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National Implementation of Agenda 21

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Russian Federation to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: State Environmental Protection Committee of the Russian Federation together with the other ministries and offices concerned (see list in appendix 1)

Date: December 1996

Submitted by: V. I. Danilov-Danilyan, Chairman of the State Environmental Protection Committee of the Russian Federation.

Mailing address: 123812 Moscow, GSP, ul. B. Gruzinskaya 4/6

Telephone: (095) 252 25 03

Telefax: (095) 254 82 83

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: The original of this Country Profile was provided in the Russian language. This text is an official English translation. An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

APPENDIX 1


List of ministries and offices of the Russian

Federation which provided material

for the country profile



1. Ministry of the Economy (ch. 4)

2. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (chs. 2, 38)

3. State Science and Technology Committee (chs. 16, 34, 35)

4. State Environmental Protection Committee (chs. 8, 12, 13, 15, 20-22)

5. Ministry of Natural Resources (ch. 18)

6. Ministry of Finance (ch. 33)

7. Ministry of Labour and Social Development (chs. 3, 5, 7)

8. Ministry of Health (chs. 6, 19)

9. Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (chs. 9, 17)

10. State Committee for Land Resources and Land Use (ch. 10)

11. Federal Forestry Service (ch. 11)

12. Ministry of Agriculture (ch. 14)

13. State Fisheries Committee (ch. 17)

14. Ministry of General and Vocational Education (ch. 36)

15. The non-governmental organization "Ekosoglasiye" (chs. 23-32)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

In 1992 Russia, together with 178 other States at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, signed a number of programme documents establishing the agreed policy of all the countries of the world for ensuring sustainable development and preserving the Earth's ecosystem.

The transition to sustainable development may be seen as a national idea which could unite all strata of society in the cause of Russia's rebirth.

A Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 1 April 1996 asserted the Concept of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development. This Concept posits the implementation in the Russian Federation of a transition to sustainable development which will ensure the balanced solution of socio-economic problems and the problems of maintaining a favourable environment and natural resource potential in order to meet the requirements of present and future generations.

The socio-economic development of society in the twentieth century, aimed primarily at rapid rates of economic growth, has caused unprecedented damage to the natural environment. Mankind has been confronted with contradictions between the growing demands of world society and the inability of the biosphere to satisfy these demands.

The riches of nature, its capacity to support the development of society, and the possibilities of self-sustainment have proved to have limits. Increasing economic power has become a destructive force for the biosphere and mankind. At the same time civilisation, while using an enormous volume of ecosystem-destructive technology, has not in fact proposed anything which could take the place of the regular mechanisms of the biosphere. A real threat to the vital interests of future generations has emerged.

These contradictions can be eliminated only within the framework of stable socio-economic development which does not destroy its basis in nature. The improvement of people's quality of life must be effected within the limits of the biosphere's economic capacity, for to exceed those limits will mean the destruction of the natural biotic mechanism for regulating the environment and its global changes. Only by satisfying these conditions will it be possible to maintain a normal environment and a viable existence for future generations.

A transition to sustainable development posits the gradual restoration of natural ecosystems to a state which ensures the stability of the environment; this can be achieved by the efforts of all mankind, but every country must make its own independent start towards this goal.

However, it is impossible to make the transition to sustainable development without abandoning current stereotyped thinking which pays no heed to the limits of the biosphere's capacities and engenders in individual citizens and bodies corporate an irresponsible attitude towards the environment and the need to ensure environmental security.

The ideas of sustainable development are very much in tune with the traditions, spirit and mentality of Russia. They can play an important role in the consolidation of Russian society and in determining the State's priorities and the directions of socio-economic transformation.

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS
(Fact Sheet)

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

State Environmental Protection Committee of the Russian Federation

Contact point (Name, Title, Office):

Telephone: (095) 252-25-03

Fax: (095) 254-82-83

e-mail:

Mailing address: 123812 Moscow, GSP, ul. B. Gruzinskaya 4/6

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Ministries of: Economy; Foreign Affairs; Natural Resources; Finance; Labour and Social Development; Health; Agriculture; General and Vocational Education.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

State Science and Technology Committee; State Environmental Protection Committee; Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service; State Committee for Land Resources and Land Use; Federal Forestry Service; State Fisheries Committee;

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

"Ekosoglasiye".

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

Transition to sustainable development which will ensure the balanced solution of socio-economic problems and the problems of maintaining a favourable environment and natural resource potential in order to meet the requirements of present and future generations.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name): V. I. Danilov-Danilyan

Title: Chairman of the State Environmental Protection Committee of the Russian Federation

Date: December 1996.

Ministry/Office: 123812 Moscow, GSP, ul. B. Gruzinskaya 4/6

Telephone: (095) 252-25-03
Fax: (095) 254-82-83
e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Russia is a party to multilateral agreements on the conservation of nature (conventions on climate change, biological diversity, protection of the ozone layer, etc.), which take into account the special situation of developing countries in carrying out the provisions of the agreements. Russia is also a fully fledged participant in the activities of international organizations such as UNEP, WHO, HABITAT, IUCN and UNCTAD (ecologically sound foreign trade) etc., whose programmes of work include tackling the environmental and sustainable development problems of the developing countries.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

In accordance with the Presidential Decree of 2 March 1992 on "System of minimum consumer budgets of the Russian Federation", the poverty level in the Russian Federation is measured by the level of the minimum income, which is defined as the lowest possible volume of personal consumption of essential goods and services.

In the period since 1992 the level of real monetary incomes has fallen by about 40 per cent, the purchasing power of wages has declined in comparison with the pre-reform period by a factor of two, and pensions by a factor of 2.5. The minimum levels of wages and pensions have lost their significance as the most important social indicators.

A specific feature of the present situation in Russia is that, in addition to the traditional socially vulnerable groups (families with many children and single-parent families, the chronically sick and pensioners), the poverty category now includes large new groups - the unemployed, workers with children, and workers in budget-financed branches of the economy, i.e. categories of the economically active population who are capable of ensuring and must independently ensure their essential living standards by their labour.

The impoverishment of Russia's population manifests itself not only in general terms in the increase in the number of people with incomes below the minimum but also in the growth of extremely poor (indigent) groups among the poor.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

On the instructions of the Government Council on Questions of Social Development, the Ministry of Social Security, together with the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of the Economy and the Ministry of Finance, prepared a report on "Ways of overcoming poverty in the Russian Federation". By a decision of the Council it was proposed that ministries and offices and executive organs of subjects of the Russian Federation should prepare measures for participation in the International Year for the Eradication Poverty.

Matters connected with the preparation and implementation of measures to solve this problem are under consideration in all of Russia's regions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: On 24 October 1996 the State Duma adopted in first reading a Federal Law on "The minimum income in the Russian Federation", which establishes the fundamental principles for determining the level of the minimum income and social support of the poorest families.

The levels of minimum wages, pensions, allowances and benefits are regularly adjusted to the cost-of-living index.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: Pensioners, children, the unemployed, workers in establishments funded by the State budget.

4. Finance: The federal budget, local budgets, the Pension Fund.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

In conjunction with the World Bank, pilot programmes are to be implemented in 1997 in three subjects of the Russian Federation on the introduction of targeted social support for the poorest families, with the aim of bringing per capita incomes in such families up to a level not lower than 50 per cent of the minimum income in the region of their permanent residence.

This approach will later be extended to the whole of Russia.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985-1990 1992 1995 1996
Unemployment (%) Not recorded 0.6 3.3 3.4
Population living in absolute poverty 29.7 25 20
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

Attainment of the long-term objectives of society: ensuring national security, political sovereignty and sustainable socio-economic development.

"At the present stage Russia's highest national interest, which coincides with the supreme national value embodied in the Constitution, is to ensure human development and the sustainable growth of living standards and welfare on the basis of observance of human rights and freedoms and encouragement of responsibility: the democratic development of the country." (Message on national security from the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly.)

National targets

The prosperity of the people: the protection and redevelopment of the land in which it lives; the preservation and development of the national culture.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The national goals with regard to the formation of rational consumption structures are to be attained within the framework of specific decision-making procedures, which include the education of public opinion, enactment of legislation, preparation and adoption of decisions of the President and Government of the Russian Federation and decisions of other federal executive organs and executive and legislative organs of subjects of the Russian Federation.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Consumption capacity-building is predetermined by the need to solve, as the first step, the acute economic and social problems, with strict observance during this period of justified environmental constraints on economic activity. At the same time action must be taken to secure fundamental structural changes in the economy, technological renewal, and the incorporation of environmental considerations in the process of socio-economic development.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The following main areas of activity are envisaged in the development of international cooperation for the conservation, protection and restoration of the Earth's ecosystem: preservation of biodiversity and protection of the ozone layer; prevention of anthropogenic climate change; protection of forests and reforestation; development and improvement of the network of specially protected natural areas; safe destruction of chemical and nuclear weapons; solution of the problems of the world's oceans; and solution of regional cross-boundary environmental problems.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
GDP per capita (current US$) 4 221
Real GDP growth (%) 97 85.5 96
Annual energy consumption per capita 7 245.6 6 704.1 5781.8
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 89 116 133.1
Other data

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
X
X
X
X
Energy efficiency:
Transport
X
X
X
Housing
X
X
X
X
Other
Waste:
Reduce
X
X
X
Reuse
X
X
X
Recycle
X
X
X

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
House-
holds
Civil
Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
R
R
R
Research
R
I
Evaluating environmental claims
R
R
R
R
Form partnerships
R
R
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
R
R
R
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
Regulatory instruments
IR
IR
R
Economic incentives/disincentives
R
IR
IR
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R
R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R
R
R
R
Procurement policy
R
R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
R
R
R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Stabilization and improvement of the demographic situation
STATUS REPORT: In the early 1990s the demographic development of the Russian Federation entered a period of very acute crisis reflected in all the demographic indicators. The total annual death rate for the previous 15 years rose by almost 50 per cent and the death rate among the economically active population by a factor of 1.6, with the male rate four times higher than the female.

The current situation has arisen against a background of long-standing unfavourable demographic trends over more than 30 years. At the same time, the evolving tendency for constant deterioration in demographic processes has been intensified by the impact on the population of the country's socio-economic crisis and the decline in the living standards of a significant part of the population, which has been reflected in the health and life-expectancy indicators. Over the period 1965-1994 life expectancy in Russia fell by five years before rising slightly in 1995 (0.68 years for men and 0.52 for women). At present Russia's life expectancy indicators lag behind the average European figures by 11 years for men and five for women.

In 1991 Russia's overall birth rate fell to its lowest level in the post-war period and it has continued to decline, reaching 1.34 in 1995. Russia is now among the European countries with the lowest birth rates.

This lower birth rate has been influenced by the ongoing reforms in Russia and the general dynamics of the socio-economic and political situation in the country, but it is consistent with trends established earlier.

Despite a generally favourable increase in migration, the natural loss of population in Russia, which began in 1992, means that numbers have continued to decline: in 1996 the population totalled 147.5 million, as against 148.1 million in 1995.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Labour and Social Development, in accordance with the decisions of the Parliament and Government and on the basis of research conducted in Russia's largest centres of population, is developing and implementing measures for the achievement of the fundamental socio-demographic objectives, preparing annual reports on the status and trends of demographic development in the Russian Federation for the President and Government, and making proposals for the solution of the most pressing demographic problems.

An inter-departmental commission on socio-demographic questions, established by Governmental Decree No. 697 of 23 July 1993, is working on the formulation of an overall strategy for socio-demographic policy, the determination of priorities in the development and implementation of federal socio-demographic development programmes, and coordination of the activities of central federal executive organs, scientific organizations and regional inter-departmental commissions on questions of socio-demographic development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In accordance with the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994), the Ministry of Labour and Social Development produced in 1995 a Concept of the demographic development of the Russian Federation, subsequently approved by the Government, which addresses the need for strategic programmes to counteract the crisis affecting the health of the population, with a view to increasing life expectancy and reducing the death rate and solving the problems of the birth rate and migration as the fundamental determinants of sustainable demographic development.

In 1997 a programme of action to resolve the demographic crisis in the Russian Federation is being elaborated for confirmation by the President or Government.

3. Major Groups: The inter-departmental commission on socio-demographic questions is establishing working groups on the basic problems of the demographic development of the Russian Federation: human health, the death rate, migration from northern regions, refugees and forcibly displaced persons, etc.

4. Finance: The federal budget and the budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Ministry of Labour and Social Development is acting as lead agency for the participation of the Russian Federation in UNFPA, UNICEF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research; it coordinates and plays its part in scientific research in the regions connected with their demographic development.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 1995
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 148 292 148 519 147 773
Annual % rate of increase (1990-1993) 100.5 99.75
Surface area (Km2) 17 075.4
Population density (people/Km2) 8.7
Life expectancy (years)

Men

Women

63.8

74.3

58.9

71.9

58.8

71.7

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Formulation of State policy for protection of human health and adoption of comprehensive measures to improve the performance of the branches of the health system
STATUS REPORT: A people's health always subtly and clearly reacts to and reflects the socio-economic and socio-political conditions in which it lives. Accordingly, on the basis of analysis of the country's medical and demographic situation, a State policy is being constructed for the protection of human health.

Over the past year the total death rate fell in the Russian Federation and the birth rate continued to decline. The death rate among the population of working age is high in a number of regions of the country, and this is an important factor in the decline in life expectancy. The number of elderly persons is increasing, while the number of children and adolescents is decreasing. There is growth in the overall morbidity rate both among adults (psychological disturbances, tuberculosis, syphilis) and among children (diseases of respiratory organs). At the same time the indicators for controllable infections have declined.

In these circumstances the fundamental task of the Ministry of Health is to ensure the sustainable functioning of the health system and maintenance of the volume and standards of medical care.

Despite the objective difficulties of the transitional period in Russia, it has proved possible to maintain the capacity of the health system with respect to personnel, materials and equipment, and scientific and industrial requirements.

The organizational structure of institutions of curative and preventive medicine in urban and rural areas guarantees free access of all citizens to primary health care. Hospital facilities at the municipal, regional and federal levels provide every kind of specialized medical services. As in the past, great attention is given to prevention. The public health and epidemiological services continue to perform their functions.

One task of State-wide importance is the protection of workers and of the whole population by means of comprehensive programmes of environmental safety.

In the past year work continued on reform of the health system, including administrative decentralization and adaptation of health institutions and enterprises to the new economic conditions. To this end measures have been carried out to effect a transition to compulsory personal medical insurance and to ensure the regulation of activities of institutions of curative and preventive medicine in the new circumstances, the use of general practitioners, and the introduction of modern methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The scientific-industrial combine "Medical-Social Problems, the Economy and Information Technology" and a number of public health scientific research institutes are providing the Ministry of Health with expert scientific assessments of problems of protecting human health.

A law on "Medical insurance of citizens of the Russian Federation" was adopted in 1991, and in 1993 a law on "Fundamental legislation of the Russian Federation on the protection of human health".

In accordance with the health care priorities, eight special-purpose State programmes have been drawn up, with subprogrammes, including: "Children of Russia", "Safe maternity", "Prevention by vaccination", "Anti-AIDS", "Development and improvement of the all-Russian disaster-response medical service", "Elimination of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station", and "Development of the medical industry and improvement of the supply of medicines and medical equipment".

A number of bills on improvement of the protection of human health have been submitted to the State Duma.

In 1996 the Federal Assembly adopted a law of the Russian Federation on "Framework of State regulation of socio-economic development in the North of the Russian Federation".

By 1998 the preparation of the following practical scientific federal programmes will be completed:
- Urgent measures to ensure high standards of public health, prevention of infectious and non-infectious diseases, and reduction of the number of premature deaths;
- Family medicine;
- Support for Russian medical science.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups: The period since 1992 has seen the adoption in Russia of key documents on the protection of mothers and children, documents which form the basis for State social policy on the protection, survival and development of mothers and children. The measures include:
- The Presidential Decree on "Priority measures for carrying out the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s" (1992);
- Since January 1993 Russia has introduced the childbirth criteria recommended by WHO;
- The Presidential Decree on "Priority tasks of State policy for women" (1993);
- The national plan of action for children, confirmed by a Presidential Decree in implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1995);
- The Concept of the improvement of the status of women in the Russian Federation (1996) and the national plan of action to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society up to the year 2000 (1996), confirmed by the Government of the Russian Federation with a view to the implementation of the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. 4. Finance: The proportion of GDP spent on health remains small at 2.5 per cent. 5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation has begun in the Russian-American commission on science and technology (the Gore-Chernomyrdin commission) on programmes to combat infectious diseases, health education, and improvement of human health.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Birthrate per 1,000 15.9 13.4 9.3
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 22.1 17.4 18.1
Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) 68.0 47.4 53.3
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Establishment of a sustainable human settlement system
STATUS REPORT:

At present the development of a sustainable human settlement system in Russia is proceeding on the basis of the preservation of the existing basic settlement framework but with a reduction in the proportion of urban population due to a decline in the number of urban settlements. The inefficient employment system, especially in towns with a variety of industries, obstructs the establishment of a sustainable settlement system.

The proportion of urban population in Russia stands roughly at the average European level and is only slightly lower than in such countries as the United States and Japan. However the concentration of population in very large towns is noticeably lower, especially in comparison with the United States. In Russia there are 12 towns with populations of more than one million, two times fewer than in the United States, and the population of 10 of these towns is below two million. The process of dispersal of population from large towns is proceeding in Russia, despite the obstacles, with the introduction of the registration system and attempts to carry out a policy of limiting large-town growth.

There are plans for the further development of densely populated large and very large conurbations, with due attention given to considerations of human environmental safety and the priority development of transcontinental settlement along the St. Petersburg-Vladivostok axis.

Currently the most urgent problems of sustainable human settlement are connected with the establishment of an efficient employment system; in addition the small towns have problems of social infrastructure and ensuring maximum satisfaction of social requirements.

In view of the need to improve the environmental situation in Russia, the existing settlements in areas of exceptional environmental conditions will be reorganized, and this will mean the relocation of population.

Measures to improve the urban environment by means of new construction projects on the cleanest suburban sites envisage low-rise instead of high-rise building, the rehabilitation of land in industrial zones and centres, and the implementation of programmes to upgrade the environment. This will include the development of suburban zones for the construction of individual and collective housing, the use of local recreational possibilities, the establishment of a sustainable network of settlements, and the creation of model sustainable landscapes in the buffer zones of specially protected natural areas.

Special attention will be given to the environmental rehabilitation of urban land, suburban and recreational areas, rural settlements and open spaces between settlements, and to the creation on this basis of a congenial living environment; attention will also be given to the preservation of the historical traditions and authentic living environment of various ethnic and ethnic-cultural population groups, especially minority indigenous peoples, and to the establishment of federal or regional systems for the regulated use of nature (national parks and reserves).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In accordance with the Presidential Decree on "A comprehensive programme of measures on job creation and preservation for 1996-2000", a general plan has been prepared for the creation of jobs in the light of the restructuring of the economy and social and regional policies.

The Government has confirmed this general plan for changes in the settlement pattern (Protocol No. 31 of 15 December 1994).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The indicators of this general settlement plan are reviewed and adjusted annually.

Principles for the establishment of an efficient employment system have been proposed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Development and the relevant federal executive organs and executive organs of subjects of the Russian Federation.

3. Major Groups: Towns, regions, conurbations, and federal executive organs.

4. Finance: Federal and local budgets and investments, including direct foreign investments, the Small Business Development Fund, and regional development funds.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: With the support of the International Labour Organization the Ministry of Labour and Social Development held a conference on improvement of the employment system in the Russian Federation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population 74 73
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) -0.7 -0.2
Largest city population (in % of total population) 23.9 22.6
Other data 3 221 3 108

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Following the United Nations Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 the Russian Federation adopted a series of very important documents on environmental protection and use of natural resources, including:

The Government's plan of action for environmental protection for 1994-1995, which includes some 100 very important environmental measures (Governmental Decree No. 496 of 18 May 1994).

Governmental Decree No. 155 of 19 February 1996 confirming the Government's plan of action for environmental protection and use of natural resources for 1996-1997.

This plan contains 56 very important measures, including: four bills, 41 special-purpose federal programmes, 25 of which are for implementation, six regulatory instruments, and five other documents. This plan represents the second stage of the implementation of the fundamental provisions of the State strategy confirmed by Presidential Decree No. 236 of 4 February 1994 on "State strategy of the Russian Federation for environmental protection and sustainable development".

By Order No. 217 of 24 February 1994 the Government instructed the Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of the Environment, other relevant ministries and offices, with the participation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the executive organs of subjects of the Russian Federation to develop a draft Concept of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development. In compliance with this instruction the Ministry of the Economy created a working group to prepare the document and a commission to coordinate the work. The Ministry of the Environment and the Federal Environment Fund announced a competition, for which 30 different concepts were submitted by various collectives and individual scientists. Eight of these concepts were selected by the competition commission for use in the preparation of the summary document. The draft Concept was considered at the first all-Russian congress on the conservation of nature, during the preparations for which in January-May 1995 the draft Concept was discussed at local conferences in 87 subjects of the Russian Federation. The final version of the Concept for the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development was confirmed by a Presidential Decree of 1 April 1996.

This Decree ordered the production of a draft State strategy for the sustainable development of the Russian Federation.

In May 1996 the Government adopted an Order on the production of a draft State strategy for the sustainable development of the Russian Federation. The Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Science were nominated as the lead agencies in this undertaking.

An all-Russian conference on combating violations of environmental law was held in May 1996. It adopted a very important resolution, the implementation of which will lead to a considerable reduction in such offences. This resolution requires the Ministry of the Environment to prepare and submit to the Government a draft federal coordination plan for combatting violations of environmental law for the period 1997-2001.

On 10-11 April 1996 the Ministry held an international seminar, at Golitsino, Moscow region, on the consideration and introduction of a programme of action on environmental protection for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. A package of documents, including the decisions of the seminar, was sent to 115 agencies for use in their work.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet):

- The Government's plan of action for environmental protection and use of natural resources for 1996-1997 confirmed by Governmental Decree No. 155 of 19 February. This plan represents the second stage in the implementation of the fundamental provisions of the State strategy for environmental protection and sustainable development confirmed by Presidential Decree No. 236 of 4 February 1994. The plan contains 56 very important measures, including four bills, 41 special-purpose federal programmes, of which 25 are for implementation, six regulatory instruments, and five other documents.

- The Concept for the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development, confirmed by Presidential Decree No. 440 of 1 April 1996. It is recommended that the provisions of this Concept are taken into account in the production of forecasts, socio-economic development programmes and regulatory instruments, and in the adoption of economic and other decisions.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

- The drafting of regulatory instruments in the field of environmental protection and the use of natural resources with a view to the consistent implementation of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development;

- The consistent implementation of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development;

- The drafting and submission to the President of the Russian Federation in 1996 of a draft State strategy for the sustainable development of the Russian Federation.

3. Major Groups: Improvement of the legal and regulatory basis for environmental protection and the use of natural resources with a view to the consistent implementation of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development.

4. Finance: The federal budget, budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation, resources of enterprises and extra-budgetary sources.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Bilateral and multilateral agreements on environmental protection and the use of natural resources.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments
Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 1987
London Amendment (1990) signed in 1991
The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 1994.

The State Environmental Protection Committee is the lead agency in the Russian Federation for matters connected with the Montreal Protocol. The main centres dealing with questions of the gradual reduction of the production and use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) within the organizational structure were the special unit on the ODS problem, established in 1993, the inter-departmental commission on protection of the ozone layer, established in 1992, and its subcommissions, set up in 1993.

Questions of ozone layer research and monitoring are the responsibility of the Federal Hydrometeorlogical and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgidromet). The programme of work includes the basic areas of research envisaged in the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Special attention is given to the development and support of a system for monitoring the condition of the ozone layer and a system for monitoring ultraviolet radiation over the Russian Federation and adjoining territories.

In the monitoring of the ozone layer use is made of both land-based and satellite observation facilities. The work which is being done represents a significant contribution by the Russian Federation to the development and support of the Global Atmosphere Watch of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and to the fulfilment of commitments under the Vienna Convention.

Rosgidromet has a network of stations for measuring the total ozone content at 30 points in the territory of the Russian Federation. The incoming operational information is processed at a single centre (Rosgidromet's Central Aerological Observatory) and is presented in the form of daily maps showing deviations of the volumes of total ozone content from norms established over many years, together with block bulletins. Analyses are also made of monthly and seasonal anomalies in the fields of total ozone content above the territories of the Russian Federation in the Antarctic.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was signed in 1994.
The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 1995.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

In the Russian Federation agriculture, forestry and water resources are extremely vulnerable to climate change. This is due mainly to shifts in the distribution of precipitation and an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts. In the zone of permanent frost, covering some 10 million km (about 58 per cent of the country's total area), thawing caused by warming of the climate will destroy the economic infrastructure, owing largely to the vulnerability of mining installations, energy and transport systems and the communal economy. A rise in the level of the world's oceans will lead to flooding and destruction of coastal areas and low-lying land in river deltas together with the towns and other settlements located there. Climate change may have a harmful effect on human health both through intensification of heat stress in southern regions and through the spread of many kinds of disease.

The Russian Federation therefore has an interest in conducting national activities in various economic spheres and in broad international cooperation on problems of climate change with the States parties to the Convention.

In 1994, with a view to coordinating the activities of ministries, offices and organizations of the Russian Federation designed to prevent dangerous climate changes and ensure the timely adaptation of the economy and the environment to such changes, the Government established an inter-departmental commission on problems of climate change. Its membership includes senior officials of 24 ministries and offices and distinguished Russian scientists.

Among the most important results of the work of the inter-departmental commission over the recent period in accordance with the obligations of the Russian Federation under the Convention attention must be drawn to the preparation of the first national statement of the Russian Federation on activities under the Convention, submitted to the Convention Secretariat in November 1995, with the agreement of the Government, as well as to activities under the special-purpose federal programme on prevention of dangerous climate changes and their harmful consequences, confirmed by a Governmental Order of 19 October 1996.

The evaluations contained in the first national statement on activities under the Convention justify a confident assertion that by 2000 the Russian Federation will no longer be exceeding the level of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases established on base 1990. This will make it possible to carry out, within the framework of the special-purpose federal programme, measures for the limitation of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases which take into account the levels of economic growth expected in our country.

The Russian Federation takes an active part in the work of the Convention's highest organ - the Conference of the Parties - and its subsidiary bodies.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In the Russian Federation the coordination of activities connected with UNFCCC is entrusted to the inter-departmental commission on problems of climate change, established by Governmental Decree No. 34 of 22 January 1994. The provisions concerning the inter-departmental commission and its membership were confirmed by Governmental Order No. 346 of 19 April 1994.

These are the commission's basic functions:

- Coordination of the work of ministries and offices on the reduction of the harmful impact of economic activities on the climate, and prevention of the adverse consequences of climate change for the country's economy and natural environment;
- Coordination of the activities of ministries, offices and organizations in implementation of Russia's commitment under UNFCCC to secure stabilization of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level which will prevent any dangerous anthropogenic impact on the climatic system;
- Organization and coordination of activities connected with the participation of the Russian Federation in the official organs of the Convention and in international cooperation on problems of climate change.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: For the purposes of fulfilment of the Russian Federation's obligations with respect to implementation of UNFCCC and with a view to prevention of the harmful consequences of climate change for human health and the national economy, the special-purpose federal programme on prevention of dangerous climate changes and their harmful consequences for the period 1997-2000 was confirmed by Governmental Decree No. 1242 of 19 October 1996; this programme provides for:
- More detailed and reliable information on the state of the climatic system and climate changes and transmission of this information to users;
- Reliable information on anthropogenic sources and emissions of greenhouse gases, the state of sinks and the dynamics of the absorption of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, and on other sources of anthropogenic impact on climate;
- Improved quality and reliability of information on reactions to climate changes and the vulnerability to such changes of managed and natural ecosystems, the national economy and human health;
- Design of preventive adaptational measures to reduce the vulnerability of climate-dependent branches of the economy;
- Design of measures to cut emissions and increase the absorption of greenhouse gases, taking into account the forecast increase in economic activity and the requirements of the Convention.
Activities under the special-purpose federal programme will be coordinated with the activities of other current federal, regional and branch programmes for prevention of dangerous climate changes.
3. Major Groups: No information. 4. Finance: For the period 1997-2000 the special-purpose federal programme envisages funding from the federal budget totalling 171.4 billion roubles and mobilization of extra-budgetary sources totalling 68 billion roubles. 5. Regional/International Cooperation: On three occasions in the period 1995-1996 Russian experts were invited to be members of international expert groups on the in-depth review and study of the national statements of other countries parties to the Convention (United States, Netherlands, Finland).

Considerable attention has been given to the development of bilateral scientific and technological links with other countries on problems of climate change. These matters are reflected in the topics of common interest in the draft agreements with France, Australia and South Korea.

Particular attention must be drawn to the development of bilateral cooperation on problems of climate change between the Russian Federation and the United States within the framework of the Gore-Chernomyrdin commission.

Since 1994 work has been carried out under a Russian-American project as part of the United States programme for the support of national research in the field of climate change; in addition to Russia, 53 other countries are participating in this programme.

The problems of climate change occupy an important place on the agenda of the Inter-State Hydrometeorology Council, which coordinates the activities of the hydrometeorlogical services of the States members of CIS. Under the auspices of this Council work has been done on the preparation of the national statements on activities under the Convention of the States members of CIS, and coordinated proposals have been worked out for the establishment of a greenhouse gases monitoring network in the territory of the CIS countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Greenhouse gases (eq. million tons)
1980
1990
Latest 1995
CO2 emissions 651
N2O 0.82
CH4 27
CO 8.1
NOx 3.0
Non-methoane hydrocarbons 4.1

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Management of land resources with a view to their maximum preservation as a means of providing for the essential needs of Russia's population.
STATUS REPORT:

The condition of Russia's land, especially in recent years, has been unsatisfactory and in some regions critical. Data on the condition and use of the land of the Russian Federation testify to the continuing development of harmful processes (decline of humus content to an unacceptably low level, water and wind erosion, desertification and flooding, subsidiary salination and nitrification, and pollution of soil with pesticide residues, heavy metals, radionuclides, etc.). Accordingly, there is an urgent and immediate need to create a unified system for obtaining information about the condition and use of land, to apply the principle of economical land use, and to devise and introduce regulatory and economic mechanisms which will eliminate the consumerist attitude towards the land.

Questions of an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources and information about the state of affairs are reflected in the annual "National State report on the condition and use of the land of the Russian Federation".

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Government of the Russian Federation has adopted a number of Orders: on confirmation of the special federal programme on the establishment of an automated system for conducting the State land survey; on land monitoring; on the State programme for monitoring the land of the Russian Federation for the period 1993-1995; on the establishment of a unified State system of environmental monitoring; and on confirmation of the Order on the procedure for exercise of State control over land use and conservation in the Russian Federation.

The problems reflected in these documents must be solved by taking practical action in the sphere of land resources and development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance: Expenditure for 1996-2000 on the establishment of an automated system for conducting the State land survey (in accordance with Governmental Order No. 932 of 3 August 1996) amounts to 8,718.4 billion roubles at 1995 prices.

Land monitoring, surveying and development in the territory of the Russian Federation requires expenditure of 1,000 billion roubles a year.

Financing for the establishment of an automated system for conducting the land survey is being provided by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (LARIS project), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (TASIS project) and other international financial institutions. The Russian-German HERMES project will equip 400 land survey offices in 1996-1997.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Deforestation can be combatted only by means of balanced land use based on the sustainable management of forests seen as a specific, long-term and economically beneficial process of interaction with forest ecosystems.

The need to preserve forests as a fundamental Russian landscape and as component parts of land use based on scientific knowledge, experience and comprehensive assessment of possible impacts on forest ecosystems has been established in the relevant legislative and regulatory instruments, guidelines, handbooks and recommendations on forestry in the Russian Federation.

The following are some of the elements of Russia's national priority in the fight against deforestation:
- Improvement of the machinery for taking decisions on forest use, including clear-felling, with a view to maintaining the biodiversity and sustainable development of forest ecosystems;
- Discouragement of environmentally unsound forestry practices and use of industrial forestry equipment which can destroy the environment and biodiversity, and their replacement with more environmentally sound approaches to forest use;
- Application of the established criteria and indicators of sustainable management of Russia's forests at the sub-national and national levels;
- Encouragement of the activities of all branches of the national economy to involve them in the introduction of new environmentally sound technology in the exploitation of forest resources.

STATUS REPORT:

Russia's participation in international agreements on forest resources

The vast extent of Russia's forest resources pre-ordains their global significance and the special role of its Federal Forestry Service (Rosleskhoz).

Rosleskhoz represents the Russian Federation at global meetings on forests. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, Rosleskhoz has taken part in the Helsinki process, the Montreal process, meetings of the intergovernmental working group on the world's forests convened by Canada and Malaysia in 1994, the dialogue on criteria and indicators of conservation and management of temperate and boreal forests, held at Olympia, United States, in 1994 and Santiago, Chile, in February 1995 (Santiago Declaration), and the ministerial conference on forests organized by FAO in Rome in March 1995.

At the international meeting on tropical timber in January 1994 the Russian Federation was one of the 24 countries which made statements about the achievement of the sustainable management of their forests by 2000. Russia has signed and ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Concrete action to fulfil international obligations is being taken against the background of the reform of the country's economy. The radical economic changes in Russia have caused a crisis in the forestry sector. The sharp cut in budgetary allocations for forest management, including expenditure on protection and conservation and reforestation, as well as on scientific research, has already led to a worsening of the forestry situation and may possibly have further serious consequences for sustainable management of the forestry sector.

Despite all the difficulties of the transitional period, the Russian Government is adopting real measures for reform of the forestry sector and implementation of international agreements.

The continuing reforms have substantially transformed the attitude of society to forestry in Russia. The emphasis has shifted from the output of forestry products, including their processing, to a management methodology aimed at sustainable development. The basic function of the central forest management organ - Rosleskhoz - has become the establishment of the regulatory framework and the organizational and economic conditions for sustainable forest management. This means that the main task of Rosleskhoz is now the formulation and consistent implementation of effective forestry policy.

The "Bases of forestry legislation" and the "Law on environmental protection" have been in force in Russia since 1993. A new forestry law of direct application - the Forestry Code of the Russian Federation - is about to be enacted.

The establishment of the legal framework for State management of Russia's stock of forests is nearing completion. The production of this new forestry legislation has required the drafting of a considerable volume of new regulatory and standard-setting instruments.

In order to establish the Concept of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development in the forestry sector, to fulfil Russia's international forestry obligations stemming from ratification of the two conventions mentioned above, and to implement the decisions of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development with a view to sustainable forest management (principles of forestry, Agenda 21), Rosleskhoz has drafted and confirmed the criteria and indicators of the sustainable management of the forests of the Russian Federation.

These "criteria and indicators" are a working document at the federal and regional levels. Their fundamental purpose is to establish the framework conditions for the functioning of State forest management agencies in such a way as to satisfy the requirements of present and future generations of Russians and to coordinate the efforts for the sustainable development of the forestry sector as a whole.

Rosleskhoz is creating a national system of certification of forest products as a tool for the practical improvement of the forest management and forest use systems, primarily at the local level.

Reforestation

The Government drafted and adopted a State programme of reforestation in Russia for 1993-1995 with a view to reducing the areas of unforested land, reproducing forestry resources, preventing the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and combating undesirable climate changes on the planet.

This programme is designed to give the maximum possible concrete effect to the organizational, technical and economic measures necessary for the attainment of the main goal - timely reforestation with economically valuable species.

The implementation of the programme in 1993-1995 succeeded in checking the decline in the volume of reforestation work, improving its quality, and increasing the responsibility of executive organs for reforestation. In comparison with 1992, in 1993-1994 the volume of reforestation work and the inclusion of saplings in the category of plantings with an economic value as timber were increased, and the loss of forest crops was reduced.

Now the priority for the development of the output of forest products is the transition to intensive industrial technology which will mechanize the work and ensure the high quality of the products.

Under this programme work has been stepped up on the identification and reproduction of a genetic stock of valuable species, and on the organization of new forestry seed selection and growing centres in areas of intensive production, and plans have been made for increasing the production of grown-on planting stock and for the construction of additional nurseries with watering systems and heating. Owing to the shortage of funding the planned projects have not been fully implemented. Nevertheless, a significant volume of work is being done every year, making it possible to support the introduction of forest management techniques in order to guarantee the uninterrupted use of forest resources and continuation of other forest activities.

For the period 1993-1995 the State reforestation programme envisaged for the whole of Russia reforestation measures covering an area of 4,950 thousand hectares, including 1,650 thousand hectares in 1994 and 1,700 thousand in 1995.

According to the inventory of the stock of forests as of 1 January 1993, there was a total of 115.5 million hectares of unforested land. Owing to the shortage of funding, the volume of reforestation work declined every year. In 1990 reforestation work was carried out on 1,765.4 thousand hectares, in 1991 on 1,562.3 thousand hectares and in 1992 on 1,402 thousand.

According to the evaluation of the implementation of the State programme, in 1993-1995 actual reforestation work was carried out on an area of 4,476.9 thousand hectares. Over the three-year period a total of 1,186 thousand hectares was planted or sown with forest crops, including 391 thousand hectares in 1994 and 366.9 thousand in 1995. For this period the planted area resulting from the encouragement of natural renewal totalled 3,290.9 thousand hectares or 73.5 per cent of the total volume of reforestation.

In 1994 the quota for the planting of cedar was met by 120 per cent, a figure significantly higher than in the previous year.

In comparison with 1994, 1995 saw some decline in the actual volume of reforestation work (by 107.6 thousand hectares), including the production of forest crops on 24.1 thousand hectares and the encouragement of natural renewal on 83.6 thousand. At the same time the loss of forest crops not transferred to forested land has continued to decline. In 1995 3.8 thousand fewer hectares were lost than in 1994, and there was some decline in the damage of crops by fires and a sharp increase, almost by a factor of two, in the volume of crops lost owing to unfavourable weather conditions.

It should be noted that, in general terms, Russia's reforestation work has proceeded at a fairly high level over the recent period in both qualitative and quantitative terms.

In view of the need for urgent action to implement international agreements and ensure sustainable development, the Government instructed Rosleskhoz to draw up a federal programme on reforestation in Russia for 1996-2000, which will stipulate scientifically based volumes of reforestation work and the ways and means of carrying it out, and secure an improvement in the condition of the stock of forests and the country's environmental situation.

Protection of forests against fires, pests and diseases, and pollution

In order to improve the protection of forests against fires and in implementation of a Governmental Order, Rosleskhoz together with other relevant ministries and offices drew up a State programme on the protection of forests against fires for 1993-1997. It was adopted in 1993 and provides for:

- Strengthening of the existing aerial and land-based forest fire services;
- Establishment of new units for the operational detection and fighting of forest fires and provision of the material and technical resources for these units in accordance with scientifically based standards;
- Organization in densely forested regions of special mobile units to fight major forest fires and provision of extremely mobile fire-fighting equipment and the means of delivering it;
- Acceleration of the construction and commissioning of a fleet of aircraft to fight forest fires;
- Production and commissioning of satellite information systems to protect forests against fires and monitor the forest fire situation, and of a system for detection and operational notification of incipient forest fires and for operational communications;
- Establishment of integrated control centres for the management of the prevention and fighting of forest fires.
According to forest monitoring data, in 1993-1995, against a background of a higher number of recorded fires, the area of forest land crossed by fires declined by a factor of more than two from 748.5 thousand hectares in 1993 to 360.1 thousand in 1995. Brush fires were more widespread. Human activity remains the main cause of fires (about 88 per cent of all outbreaks).

Roslezkhoz is carrying a number of further measures in order to apply the principles embodied in the Concept of Russia's environmental security.

In order to comply with the principle of acceptable levels of impact on the environment, standards for the maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere for the main coniferous species have been drawn up and recommended for approval in a number of regions of the country. There are also plans to step up the work on a schedule of pollutants, primarily ozone, and the establishment of critical levels (loads), taking into account the effect of the accumulation and fall-out of phytotoxic substances, in order to set standards for environmental impact as a whole and introduce procedures for applying these standards.

The development of a system of tree disease monitoring will be continued in order to identify and rehabilitate damaged areas and ensure systematic maintenance. Disease monitoring, which is an integral part of forest monitoring, provides an operational and constant check on tree diseases in forests affected by various factors and facilitates timely decisions on carrying out forest management work to rehabilitate the damaged areas.

The implementation of this programme requires the drafting of a number of standard-setting documents: methodology for the selection and location of facilities, criteria for the evaluation of the condition of forests, and improved methods of evaluation and forecasting of developments so that decisions can be taken for the necessary action. The special-purpose reforestation programme provides for the further development of biological methods of protecting forests against pests. To this end, work is being conducted under the auspices of the Scientific Research Institute on a number of topics with a view to the improvement of aerial fire fighting techniques and production of bacterial and viral preparations which will make it possible to reduce the use of chemical insecticides to protect forests.

The radioactive pollution of forest land has brought about significant changes and constraints in the social sphere, in the system of forest use, in reforestation and in forest protection.

For the total area of forest land affected by the Chernobyl accident, the direct losses alone from unrealised profits owing to the reduction of the volume of principal and intermittent use and to unused economically accessible resources for by-products total at least 7-10 billion roubles a year (at August 1993 prices).

The area of forests polluted by radionuclides, determined by a quarterly land-based radiation survey during 1991-1994, as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station totals 1,230.2 thousand hectares, as a result of the many years of operation of the Mayak industrial combine - 647 thousand hectares, and as a result of the testing of nuclear weapons before the introduction of the ban on surface and air nuclear explosions - 271.5 thousand hectares.

In accordance with the concept of introducing forest management in polluted areas, the basic task is to enhance the ecological role of the forests as a biochemical barrier to the passage of radioactive materials out of the polluted areas.

The total area of destroyed forest totalled 171.2 thousand hectares in 1993 and 225.3 thousand in 1994. The increase in the area of destroyed forest was due primarily to fires. In 1995 the area of forest lost was 162.1 thousand hectares, 5.3 per cent less than in 1993 and 28 per cent less than in 1994.

The period 1993-1995 saw an increase in the area of forest in which action is being taken to protect the trees against pests and diseases, and the substantial growth in the volume of such measures is due to the need to suppress population explosions of the Siberian silk-spinning moth.

However, in 1993-1995 there was no increase and even a small decrease in the area covered by aerial fire-protection services - for familiar reasons.

Modernization of production technology

Owing to the crisis in the timber production and processing industry and the continuing economic recession, production equipment is not being renewed and new technology and equipment are not being introduced. Only five per cent of existing equipment is up to modern standards and more than half requires modification, while a part requires total replacement. As a result of the decline in the output of forestry industry products the take-up of production capacity has fallen to an extremely low level.

As a result of the introduction of machine methods in the forestry enterprises accounting for 65 per cent of the timber exports of the former USSR, the level of mechanization of basic timber operations in 1990 was:

1. Felling - 38.4 per cent of all work;
2. Chokerless skidding - 41.9 per cent;
3. Dressing of trunks - 58.8 per cent;
4. Stump removal - 42.6 per cent.
The level of mechanization of labour employed in timber enterprises increased over the past five years from 44 to 49.7 per cent, including an increase in basic logging work from 50.1 to 57.3 per cent.

However, at present the total timber technology in use does not meet the industry's existing requirements, which envisage limiting the specific pressure of machinery on the ground to 0.4-0.5 kg/cm and protection of 60 to 70 per cent of the new growth at felling sites.

Despite the existing objective difficulties, one of the priorities for forestry production remains the transition to advanced technology guaranteeing a high standard of mechanized operations while complying with the environmental requirements.

Free enterprise

The "Bases of forestry legislation" adopted in March 1993 replaced the former system of timber resource bases with a leasing system and transferred all roundwood production to a commercial footing. This led to a restructuring of the first link - forest cultivation (forestry as such) and the felling of forests (forestry industry) - in the chain of the utilization of forestry resources to deliver forest products. Forestry production, in the broad sense, includes the results of all possible means of utilization of forest resources and production of goods and services connected with forestry.

However, the numerous private logging and timber processing enterprises, supported by the local authorities, are endeavouring to speed up the turnover of scarce capital, i.e. to achieve greater independence from the central authorities and federal management.

Here there is a need for new forms of balanced development of the numerous private enterprises in the forestry industry, which are moreover extremely unevenly distributed over the territory of the European-Urals part of Russia.

The system of forest use is currently at the formative stage. It is based on the numerous (more than 2,000 in the European-Urals part of Russia) forestry organizations and enterprises and joint-stock companies. The overwhelming majority of them are private bodies.

December 1992 saw the creation of the Association of Forestry Enterprises of Russia, an organization with a membership of more than 800 companies, partnerships, firms and enterprises in the forestry industry, which represents forestry interests in the various federal legislative and executive bodies. The Russian State Forestry Corporation "Roslesprom" was established in January 1993.

Some of the forestry enterprises have joined the Roslesprom joint-stock corporation, some the Russian Forestry Industrialists joint-stock corporation, some the Karellesprom joint-stock company, and some the Komilesprom joint-stock company, etc.

At present Russia has 3,500 specialized State logging, saw mill and timber processing enterprises and about 33,000 different logging, processing and marketing firms.

All these organizations have been created on the basis of the organizational structure of the forestry industry complex of the former USSR.

Non-timber forestry resources and their processing

According to the forestry legislation of the Russian Federation, in addition to roundwood production the following forms of forest use are allowed in Russia's forests:
1. Resin production;
2. Production of secondary forestry products (stumps, bast, bark including birch bark, and fir, spruce and pine branches);
3. Subsidiary forest uses (haymaking, cattle grazing, bee keeping, sap collection, gathering of wild fruits, mushrooms, berries, nuts, medicinal plants and raw materials, and gathering of moss, litter, fallen leaves, reeds, etc.);
4. Use of forests for hunting and game management.
In 1994, in accordance with the requirements of the forestry legislation of the Russian Federation, the "Fundamental regulations on the conduct of subsidiary activities in the forests of the Russian Federation" were drafted and adopted; they deal with the legal, economic, environmental and social aspects of this question.

Secondary forest materials, subsidiary forestry activities and hunting are of special importance in the daily lives of the local population, which is heavily dependent on the forest. Secondary forest materials have traditionally included industrial materials, fodder and materials for decorative and applied art.

The industrial materials basically of tannins and natural dyes.

The commonest animal feed is the vitamin meal obtained from the branches of coniferous species and fed to cattle.

Decorative and applied art products - willow and birch baskets, wooden spoons, carved wooden animals, etc. - have been in strong demand, especially in recent years. Many of the products of our local craftsmen are destined for export.

Secondary forest materials are collected by the people both for their own use and for procurement organizations.

The supply of secondary forest materials is sufficient to meet the needs of the local population and their handicraft activities. The industrial shortage of such raw materials is due solely to a shortage of labour to collect them.

An analysis of the use of plants growing wild in the forest says much about the economic and social situation of the country but little about the capacity of its natural resources, which are clearly underused. A comparison of the average use of secondary forest materials over many years with the average harvest of food products from the forest which could be gathered for industrial uses shows that the average exploitation of this resource for the whole country is no more than 30-40 per cent.

Following the country's transition to a new economic course, there are plans for a more rational approach to the solution of the problem of the use of forest food products to meet the needs of the national economy, and for the issue of the desirability of the production of any specific type of product in any given region to be decided in the light of strict economic accounting.

These issues must be resolved on the basis of the value of the timber itself and taking into account the economic and environmental consequences of the decisions. A land-survey evaluation of forest land is currently being made, and the values are expressed in roubles per unit of forest area for each type of forest and in each specific region.

Recreation

The fundamental provisions of the forestry legislation of the Russian Federation provide for the designation of categories of forest for health and recuperation purposes. These include urban forests, health-resort forests, and forests in green belts around towns and other settlements and industrial enterprises.

For the purposes of organized leisure and tourism, in addition to the categories of forest mentioned above, in 1983 a start was made on the creation of national parks. In 1988 Russia had nine such parks with a total area of 1,300 thousand hectares. In 1994 there were 26 of them, with a total area of 6,410.2 thousand hectares, and in 1996 33 parks with a total area of 97,360.8 thousand hectares. Additional national parks will be established. The number of areas of the country's forests designated for recreational use will also be increased.

The increase in the number of private automobiles has brought with it an increase in the number of people spending their holidays and rest days in the countryside and the forest. It has become increasingly common for people to take activity holidays canoeing on mountain rivers and streams in the taiga, for every opportunity exists for this type of holiday. During the summer holidays the recreational demands on the forest sharply increase, resulting in some regions in the trampling of plantations, damage to the topsoil (due especially to the gathering of berries and mushrooms) and even its outright destruction.
Protection of the genetic stock, and specially protected areas

Russia's protected areas are divided into four categories: reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and natural monuments. The reserves are of greatest importance for protection of the biodiversity of the forest landscape. By 1994 Russia had 85 reserves, some of them established 75 years earlier. The number and huge extent of the reserves testify to an understanding of their significance for the conservation of nature in the wild.

The national nature parks which are being created have many different functions, one of which is the conservation of the biodiversity of the forest, including the diversity of ecosystems and species and genetic diversity.

Under the amended project to establish a coherent network of national parks by 2005, the plan is to create an additional 46 parks with a total area of 11 million hectares. Under the existing legislation national parks are foundations for the conservation of nature, including natural systems and sites of special ecological, historical and aesthetic value designated for use for nature-conservation, recreational, educational, scientific and cultural purposes.

Russia's national parks and reserves have a great diversity of animals and plants. They contain about 1.5 thousand species of taller plants, of which 120 are classified as rare and endangered plants, while 47 species are included in Russia's Red Book. The national parks contain a large number of exotics (more than 70 species) and 103 species of relict.

Conservation of biological diversity is one of the fundamental functions of the reserves and national parks. There are many species of rare fauna: animals (64 species), birds (210), fish (28), and amphibians and reptiles (20).

Seven species of bird are registered in Russia's Red Book.

As well as plants and animals the national parks also contain many valuable historical and cultural sites.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In accordance with the existing forestry legislation, State management of the utilization, reproduction, protection and conservation of forests in the territory of the Russian Federation is the responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government, and the executive organs of subjects of the Federation, and of specially designated State forest management organs.

The system of specially designated State forest management organs includes: the State organ for the management of the forests of the Russian Federation (the Federal Forestry Service), its subsidiary units in subjects of the Federation and the local forestry bodies. The national nature parks on forest land and teaching and experimental forestry establishments also supervise forestry activities and form part of the Federal Forestry Service system.

The head of the Federal Forestry Service is appointed by the President of the Russian Federation.

The activities of the Federal Forestry Service are regulated by Orders confirmed by the Government, which also establishes the procedures for exercise of State control over the condition, utilization, reproduction, protection and conservation of the forests. The latest Order on the Federal Forestry Service was confirmed on 5 July 1994.

The management of Russia's forests is based on the established principles of forestry and specific forest management projects developed on a regular basis for each management unit.

The management of Russia's entire stock of forests is the responsibility of specialized forest management organizations operating in a unified system throughout the Federation and in accordance with procedures established by the Federal Forestry Service. The management activities include the maintenance of an inventory of the stock of forests in order to monitor the species- and age-composition of plantations and their condition and the qualitative and quantitative status of other forest resources.

Measures for the reproduction, management and protection of forests in the European-Urals part of Russia are carried out by the forest management organs of the 57 subjects of the Russian Federation, which form part of the Federal Forestry Service system.

As of 1 January 1993 there were 57 regional forest management units in the European-Urals territory of the Federation, including 1,237 forestry enterprises. In accordance with the existing forestry legislation, the forestry enterprises are the basic owners of Russia's forests, and they account for 94 per cent of the area of forested land suitable for forestry management, i.e. under the direct control of the Federal Forestry Service. They constitute the structural basis of the Federal Forestry Service, for they are the local forest management units. They are directly responsible to the regional forest management departments in each of the 89 subjects (members) of the Russian Federation, which are in turn subordinate to the central apparatus of the Federal Forestry Service in Moscow.

The borders of the forestry enterprises coincide with the borders of the administrative regions of Russia. This arrangement, together with a number of other regional and local arrangements, facilitates the designation of new forestry enterprises under the Federal Forestry Service.

The main features of the existing structure of the management of Russia's forests were determined by the change of function of forestry enterprises and the ban on roundwood production (industrial logging). This ban was imposed by article 8 of the "Bases of forestry legislation" in the following terms: "The State forest management organ of the Russian Federation and its subordinate units shall not engage in the cutting of primary-use timber or its processing".

The basic functions of the forest management apparatus include:

- State regulation and control of the utilization, reproduction, protection and conservation of forests and development of the main lines of State policy in this field;
- Observance of federal interests in the regulation of the utilization, reproduction, protection and conservation of forests;
- Uninterrupted but sustainable utilization of forests, maintenance and increase of forest resources, and preservation and consolidation of the protective, water storage, recreational and other useful natural functions of forests;
- Management of the stock of forests, establishment and maintenance of the State forest survey, management of the State stock inventory, and establishment and conduct of forest monitoring under the unified State system of environmental monitoring.
At the local level the practical performance of the functions of the Federal Forestry Service is the responsibility of the forestry enterprises and management units. In addition, the national nature parks on forest land and teaching and experimental forestry bodies also engage in forest management and form part of the Federal Forestry Service system.

Following the adoption of the new forestry legislation in 1993, several dozen instruments regulating forest management were drafted and adopted: "Functions and tasks of forestry enterprises of the Federal Forestry Service" (adopted on 10 September 1993); "Fundamental provisions on the designation of specially protected sections of forest" (adopted on 30 December 1993); and "Regulations on fire prevention in the forests of the Russian Federation" (adopted on 9 September 1993), etc.

Management of forest use

The "Bases of forestry legislation" is the principal law regulating forest use.

In accordance with the changed functions of forest management, industrial logging by governmental forestry organizations is prohibited.

In addition to the "Bases of forestry legislation", there are several other standard-setting instruments regulating questions of forest use and protection. Thus, the legislation governing forest use is established by the Federal Forestry Service and the Government of the Russian Federation as a whole. The use of forest resources has become an exclusively commercial activity carried on for the purpose of extracting profits from cutting and processing.
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Given the current very low economic indicators of the forestry sector in the circumstances of its transition to a market economy, it can be unambiguously asserted that the possibility exists for overcoming the present crisis. The main basis for enhancing the importance of the forestry complex in the economy is the high resource capacity of the country's forests.

At virtually all stages of the output of forest products there exists a reserve capacity for their optimal exploitation. Particular attention must be drawn here to the reduction of losses during the felling of timber - losses of up to 20-30 per cent - as a result of the introduction of modern logging technology. Additional resources can be obtained from maintenance cutting. In order to secure the full utilization of timber raw materials it is essential to develop the capacity for intensive chemical and mechanized processing, especially of softwood.

However, all of this is achievable with the transition to a sustainable model of forest management based on the concept of sustainable forest use. 3. Major Groups: The "Bases of forestry legislation" adopted in 1993 radically altered the distribution of the rights of State ownership among the levels and subjects of management. This consolidated the presence in the country of three main groups of people having an influence on the drafting and implementation of Russia's forestry policy. These groups are: forestry professionals operating through the specially designated State forest management organs, to which was transferred the right to manage and own the forest stock; local people in the shape of local authorities, in which the law invests the right to control forests; and owners of industrial forestry enterprises invested with the right to utilize the stock of forests. To these groups should be added Russia's minority peoples, by virtue of their role in forestry policy, for their traditional economic activities are inseparably connected with the forest.

The role of each of these groups is manifested primarily in their involvement in the drafting and implementation of plans for economic activities in the forests and is determined by their differing interests.
4. Finance: Total expenditure on measures for the conservation of nature amounted, in 1994 for example, to approximately eight trillion roubles at current prices. Expenditure on forestry accounted for 10 per cent of this sum (825 billion roubles). In 1995 expenditure on forest resources under the federal budget, taking into account the changes (federal law adopted by the State Duma on 6 December 1995), totalled approximately 969.4 billion roubles and represented 0.34 per cent of total federal budget expenditure (not counting expenditure on forest resources from local budgets). Expenditure totalling 1,672.3 billion roubles (0.58 per cent of the total budget) was planned under the item "Protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, geodesy and cartography", including only 37.7 billion roubles on environmental protection as such. This thus represents a continuation of the tendency to allocate insufficient financing (especially in comparison with other densely forested countries) for the reproduction of forest resources.

Given this situation, the Federal Forestry Service adopted a new concept of the planning and funding of expenditure on the conservation of forest resources, which includes the following sources:
- Federal budget;
- Local budgets;
- Other legally authorized sources: mobilization of own resources, deductions from forestry taxes, leasing fees, auction of forests, services to outside organizations, and profits from timber processing and timber resulting from maintenance cutting.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: One of the main functions of the Federal Forestry Service as the central forest management organ is the representation of the Russian Federation in its relations with other States and international organizations in connection with the drafting of agreed decisions on questions of forest management and conservation, scientific support services and improvement of technical standards in the utilization of forest resources.

As the holder of a fifth of the world's forest resources, Russia takes an active part in the international negotiating process on forests, which has been proceeding vigorously since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Russia follows the development of this process closely and during the period 1993-1996 took part in almost all the international forestry initiatives.

Participation in the activities of international organizations has become an important area of international cooperation. The Federal Service maintains the closest contacts with the following international organizations: UNEP, UNCSD, FAO, IUFRO, WWF, etc.

One of the most effective forms of international cooperation is the conduct of joint research and the implementation of bilateral and multilateral projects under the auspices of working groups. The following bilateral working groups on scientific and technological cooperation in forestry matters have been established: Russian-Swedish, Russian-Chinese and Russian-American. The international agreements included detailed thematic plans for cooperation on the whole spectrum of forestry problems for 1994 and for the future. In November 1993 a protocol on mutual cooperation at the level of forestry ministries and offices was signed by the CIS countries, the Baltic countries, Georgia and Moldova.

Local management organs maintain direct contacts with overseas partners. For example, the Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk forest management authorities established direct contact with United States local forest management bodies on the region-with-region principle.

The "Gassinsky" model forest has been established in the Khabarovsk region under the Canadian programme "International model forests network".

An agreement has been signed with the United States forestry service on the monitoring of the numbers of the Asiatic form of the unmated silk-spinning moth found on the forested land adjacent to the ports of Vladivostok, Nakhodka and Vostochny. The Yaroslavl, Kostroma and Smolensk forestry authorities, together with the Funduk NGO, are successfully carrying out work under a contract between the Russian Federation and Finland on the establishment of experimental seedling plantations.

The Saratov forestry authorities have concluded an agreement with the University of Oregon, United States, on the establishment of plantations in the Saratov region to absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

The management and representatives of the forestry authorities of the Republics of Karelia and Mariy El and of the Archangelsk, Vladimir, Leningrad, Moscow, Penza and Chelyabinsk regions have been studying the forest management system and forestry practices in Sweden.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1983
1988
1993
Forest Area (Km2) 11 870 000 11 820 000 11 810 000
Protected forest area (Km2), including reserves and national parks 1 069 000 1 079 000 1 310 000
Roundwood production (mill m3) 299 325 174
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum) 33 000 28 000 26 000
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum) 6 000 7 000 4 000

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

Convention: not signed or ratified by Russia.

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.

*A latest report has not been submitted to the Secretariat of the Convention.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

In accordance with an instruction of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 17 October 1995, the Russian Federation is participating in preparatory meetings for the Convention and after its entry into force it will participate in conferences of the parties as an observer. At the same time the relevant ministries and offices and subjects of the Federation experiencing serious problems of drought and desertification are proceeding with their detailed study of the possibility of Russia's becoming a fully fledged party to the Convention.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: A UNEP project on the drafting of a national plan of action to combat desertification in the Kalmyk Republic is being implemented.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Land affected by desertification (Km2) over 100 million hectares
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In the European part of Russia the mountains occupy peripheral positions in relation to the Russian plain, which is the historical and economic centre of the country. The Caucasus mountains (to the south), the Urals (to the east), the Khibiny range (to the north-west), and the polar islands of Novaya Zemlya and Franz Joseph Land frame the plain with a huge semicircle.

At no time in its history has Russia had a special State policy for the socio-economic development of its mountain regions. By virtue of the geographical location of 70 per cent of its territory, Russia is a northern country and it has such policies only for the northern indigenous peoples and territories.

Some of the republics of the North Caucasus (Dagestan, North Osetiya-Alaniya) carry out their own programmes to support the development of mountain regions, which are generally poor and almost totally dependent on the federal and republic budgets.

The specific features of mountain territories are taken into account in some indicators in the State sectors of the economy.

With regard to the state of the environment and resources and the problems of socio-economic development Russia's mountain regions differ substantially from each other, depending on their geographical location and history of assimilation.

The North Caucasus has a "fuller spectrum of problems", typical of many mountain regions in the world. The war in Chechnya and the territorial conflict between the Republics of North Osetiya-Alaniya and Ingushetiya are without doubt the dominating problem of the current socio-economic development of the North Caucasus. This is one of Russia's most acute and complex political problems, deeply rooted in history, and so far found no solution has been found for it. However, the Government of the Russian Federation and the authorities of the Chechen Republic are even now working on plans for the postwar development of Chechnya.

For the uninhabited mountains of the high plains (Khibiny range, Novaya Zemlya) and the thinly settled Urals social problems do not have any priority. The main priorities are the problems of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources:
- Pollution of the atmosphere and surface waters by emissions from industrial enterprises (central Urals, Khibiny);
- Monitoring of the radioactive pollution of groundwater and the countryside as a result of underground nuclear tests (at the Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site and also in the Perm region in the southern Urals, where nuclear tests were carried out from 1969 to 1987);
- The felling of mountain forests is leading to changes in their structure and species diversity (northern Urals), which is reducing the average annual drainage by up to 10 per cent. As a result of atmospheric pollution by mining and iron and steel industries areas of phytopathogenic damage are becoming established in the mountain ecosystems of the Khibiny range;
- Emplacement of mining wastes (tips, tailing dumps, etc.);
- Recultivation of land and rehabilitation of the countryside;
- Improvement of the network of specially protected areas.


Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: There is a plan to draw up a special-purpose federal programme on the sustainable development of Russia's mountain regions, with the following possible key components: improvements in the emplacement of environmentally hazardous substances; a policy of State support for agricultural production in mountain regions; environmental rehabilitation of mountain regions; establishment of a framework of environmental protection in the mountains to support the sustainable development of the region, etc.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Government of the Russian Federation and the regional governments and local government authorities in mountain areas are interested in studying the European experience of the development of mountain regions - the Alpine Convention, the Charter of the Mountain Regions of Europe, and mountain policy (Council of Europe).

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Increase of agricultural production and improvement of consumer supplies of environmentally sound food products
STATUS REPORT:

The years of reform in Russia have seen radical changes in the structure of agriculture. Virtually all agricultural enterprises have been reformed, about 300,000 peasant farms have been established, and the processing and marketing of agricultural products have undergone significant changes as a result of widespread privatization.

However, unfavourable developments in general economic conditions at certain stages and the serious financial difficulties, together with the problems of the transitional period in agriculture itself, could not fail to have an impact on the sector. This impact has manifested itself in particular in a decline in State allocations, the emergence of price disparities for the means of production and for farm output, and a significant decrease in the supply of the means of production.

In addition to all this there is the openness of the external market, which has created serious competition for the Russian producer. Today Russia imports more than a quarter of its consumer meat products and a seventh of its dairy products.

At the same time Russia generally manages to avoid importing grain and a number of other basic agricultural products.

Generally speaking, the situation of Russia's agriculture and food supply market must be described as problematic. A whole range of measures is required, together with a consistent macroeconomic, agrarian and foreign trade policy for the development of domestic production as a key factor in the sustainable development of agriculture.

This was the reason for the drafting the "Programme of stabilization and development of agro-industrial production for 1996-2000", which has been confirmed by the President of the Russian Federation. This programme gives priority to the creation of the economic preconditions and infrastructure for increased production and market activity on the part of agricultural producers.

What is envisaged is a system of measures of State regulation and solid support for the country's agro-industrial complex.

The implementation of this programme is designed to ensure the sustainable development of Russia's agriculture and secure a substantial improvement in the supply of consumer foodstuffs.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:


- The "Programme of stabilization and development of agro-industrial production for 1996-2000". This programme envisages the creation of the economic preconditions and economic infrastructure for increased production and market activity on the part of agricultural producers;
- The "Law on conservation of the natural environment" and the "Water Code of the Russian Federation". These instruments establish the requirements with respect to conservation of soil and sources of water from pollution by manure, fertilizers and pesticides.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The re-equipment of agriculture with a new generation of high-output technology which can meet contemporary environmental requirements.

3. Major Groups: Changes in the social and economic structure of agriculture.

Development of domestic production as a key factor in the sustainable development of agriculture.

A programmatic approach to problem solving.

Improvement of the legislative framework and economic machinery of the interrelationship between agriculture and the environment.
More efficient land use.

4. Finance: The federal budget, budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation, resources of enterprises and extra-budgetary sources.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Bilateral and multilateral agricultural agreements (in the CIS framework).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1995
Agricultural land (Km2) 2 289.6 2221.3 2209.6
Agricultural land as % of total land area 13 13 13
Agricultural land per capita 0.015 0.015 0.015
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 1995
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990 0.55 0.46 0.07
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention: Signed in 1992; Ratified in 1995.

Latest report submitted in 19--.
By Order No. 669 of 1 July 1995 the Government entrusted the organization of the fulfilment of the obligations of the Russian Federation under this Convention to the former Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, now the State Environmental Protection Committee. In order to coordinate the fulfilment of these obligations, an inter-departmental commission on problems of biological diversity has been created by a Governmental Order.

At its meetings this commission has considered a number of questions connected with the drafting of a national strategy on biodiversity, the inclusion of specific measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in sectoral plans, and the establishment of a data base.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Convention signed in 1974.
Latest report submitted in 1995.

In 1994 the Government of the Russian Federation adopted a special Order stating that the functions of administrative organ for CITES would be performed by the former Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, now the State Environmental Protection Committee, and specifying the priority measures for fulfilment of obligations under the Convention, taking into account the new situation resulting from the break-up of the USSR.

With a view to the introduction of measures to strengthen control of the procurement, trading and passage across customs frontiers of CITES specimens, a plan has been approved for collaboration between the federal executive organs (environmental protection, law enforcement, quarantine and postal communications).

Similar plans have been drawn up in 28 subjects of the Russian Federation. In 1995 Russia reviewed the reservations concerning the CITES annexes, which had been entered earlier by the USSR. Action is being taken to improve the effectiveness of the standard-setting legal framework with respect to species of animals and plants registered in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. With the financial support of Switzerland, Germany, IUCN and a number of other organizations, two teaching seminars have been held for the CIS countries, a handbook on the animals included in the CITES annex has been published in Russian, and a popular coloured booklet entitled "Import and export of endangered species of fauna and flora" has been produced and published. Effective cooperation is being established with the customs authorities. Between November 1994 and March 1995, 300 parrots and 28 monkeys were confiscated at Sheremetev-2 international airport alone.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The national legislation is being improved. In recent years bills have been submitted on "The animal world", "Regulation of genetic engineering", and "The continental shelf of the Russian Federation". In 1995 the President confirmed a special-purpose federal programme of support for State nature reserves and national parks for the period up to 2000. This programme provides for the creation of 36 new reserves and 28 national parks. In 1995-1996 the Government strengthened the measures for conservation and sustainable use of sites where especially rare and threatened animals are found. Russia is carrying out a special State programme on biological diversity. A project on the conservation of biological diversity is being carried out with the support of the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Fundamental decisions are taken by the Government of the Russian Federation. On the basis of such decisions, sectoral decisions are taken by the relevant federal executive organs: Ministry of Agricultural Production, State Fisheries Commission, Rosleskhoz, Ministry of Science, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of the Economy, Ministry of Health, etc. An inter-departmental commission on problems of biodiversity has been created in order to coordinate activities and prepare governmental decisions on biodiversity. The coordinator is the Ministry of the Environment (now the State Environmental Protection Committee).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: These issues will now be considered by the inter-departmental commission on problems of biodiversity. A biodiversity scientific-coordination centre is being established under the auspices of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Environmental Protection in accordance with a decision of the inter-departmental commission.

3. Major Groups: Groups are established, as required, by the inter-departmental commission.

4. Finance: The State budget is the main source of financing. Some expenditure is also covered by overseas investors, including the Global Environment Facility.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Many different activities are being carried out under bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1995
Protected area as % of total land area 1.47 1.9
1990
Latest 1995*
Number of threatened species
animals 247
plants 533
Other data

*The lists have not been reviewed.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Life sciences and biotechnology
STATUS REPORT:

The problem of the environmentally sound use of biotechnology is becoming all the more urgent for Russia in view of the fairly intensive development of biotechnology in the country's scientific institutions, the extension of the range of recombined products used for various purposes, and the need to ensure the safety of transboundary technology transfers and of genetically modified organisms and/or their products.

In this connection the creation of a legal and regulatory framework for biodiversity has become an urgent national priority.

In June 1996 Russia adopted a law on "State regulation of genetic engineering activities", which had been drafted by the State Committee on Science and Technology, the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of the Environment. Experts from OECD, UNIDO and UNESCO took part in the preliminary amendment of the law.

This federal law is based on:
- The general principles of biological safety set out in OECD and UNEP documents (international principles of safety techniques in biotechnology) and in the voluntary codes of UNIDO, FAO, etc.;
- The concept of risk assessment and management focused on the "biotechnology product" and the corresponding authorization and notification system for genetic engineering activities;
- A system of technical protocols: the security rules governing work with organisms modified by genetic engineering (micro-organisms, transgenetic plants and animals) and their handling or release into the environment.

Machinery for implementation of this federal law is currently being established, including:
- The creation of a biological security infrastructure, primarily for genetic engineering and biotechnology;
- The establishment of a national commission on biological security and working commissions on biological security in organizations engaging in genetic engineering;
- Drafting of sector-specific technical safety rules and protocols;
- Creation of an authorization and notification system for genetic engineering and biotechnology on the basis of a system of risk assessment and management;
- Development of a system of notification and standardization to set standards of liability and compensation;
- Creation of an information network with centralized and decentralized data banks.

Further work on Russia's legal and regulatory framework for biotechnology will seek to harmonize it with the existing regulations (at the national and world levels) and with international agreements.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

1. Protection of oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas.

These questions are very important to the Russian Federation because it possesses very large coastal areas. Russia's maritime part (shelf) alone constitutes one-third of the whole of its territory. The total length of the shores of the world's oceans is 777,000 kilometres, and Russia has 60,000 kilometres of shoreline. Russia's seas have a severe climate, and maritime activities require well organized and sophisticated hydrometeorlogical services.

Under its marine research programme, new methods of marine forecasting have been devised and are being brought into operational use; the foundations have been laid for a modern national system for processing marine data, including the use of super-computers; and marine information systems are being developed in the Arctic and Antarctic.

Regular Antarctic research activities are continuing, together with work at an extensive network of Antarctic stations located on the ice continent.

A water quality monitoring programme has been in operation for some time now in the territorial waters of the former USSR. In spite of the economic difficulties, this programme will be continued in the territorial waters of the Russian Federation (at a level determined by available resources). A decision has been taken to establish a national reporting centre under the MARPOLMON programme.

Russia has a standing programme of data collection, analysis, evaluation and application with a view to rational resource use, including evaluation of the environmental impact of activities affecting coastal and marine regions. Data bases are being created for evaluation and rational use of coastal regions and all seas and their resources, and measures are being carried out to support the regular monitoring of the state of the environment of coastal and marine regions.

Efforts are being made to combat the effects of the rise in the level of the Caspian Sea. A system is being developed for forecasting the level of the Caspian over various time spans, and it will be capable of predicting erratic changes. For example, the latest forecast of a change in the average level of the Caspian Sea for one year ahead, produced at Russia's hydrometeorlogical centre in 1996, predicts a slight drop.

In developing the system of forecasting and other services considerable attention is given to improving the components on the forecasting and detection of dangerous natural phenomena, such as high water levels, storm waves and tidal waves, and to an early-warning and response system for such phenomena.

In connection with its marine activities and use of marine resources Russia is extensively engaged in international work under the auspices of the United Nations and other international governmental and non-governmental organizations, and in bilateral and multilateral cooperation. In this connection the Russian Federation:

- Participates in scientific research on and observation of the marine environment;

- Conducts an active exchange of data and information resulting from scientific research and systematic observation through a network of world, regional and national centres.

At present the Russian Federation has several data banks of direct relevance to the international programmes of WMO, including the World Weather Watch (WWW), and of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as well as to other global observation systems, and takes an active part in international cooperation in the exchange of data and information and their storage and in the creation of archives through world and regional data centres.

In cooperation with IOC, WHO, UNEP, ICSU and other international organizations, the Russian Federation is taking an active part in planning and preparing to implement the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

Together with countries bordering on the Sea of Japan (China, Republic of Korea, Japan) Russia is participating in the NEARGOOS project under the GOOS programme. Similar activities are being developed with the Black Sea countries. Russia has in operation an extensive system for the training of experts in marine hydrometeorology and oceanography and it is working under the programme of training, education and mutual assistance (TEMA).

The Russian Federation is helping to strengthen international cooperation for the protection and rational use of seas and oceans. It is active in the following programmes:
- The marine aspects of WWW;
- The marine programmes of IOC, WMO, UNEP, ICSU, IMO, ICES and other international organizations;
- The marine components of global systems for monitoring climate and droughts and of the Global Ocean Observing System;
- Marine pollution monitoring programmes.
Great importance is attached to expanding regional cooperation in the Black and Azov Seas and in the Caspian, Baltic, Japan and Bering Seas.
Other matters of fundamental importance for the Russian Federation are the forthcoming use of the northern sea route by international shipping and international cooperation in the Russian sector of the Arctic.
The Russian Federation has concluded the latest cycle of research under the federal programme "Comprehensive research in oceans and seas and in the Arctic and Antarctic", which included the following components:
- The physical fields of Russia's seas and the oceans, their interaction with the atmosphere, and the forecasting of short-range changes in the ocean climate;
- The chemical regime of Russia's seas and the oceans, mineral and raw material resources, hydrochemical bases of bioproductivity, and anthropogenic changes in the state of the waters;
- Ecosystem dynamics, and biological structure and resources of Russia's seas and the oceans;
- The geosphere of oceans and seas; composition, structure, development, forecasting and evaluation of mineral resources;
- Arctic. Natural environment and its sustainability, mineral and biological resources, hydrometeorlogical forecasting, and climate;
- Antarctic. Natural environment and global change trends;
- Technical ways and means of measurement, collection and processing of environmental data; computer technology;
- Russia's seas. Natural resources and environmental situation; drafting of recommendations on rational use of natural resources;
- Economic, political and legal problems of scientific research on and use of the space and resources of the world's oceans (especially Russia's sea space), the Arctic and Antarctic, and measures to maintain their environmental security.

The results obtained will be used to develop activities for the protection of oceans and different kinds of seas, and for the conservation, rational use and development of marine bioresources.

The further expansion of these activities requires a scientifically balanced approach. Accordingly, the special-purpose federal programme "World Ocean" which is under preparation envisages coordination of regional programmes for monitoring phenomena occurring in coastal areas and coastal waters and connected with climate change, as well as monitoring of the parameters of research of key significance for the rational use of marine and coastal areas in all regions. Individual sections of this federal programme are concerned with improvement of the forecasting of the marine environment to ensure the safety and efficient conduct of marine activities, as well as with questions of the rational use

of marine resources and protection of the marine environment.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: signed in 1982.

In July 1996 the Government of the Russian Federation approved the Convention and submitted it to the President for transmission to the State Duma for ratification.

2. Protection, rational use and development of living resources

The world fishing industry is constantly developing in both positive and negative directions. On the one hand, there are the increased catches in certain parts of the world's oceans, vigorous development of fish farming, expansion of world trade in fish products, and improvement of consumer supplies of fish and seafoods in many countries. On the other hand, the development of sea fishing is accompanied by over-exploitation of many of the most valuable stocks and over-capitalization in the industry due partly to uncontrolled access to bioresources and partly to the State protection of the industry in many countries.

In order for Russia's problems to be understood, especially in the light of the decisions of UNCED, it is necessary to give a brief description of the situation in the country's fishing industry.

Russia's fishing industry has entered a period of acute crisis, with a decline in catches and output of food products and, most of important of all, a decrease in the availability of fish products in Russia, something which is unjustified given the shortage of foodstuffs in general and of animal protein in particular.

Together with the domestic economic difficulties of Russia's fishing industry, serious new problems have arisen in the international situation. This is primarily a matter of water- resource and fisheries relations with the former republics of the Soviet Union which are now sovereign States - Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Khazakstan and Turkmenistan. Russia has to solve these extremely complicated and entirely new problems of an international legal and economic nature for the regions of the Caspian, Black and Baltic Seas.

Some of the difficulties which Russia's fishing industry is experiencing are specific to our country, but there are many global reasons for the worsening of the situation:

- Decline of basic stocks for valuable traditional products of the industry, together with a drop in catches per unit;
- Overall decline in the economic indicators of the activities of the fleet and shore enterprises;
- Intensification of uncontrolled international fishing on the high seas and, in particular, in the northern Pacific Ocean and Barents Sea;
- Use of unselective equipment and fishing techniques, etc.
Accordingly, Russia has a serious interest in broad international cooperation in the rational exploitation of the
bioresources of the world's oceans as a means of checking these negative trends.

See also the tables set out below.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The management, conservation and optimal use of basic resources must become a new strategic principle of Russia's fisheries policy in order to ensure the sustainable development of its fishing industry and equal opportunities for use of these resources under all forms of ownership.

To this end, the recently drafted federal programme for the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation up to 2000 ("Ryba") sets out what are basically stabilization measures. This approach is essentially based on genuine State support (budget allocations, grants to meet additional expenditures connected with higher prices of energy, fishing equipment and feedstuffs; organization of preferential tax and credit terms; reduction of customs duties) and on expanded foreign investment to secure an increase in marine catches of 4-4.5 million tons by 2000.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The practice of managing marine stocks and introducing national measures on the basis of the adoption of internationally agreed decisions has a long history and it has generally proved its viability, and in view of the international nature of the fishing industry and the distribution of stocks throughout the waters of the world's oceans there is no alternative. Such decisions are usually taken on a bilateral, subregional, regional or global level depending on the seriousness of the problems. These activities are conducted on a constant daily basis in the various international organizations.

However, when emerging problems reach a level requiring the adoption of fundamentally new decisions affecting the interests of the majority of countries in the world community, the need arises to convene such forums the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, and the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.

Fisheries cooperation with neighbouring countries with which Russia is linked by long-term common interests, primarily the optimal use and conservation of common or interlinked fish stocks (Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, China, Japan, United States and the countries of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea basins), must of course be conducted under strict State control regardless of the form of ownership of the vessels authorized to fish or conduct research operations. This approach is consistent with the responsibility of a State for conservation of natural resources in the interests of present and future generations and its responsibility for the activities of vessels flying its flag.

Another State responsibility is the very important aspect of international activity represented by Russia's active participation in the work of existing and international fisheries organizations and others which are coming into being.

Russia welcomes in particular the adoption of two new complementary instruments - the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and the International Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing, in the drafting of which it took an active part. This represents a contribution by the world's fishing community to the implementation of Agenda 21.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Catches of marine species (metric tons) 6 800.0 7 820.0 4 253.0
Including sea fishing 6 200.0 7 313.0 3 800.0
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
*
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
***
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
*
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
*
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
***
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
0
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
0
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
K. Human resource development and training.
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
***
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
0
***
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
0

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
0
***
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
0
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
0
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
***
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
0

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
**
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
***
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
**
***
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
**
***
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
*

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
*
***
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
*
***
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
0
***
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
0
***
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
0
***
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
*
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
***
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
**
***
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
0
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
***
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
0
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
***
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
*
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)

AIR TRANSPORT
RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights) 1. Frequency (external shipping)
2. Frequency (in-country flights) 2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation 3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
4. Cooperation at international level 4. Cooperation at international level
5. Economic viability of national air line 5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
6. Economic viability of regional air line 6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
7. national level training in skills for air transport sector 7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region 8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
9. Access to international training for air transport sector 9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
10. Supportive of ICAO

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

According to the figures of the State Water Survey, in 1995 the total withdrawal of water from natural sources in the Russian Federation amounted to 96.8 km3, practically unchanged from the 1994 volume of 96.2 km3.

Owing to the poor quality of water from these sources and a number of other reasons, the country's existing system of drinking water supply is in a critical situation. More than 40 per cent of the pipelines carrying water from surface sources and supplying 68 per cent of urban and about 10 per cent of rural consumers do not have the necessary purification equipment and cannot guarantee totally decontaminated and purified water; many withdrawal facilities (one in four) are not surrounded by protection zones, and where such zones do exist, they mostly violate the existing regulations.

The pollution of natural sources and the drinking water supply owing to inadequate filtration and purification equipment means that the drinking water delivered to the consumer is of poor quality and constitutes a serious threat to human health in many regions of Russia, contributing to a high level of intestinal infections and hepatitis and to an increased risk of carcinogenic and mutagenic factors affecting the human organism.

According to official figures, half the inhabitants of the Russian Federation have to use drinking water which does not meet a number of hygiene standards, almost a third of the country's population uses local sources of supply without appropriate treatment, and a number of regions suffer from a shortage of drinking water and from associated hygiene and sanitation problems.

The acute problem of the quality of the drinking water supply is being vigorously addressed in many regions.

Work to improve the technical and technological standards of the water industry is proceeding in several areas:
- Development of energy- and resource-saving technology to prevent the pollution of natural water sources and rehabilitate their ecosystems;
- Development of new installations, equipment, instruments and computer systems to ensure a safe, reliable and controlled water supply;
- Improvement of methods of monitoring natural water sources;
- Creation of the scientific framework and provision of the technological and technical means for protecting water facilities against pollution from surface run-off;
- Creation of an economic machinery for the water industry adapted to market conditions and facilitating adequate financing of water management activities.
Russia's fundamental water management policy consists of the rehabilitation and maintenance of natural water sources in a stable state in order to guarantee a sustainable supply. This is the aim of the special-purpose federal programmes "Rebirth of the Volga", "The Caspian", "Drinking water supply for Russia's people", "Flood-prevention measures", "Fundamental improvement of water management and the environmental situation in the River Tom basin", "Improvement of the quality of Moscow's drinking water supply", etc.

In order to attain the established goals, the following policies are to be carried out for the benefit of the basic users:
- Industry: improvement of the local purification of waste waters and introduction of closed water supply systems in order to reduce the volume of pollution, especially by heavy-metal penetration of purification installations and water sources;
- Consumers: measures to ensure the commissioning of every planned purification plant, construction of installations for the repurification of waste waters and limitation of the penetration of waste waters from industrial enterprises;
- Agriculture: in view of the pollution of water facilities by dispersed drainage from farm land and livestock complexes, implementation of a set of agro-technology measures to reduce the flow of pollutants;
- Water transport: measures to clear submerged timber and fully eliminate the unrafted floating of logs on rivers.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The State management of water resources and the water industry is the responsibility of the relevant federal executive organ - the Ministry of Natural Resources.

The water resources management system is organized according to basins and administrative subdivisions.

The management of Russia's water resources and water industry has the following main functions:
- Drafting of special-purpose State programmes for the supply of water to household and business consumers and for the rehabilitation of water sources;
- Implementation of flood-control and water-damage measures;
- Imposition of limits on water consumption and withdrawal from river basins and regions;
- Issue of licenses for the use of natural water sources and authorization of works at such sources; drafting of plans for the comprehensive use and protection of the water resources of river basins;
- Distribution and redistribution of water resources among regions;
- Exercise of State control over the use and protection of water resources and natural water sources;
- Regulation of water management systems (flood and high water control, reduction of damage resulting from low water levels);
- Prevention and elimination of the consequences of accidental water pollution;
- Collection of payments for use of water resources;
- Construction of combined-use reservoirs;
- Preparation of specific basin water management agreements and monitoring of the effectiveness of the measures carried out;
- Monitoring of transboundary water agreements.
The information basis for carrying out this work is provided by State monitoring of natural water sources and the State Water Survey of the Russian Federation.


This monitoring system envisages the performance of the following basic functions:
- Monitoring of the state of natural sources;
- Collection, storage and processing of the monitoring data;
- Creation and management of data banks;
- Evaluation of the current state of natural sources and monitoring of changes;
- Provision of information to users;
- Drafting of recommendations on water resource management. The Ministry of Natural Resources, in collaboration with the executive organs of subjects of the Russian Federation, is preparing draft special-purpose State programmes on the supply of water to household and business consumers and on the rational use, protection and rehabilitation of water resources and natural sources; it is also supervising the design and implementation of measures to prevent and eliminate the consequences of water damage and accidental water pollution. 2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Ministry of Natural Resources acts as the State commissioning agency for design and construction work connected with water management, organizes the operation of large combined-use reservoirs, water management systems and water protection installations, provides for the collection, analysis, processing and distribution of information on questions of water management and the use, protection and rehabilitation of water resources and natural sources, and collaborates on such matters with public organizations and the mass information media. 3. Major Groups: No information. 4. Finance: Financing of measures concerning the use and protection of fresh water sources is provided by:

- The federal budget - 18 per cent;
- The budgets of subjects of the Federation - 16 per cent;
- Local budgets - 18 per cent;
- Resources of enterprises - 60 per cent;
- Environmental funds and other sources - 5 per cent.
In 1995 the funding of capital projects on water use and protection covering the withdrawal one cubic kilometre of fresh water amounted to $US 7.8 million.

Expenditure on the maintenance, repair and operation of fresh water distribution and protection systems and installations amounted in 1995 to $US 19.5 million and covered one cubic kilometre of water withdrawal. 5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Russian Federation has borders with 14 other States and it has arrangements with all of them for the joint use of transboundary water. Water management relations with neighbouring States are regulated by means of international agreements on cooperation in the use and protection of transboundary water.

Such agreements have been concluded with Finland, Ukraine, Khazakstan and Mongolia.

These agreements regulate the joint use of water resources for the benefit of the populations and environments of the parties, the joint monitoring of the state of transboundary waters, and the implementation of agreed water protection measures.

Similar agreements are being prepared with Estonia, Azerbaijan and China.

The conclusion and implementation of international agreements facilitates the sustainable development of border regions.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Fresh water availability (total domestic km2) 4 580.0 4 580.0 4 580.0
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water 2.4 2.35 1.9
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Activities connected with the environmental monitoring of the handling of waste products encompass everything connected with the generation, collection, storage, processing, transport and disposal of industrial and consumer wastes.

Inventories have been made or are being made of sites for the storage or disposal of industrial and consumer wastes in the Republic of Mordovia and in the Kaliningrad, Kostroma, Ivanovsk, Volgograd, Novosibirsk and Astrakhan regions and the Altai area, as well as in a number of other parts of Russia. These inventories will facilitate the systematic treatment of information on sites for storage or disposal of wastes, determination of the types of wastes accumulated at these sites, including by category of risk, and evaluation of the conditions and situation at the sites and the degree of their impact on the environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Development of the legal and regulatory framework, and investment measures for treatment and use of wastes.
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention : Signed in 1989; Ratified in 1994.
The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The situation in Russia with regard to the generation, use, treatment, storage and disposal of wastes is leading to dangerous pollution of the environment, irrational use of natural resources and considerable economic damage, and represents a real threat to human health.

The accumulation of toxic wastes at dumps and tips is causing particular alarm (see statistical data).

The drafting of an effective State policy for waste management has not been completed. The transition to a market economy has not led to any increase in the reprocessing of wastes.

The Government of the Russian Federation has confirmed a special-purpose federal programme ("Wastes") and has produced a draft federal law on industrial and consumer wastes.

A number of federal and regional programmes provide for the implementation of pilot projects to solve the problem of wastes in the Russian Federation.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Questions of the transboundary movement of wastes in the Russian Federation are regulated by the following legislation:

The federal law on ratification of the Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

Governmental Order No. 670 of 1 July 1995 on "Priority measures for implementation of the federal law on the ratification of the Basel Convention".

Governmental Order No. 766 of 1 July 1996 on "State regulation and monitoring of transboundary movements of wastes and their disposal".

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The "Wastes" programme provides for the funding of measures costing a total of about 1,000 billion roubles for the disposal of hazardous wastes.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The CIS countries have signed an agreement on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

Under this agreement the parties will implement agreed measures to regulate the import of wastes into each of their territories and the transit through their territories of hazardous or other wastes.

A regional centre for study and transfer of technology has been established.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Generation of hazardous waste (t) 1 405 226 373.620
Import of hazardous wastes (t) 9 196.872
Export of hazardous wastes (t) 33 117.193
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2) 1 474.64
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment 3 050 322.5

million roubles

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Development of the legal and regulatory framework, and investment measures for the treatment and use of wastes.
STATUS REPORT:

The Government of the Russian Federation has confirmed a special-purpose federal programme ("Wastes") and produced a draft federal law on industrial and consumer wastes.

A number of federal and regional programmes provide for the implementation of pilot projects to solve the problem of wastes in the Russian Federation.

One aim is to establish a standardized regional system for the management of the handling of industrial and consumer wastes and the improvement, development and application of regulatory and methodological instruments in this area in 1995-1996. The Ministry of the Environment is carrying out an experiment in the handling of hazardous industrial and consumer wastes. The Republics of Bashkortostan, Komi and North Osetiya are taking part in this experiment, together with the Bryansk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Ivanovsk, Kalush, Kirov, Moscow, Rostov, Smolensk, Tomsk, Chelyabinsk, Yaroslavl and Astrakhan regions. One aspect of the experiment is the development of a system of regulatory instruments on the handling of wastes.

As well as creating a standardized system of waste management at the regional level, the intention is to prepare proposals for the establishment of the computerized information and data base necessary for the taking of decisions on improvement of the environmental situation with respect to the handling of wastes, develop a standardized organizational structure, and expand cooperation in waste management at the federal and regional levels.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Governmental Order No. 1098 of 13 September 1996 on the special-purpose federal programme "Wastes".

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The "Wastes" programme provides for the funding of measures costing about 2,000 billion roubles for the disposal of solid wastes.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The CIS countries have signed an agreement on control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t) 1 405
Waste disposed(Kg/capita) 350
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Over recent years the Ministry of the Environment and other relevant ministries and offices have been continuing their work on the amendment and completion of the State register of places and sites of generation, movement, reprocessing, use, storage and disposal of radioactive materials and wastes which are sources of ionizing radiation.

The summary data on the volume of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel located at enterprises of the various offices is given in tables 1, 2 and 3.

Enterprises of Minatom (the atomic energy ministry), where most of Russia's radiochemical production is concentrated (Mayak industrial combine, Siberian chemical combine, mining-chemical combine) remain potential sources of radioactive pollution of adjoining land. In the course of their activities they have accumulated a large volume of liquid and solid wastes, with a total radioactivity of 1.5 billion Ci.

One source of particular concern is the concentration of medium- and low-level liquid wastes in open radioactive waste storage reservoirs at these enterprises.

Lake Karachai, which until recently was a disposal site for medium-level wastes, has a radioactivity of about 120 million Ci, mainly from strontium-90 and cesium-137. Following the termination of the release into the lake of wastes from the radiochemical industry, the cascade of the industrial reservoirs created in the flood plains of the upper reaches of the River Techa had an accumulation of 350 million cubic metres of polluted water, mainly low-level wastes with a total activity of about 200,000 Ci.

The presence of surface storage reservoirs for liquid wastes results in the penetration of radioactive substances into the groundwater. A lens of polluted groundwater has formed under Lake Karachai with a volume of about four million cubic metres and an area of 10 square kilometres. The rate of movement of the polluted groundwater is up to 80 metres a year. It is possible that these waters will penetrate into other water-bearing structures and deliver radionuclides into the hydrographic system.

At present the country's 29 nuclear power stations are storing 140,000 cubic metres of liquid wastes with a total radioactivity of 29,000 Ci, eight thousand cubic metres of solidified wastes with an activity of 2,000 Ci, and 120,000 cubic metres of solid wastes (equipment, construction debris).

At present none of Russia's nuclear power stations has a full complement of equipment for the preparation of solid and liquid radioactive wastes for disposal, and at some stations the liquid wastes are reprocessed at bitumenization plants (Leningrad and Kalinin stations) or evaporation plants (Balakov, Kalinin and Novoronezh stations).

Radioactive wastes are also generated by the operation of nuclear research reactors and the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research. The producers of wastes in this category are Russia's numerous scientific research organizations, industrial enterprises, medical and teaching institutions, which operate more than 400,000 different sources of ionizing radiation and which are mostly located in regions of high population density. For the disposal of such wastes Russia has 16 radioactive waste disposal facilities (excluding the Grosny special combine, which is located in an area of military conflict).

At present these sites are holding an accumulation of about 200,000 cubic metres of wastes with a total radioactivity of about two million Ci.

With the exception of the Moscow facility, which has a developed infrastructure including a scientific research and experimental complex working on the development and introduction of new technologies for the reprocessing of radioactive wastes and on environmental techniques and systems, the equipment and technology in use at these sites is not up to modern standards, and their storage capacity is either exhausted or extremely limited. A number of the facilities require new sites for the disposal of wastes. Questions of the funding of these facilities and their activities have not yet been resolved.

The radioactive waste disposal facilities are also responsible for the reception and isolation of wastes resulting not from the nuclear fuel cycle but from accidents in operations involving sources of ionizing radiation or radioactive materials. Their technical management is the responsibility of the Moscow scientific production combine "Radon". The system for control of the whole process of radio-isotope production in the country is not perfect, so that not all spent sources of ionizing radiation reach the disposal facilities, and instances of their uncontrolled release into the environment occur.

Since 1963 84 low-yield underground nuclear explosions have been carried out in various regions of the country at the request of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, the Ministry of Petroleum of the USSR and the Ministry of Gas of the USSR in order to create underground storage capacity, extinguish fires at gas wells, increase oil production, and conduct soundings of the earth's crust for the purpose of large-scale mineral prospecting. The majority of these sites have fulfilled their purpose and can now be regarded as closed, but some sites are still being operated or are only temporarily closed. The radioactivity of the materials generated by the explosions has been estimated at several million Ci. Most of these materials are found in cooled molten rock at depths from 600 to 2,800 metres. The land in these areas requires careful investigation and, if necessary, rehabilitation. This work is not being carried out either, owing to the lack of financing.

One of the most serious shortcomings remains the failure to solve problems connected with the operation of nuclear submarines, the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel at Russia's naval stations, and the operation of the nuclear ice-breaking fleet.

At present 121 nuclear submarines (70 from the Northern Fleet and 51 from the Pacific Fleet) have been decommissioned, and the nuclear cores have been unloaded from 42 vessels (Northern Fleet -18, Pacific Fleet - 24). Temporary mothballing stations are being built for the decommissioned submarines. Eight have been scrapped after removal of their nuclear compartments, nine have been prepared for long-term mothballing afloat, and 13 are at naval bases and shipyards being scrapped or prepared for mothballing afloat. Ninety-one decommissioned nuclear submarines are permanently moored in an unsatisfactory technical condition; with an overall service life of 32-35 years, up to 40 per cent of them have undergone no maintenance or repairs for more than 10 years, and it is extremely difficult to keep them afloat. In most cases the spent fuel remains in the reactors for 15 or more years. Four of the decommissioned vessels have damaged reactors, and means of disposing of them have not yet been devised.

The storage facilities for the spent fuel of the joint-stock company "Murmansk Merchant Shipping" (Lotta, Lepse and Imandra merchant shipping bases) are completely full. The same is true of the shore-based and floating storage facilities for the spent nuclear fuel of the Russian Navy (four shore-based and nine floating facilities). All but three of the floating facilities were built in the 1960s; they are in theory and in practice obsolete and owing to their poor operational order they are unable fully to perform the functions required of them.

Murmansk Merchant Shipping has experimental industrial plant for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes (Filter-4, Filter-5), which can reprocess not only the liquid wastes generated by the ice-breaking fleet but also the wastes produced by the Navy. In 1994 840 cubic metres of such wastes were reprocessed.

However, the most serious radioactive waste situation is found in the Pacific Fleet. Following the banning of the dumping of radioactive wastes at sea in 1993, the volume of wastes has steadily increased. Owing to its unsatisfactory condition, TNT-5 (a storage vessel) was transferred from Kamen Bay to Pavlovsk Bay and grounded in the shallows in order to avoid its capsizing or sinking at the jetty. This cannot be regarded as a solution of the problem, for owing to the absorption of radionuclides from wastes into the metal of its tanks the hull of TNT-5 itself constitutes solid radioactive waste.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

Signed on 17 July 1980

Ratified on 19 December 1980 by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (in force for Russia as the successor State of the USSR).

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women: in government % 0.3(1992) 2.9(1996)

in parliament % 9 (1992) 7.3(1996)

at local government level % ____(1992) ____(1996)

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material are being revised.

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies are being drawn up.

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Mechanisms are being developed.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Government has recently drawn up a number of State programmes and drafted laws to improve the status of women and expand the involvement of public organizations, including women's organizations, in the decision-making process. However, the shortage of funds for the implementation of State programmes often obstructs measures designed to improve the status of women, with a resulting increase of unemployment amongst women, deterioration of the health system, etc.

Although the representation of women in Government, Parliament and managerial posts is still insufficient, there has been a considerable increase in the activity of women's organizations. Machinery is being developed to accord greater attention to the interests of women in State sustainable development policy.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):

1. "Young people for the environment and sustainable development" ("Raduga", October 1992, November 1993, October 1995);

2. "Youth Inter-Week" (Siberian youth initiative, May 1993, May 1994, May 1995, May 1996).

Describe their role in

the national process: No information

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

Young people accounted for 42 per cent of total unemployed in 1992 and 34 per cent in 1996.

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21 has been reached.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Over the past five years activities have been carried out to improve the situation of young people and develop a dialogue between youth organizations and the Government. The Government adopted the "Youth of Russia" and "Children of Russia" programmes. A State committee on youth affairs has been created and it is making some efforts to increase the involvement of young people in the State decision-making process. However, there was hardly any representation of youth in the State Commission of the Russian Federation to develop the Concept of sustainable development, and there has been little involvement of young people in the discussion of many State documents relating to the environment and sustainable development. At the same time there is a desire for cooperation on the part both of the State and of youth organizations, so that there is some justification for thinking that such cooperation will be developed in the future.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

in place.

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

indigenous people participate as advisors.

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

indigenous people are involved but not yet sufficiently

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The post-Rio period has seen the development of State programmes to improve the lives of indigenous peoples, for example the programme "Economic and social development of the indigenous peoples of the North up to 2000". The indigenous peoples inhabiting this territory were actively involved in the programme's development. The Association of Indigenous and Minority Peoples of the North was given consultative status in the State Committee on Questions of the North. With the support of the Russian Government this Association has become a permanent participant in the Arctic Council.

In recent years a legislative framework has been created for more active participation of indigenous peoples in the taking of decisions affecting the development of their lands. However, only time will tell how this legislation will be implemented in practice.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

Mechanisms do not exist, although some efforts are being made to grant NGOs consultative status.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

Some work is being done in this area.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

NGOs inputs are adhoc.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

There is no permanent machinery for dialogue, although some efforts are being made: a consultative council of NGO leaders has been set up under the Ministry of the Environment, and NGO representatives are sometimes included in official delegations to major international negotiations and in State commissions drafting important documents connected with sustainable development.

General comments:

Recent years have seen the adoption of a number of laws which will enable NGOs to play a more active role in the decision-making process. However, no mechanisms for implementing these laws have been established. The lack of supplementary legislation and the lack of democratic traditions in society, as well as the defects of the system for dissemination of information, impede the more active involvement of NGOs in the decision-making process. However, NGO activity has increased noticeably since Rio, and in society at large and in State organs there is a steadily growing realization of the importance of the NGO role in achieving sustainable development. The development of a dialogue and cooperation between State organs and NGOs is proceeding, but not yet on a systematic basis.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives: Supports very weakly

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

At present virtually all regions are developing local plans for sustainable development, and some of them are receiving assistance from international or overseas organizations (World Bank, USAID).

The State provides methodological support, developing the strategy for Russia's transition to sustainable development.

General comments:

In the post-Rio period there has been much discussion in Russia of questions of sustainable development, and the Concept of Russia's transition to sustainable development has been established. The content of this Concept is taken into account in the development of national, local and regional plans for socio-economic development and in the adoption of economic and other decisions at all levels.

Individual sustainable development plans are being drawn up in a number of regions.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 partial participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

ILO Conventions have been ratified.

Workers take some part in National Agenda 21 discussions/implementation.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

In the post-UNCED period workers' trade unions have begun to take a more active part in Agenda 21 discussions. However, the country's serious economic problems (unemployment, inflation, late payment of wages, decline of workers' living standards) mean that the problems of sustainable development are relegated to the background.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

State policies are in the development stage

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

Publicity is given to positive examples in this area (Schmidheiny's book Changing course: a global business perspective on development and the environment has been translated into Russian) and a number of other publications have been issued, including "Russian Green Pages" containing information about companies which are actually taking environmental considerations into account in their production processes or are facilitating the solution of environmental problems by other means.

A number of conferences have been held, including a special section on business and the environment at the All-Union Congress on Environmental Protection.

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

A few big enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

A few Small and Medium sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

UNCED brought about some increase in the interest of business in problems of the environment and sustainable development. In spite of a number of positive examples in this area, the economic crisis and the decline in industrial activity have confronted most enterprises with the problem of survival, so that the problems of the environment and sustainable development are not yet priorities for them.

However, since Rio leading businessmen have begun to take a greater interest in the development of State sustainable development policy and have themselves begun to take initiatives to air the principles of sustainable development in business circles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

there is some effort in this direction.

brief description: A number of popular publications have been produced, articles have been published in the mass information media, and conferences and seminars have been held, in particular for young people.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Some efforts are being made (in particular, a number of conferences have been held).

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Although on the whole society's awareness of the importance of the problems of protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development is still not sufficient, by means of the kinds of activity mentioned above scientific and technical circles have been promoting the dissemination of these ideas among the general public and decision-makers, and this activity has facilitated Russia's transition to sustainable development.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

Some attempts have been made to disseminate knowledge in this area.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

These questions have been discussed at a number of meetings and conferences, but no policies have yet been developed.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

They are very little involved.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Farmers take little part in the development of sustainable development policies. Despite the fact that farmers' associations and State organs have done some work on the dissemination of information about the sustainable development of agriculture, this has not been enough to motivate farmers to make rational use of natural resources and introduce efficient farming practices.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

At present in the Russian Federation State monitoring of the condition of the environment, use of natural resources, and atmospheric pollution, as well as environmental monitoring in general and the solution of other environmental protection problems are the responsibility of the State Environmental Protection Committee, the Federal Forestry Service, the Ministry of Natural Resources, and the federal hydrometeorology and cartography services; the relevant expenditures are identified in a separate section of the federal budget entitled "Protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, cartography and geodesy".

These resources are intended for the conduct of State environmental monitoring activities, the organization and maintenance of reserves and national parks under the special-purpose federal programme of support for State nature reserves and national parks up to 2000, and the implementation of the special-purpose programmes on Russia's forests and protection of forests against fires.

Allocations are also made for coastal-protection and flood-prevention works, repair of dams, dredging of river deltas, cleaning of reservoirs, and maintenance of pumping stations and hydrological installations, and for other measures connected with the sustainment, protection and rehabilitation of natural water sources and for the maintenance by these means of a good-quality water supply for household and business consumers.

The federal budget makes allocations for the implementation of the special-purpose programme on the development of the hydrometeorlogical services of the national economy in 1994, 1995 and up to 2000, which covers the provision of hydrometeorlogical services for the national economy and the public, the defence of the Russian Federation, hydrometeorlogical monitoring and the provision of information to the national economy about the emergence of dangerous natural hydrometeorlogical phenomena.

The federal budget allocates resources for topographical-geodesic and cartographic work, remote sounding of the earth, the demarcation of the frontiers of the Russian Federation and the correct use of geographical names, and also for the implementation of the special-purpose federal programmes on development of seismological observations and forecasting of earthquakes for 1995-2000 and for the introduction of advanced technology in the cartographic and geodesic services of the Russian Federation.

At present expenditures under the federal budget are presented in accordance with the budget classification by ministries and offices, and expenditures on environmental protection measures are also indicated, as part of their total expenditures, for the ministries and offices whose activities may pollute the environment or involve use of natural resources.

In addition, the federal budget provides resources for the implementation of special-purpose federal programmes for improvement of the environment in specific regions and cities of the Russian Federation ("Programme for improvement of the environmental situation and protection of human health in the Tula region for 1993-1998", "Special-purpose federal programme of urgent measures to improve the state of the environment, the public health situation and human health in Bratsk, Irkutsk region", "Comprehensive federal programme on the protection of Lake Baikal and rational use of the natural resources of its basin", etc.).

Provision is made for use of the resources of the Federal Environment Fund, which have been incorporated in the federal budget since 1995, to finance additional measures for the construction and re-equipment of environmental protection facilities, the conduct of scientific research and design work connected with the environment, and the preservation of natural monuments.

The law on the federal budget for 1996 confirmed resources totalling 2,131.5 billion roubles for protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, cartography and geodesy. In 1996, in view of the strained situation of federal budget revenues, financing was provided basically under the protected sections of the budget (wages and extra charges, transfers, etc.), which were expected to be fully funded in 1996.

It is proposed that a total of 1,973.6 billion roubles (taking into account reciprocal write-offs), or 90 per cent of the plan, will be earmarked from the federal budget.

The draft federal budget for 1997, which has been confirmed in second reading by the State Duma, contains expenditures totalling 2,710.5 billion roubles for protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, cartography and geodesy.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:
ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

ODA policy issues

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

The development of computer telecommunications in Russia using modern equipment and technology with a view to integration in the world information community began in the late 1980s.

In the past decade the world has in fact seen an information revolution as a result of the widespread introduction of data transfer systems, which has led to in entirely new and extremely efficient methods of organizing scientific and academic activities.

The creation of an efficient system for reciprocal access by the leading national scientific research and academic centres to the information technology resources built up in Russia and abroad (data banks and bases, information systems, super-computers) is a very important component of the measures taken to maintain the capacity of Russia's science and education system and to create favourable conditions for entry into the international scientific community.

This problem will be resolved as part of the inter-departmental programme on the creation of a national network of computer telecommunications for science and higher education, which is to be implemented in 1995-1998.

The national computer network is being built as a local distribution branched system which includes an inter-urban network linking the regional user networks and facilitating the exchange of information among Russian users as well as access to international communications networks.

At present Russia has two complementary data transfer systems using various technologies - X.25 and TSR/IR. Both these systems have their own areas of application, but for a number of reasons the most popular in the international scientific community is the Internet technology.

The programme is designed to establish in Russia on the basis of overseas experience the nucleus (cluster) of a future Russian network of the Internet type.

The national network of computer telecommunications for science and higher education is a logical virtual network composed in most cases of "real" standard computer networks.

The national computer network will be created with the help of broad international scientific and technological cooperation.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

In accordance with Governmental Order No. 360 of 17 April 1995 on "State support for the development of science and scientific and technological activities", a decision of the Governmental Commission on Scientific and Technological Policy, and Presidential Decree No. 884 of 13 June 1996 on "Doctrine of development of Russian science", the priorities for the development of science and technology were drawn up and confirmed, together with a list of the critical technologies at the federal level, taking into account the problems of Russia's sustainable development.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development (thousands) 1 532.6

1 315.0

1992

1993

1 106.3 1994
1 061.0 1995
980* 1996
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (billions of roubles) 103.16

848.9

1992

1993

2 791.5 1994
5 470.0 1995
11 560.0* 1996
Other data


*Estimates.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Protection of the environment and gradual re-education of the public to make it aware of the problems of sustainable development.
STATUS REPORT:

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

In the context of the emerging Concept of Russia's sustainable development, the system for promoting public awareness of matters of sustainable development is undergoing change. Teaching programmes have been created, textbooks are being produced, and arrangements are being made for the training of teachers in this subject.

b) Increasing public awareness

Public information on matters of sustainable development is provided under the leadership and coordination of the State Environmental Protection Committee.

The problems of sustainable development are now regularly aired by the mass information media and are being extensively incorporated in further-education curricula.

c) Promoting training

The Ministry of General and Vocational Education has drawn up recommendations for the redesign of teaching courses relating to questions of environmental protection to take into account the problems of Russia's sustainable development.

Schools of general and further education are creating sustainable development centres to promote education and public awareness on a regional basis. This work is coordinated by an inter-departmental council on public environmental education, which has been approved by the President.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

Funding for the work of re-educating the public in the problems of sustainable development is provided from the resources of the State budget and international programmes.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Adult literacy rate (%) Male 99.5* 99.5*
Adult literacy rate (%) Female 96.8* 97.4*
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling 9
% of GNP spent on education 3.5 3.5
Females per 100 males in secondary school 102 104 105
Women per 100 men in the labour force 87
Other data

*Literacy rate for persons aged 15 and over as a proportion of the total population in that age-group, according to the 1989 population census and 1994 mini-census.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

In order to finance special-purpose projects in accordance with the priorities of the Global Environment Facility, agreements have been signed with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development concerning grants to Russia for:

1. Preserving biodiversity - $US 20.1 million.

2. Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases during the production and consumption of methane - $US 3.2 billion.

3. Phased reduction of the consumption of ozone depleting substances - $US 60 million.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

Under the auspices of international legal instruments the Russian Federation is working on the implementation of more than 20 agreements.

The priority in this area of activity is fulfilment of Russia's obligations under the following international instruments:

Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and Montreal Protocol (1987);

Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992);

Convention on Biological Diversity (1992);

Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989);

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973, CITES);

Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention, 1992);

Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (1972);

Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972);

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (1979);

Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELKOM, 1974);

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (1991).

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
x
3. Combating poverty
x
4. Changing consumption patterns
x
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
x
6. Human health
x
7. Human settlements
x
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
x
9. Protection of the atmosphere
x
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
x
11. Combating deforestation
x
12. Combating desertification and drought
x
13. Sustainable mountain development
x
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
x
15. Conservation of biological diversity
x
16. Biotechnology
x
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
x
18. Freshwater resources
x
19. Toxic chemicals
x
20. Hazardous wastes
x
21. Solid wastes
x
22. Radioactive wastes
x
24. Women in sustainable development
x
25. Children and youth
x
26. Indigenous people
x
27. Non-governmental organizations
x
28. Local authorities
x
29. Workers and trade unions
x
30. Business and industry
x
31. Scientific and technological community
x
32. Farmers
x
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
x
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
x
35. Science for sustainable development
x
36. Education, public awareness and training
x
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
x
38. International institutional arrangements
x
39. International legal instruments
x
40. Information for decision-making
x

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997