European Report on the Environment, presented at the Sofia conference. The country is currently preparing the Environmental Performance Review.

With the 1991 Declaration of Independence, Slovenia took over its duties according to all international agreements concluded by the former Yugoslavia, which, however, demanded a special, separate procedure for each individual obligation. Special attention had to be paid to the fact that former Yugoslavia as the contracting party to many international agreements in the field of environmental protection did not always fulfil its obligations in accordance with the provisions of the agreements. On the other hand, Yugoslavia was never a contracting party to certain international agreements which were important to Slovenia - for example, the Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movement of Special Waste Materials and their Disposal, and the London Amendment on Ozone Depleting Substances. Apart from their environmental dimension, these agreements also have a significant economic importance; therefore the accession to these agreements was a priority task.

Another important international agreement concluded in the post-independence period is the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (the so-called Alpine Convention), which established a unified approach of member countries to the protection and development of the Alpine region. In 1994, Slovenia took over the chair of the organisation and assumed a part of the responsibilities for the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine region, a region unique in Europe and the world.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

See also chapter 38.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
19.8
25.9
Other data

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Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997