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National Implementation of Agenda 21

PAKISTAN

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Pakistan to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

PAKISTAN

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Pakistan Mission to the United Nations

Date: 26 February, 1997

Submitted by:

Mailing address: 8 East 65th St., New York, N.Y. 10021

Telephone: (212) 879-8600

Telefax: (212) 744-7348

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

FACT SHEET

PAKISTAN

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Environment and Urban Affairs Division

Contact point (Name, Title, Office):

Telephone:

Fax:

e-mail:

Mailing address: Environment and Urban Affairs Division, Shaheed-i-Millat Sectt, Islamabad

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved: Any informal organization exists at present as follows: 1. Pakistan's Agenda 21 is the National Conservation Strategy (NCS), which was approved by the Government of Pakistan on March 1, 1992. All reports regarding strategies, policies and programmes for sustainable development will be drawn up on the basis of the NCS. 2. While the focal point of national coordination for Agenda 21 is the (Federal level) Environment and Urban Affairs Division (EUAD), the nature of coordination is informal and involves other agencies - e.g., the environment section in the Planning and Development Division, the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (an Independent Policy Research Institute). The World Conservation Union -IUCN ( a Non-Governmental Organization); and other Government Ministries. 3. There are efforts at present to link the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (originally a policy body of regulatory nature) through institutional changes to a national coordination process.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

1. The Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI)

2. The World Conservation Union - IUCN (Please see page 5 of Pakistan's 1993 annual report to the CSD for more detail).

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

1. SDPI's mandate is to conduct technical and policy analysis across a range of policy issues to support the formulation of long-term strategies for Social and Economic Development. The Government uses it as a source of information about critical policy issues, and as an initiator of new policy strategies.

2. The IUCN has played a pivotal role in the development of the NCS, and in particular, in ensuring that both the planning and implementation of the NCS involve wide consultation within the country.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: To meet the challenges of environment and development in Pakistan, the Government has decided to support and establish a viable and working new global partnership in the social, economic and environmental dimensions. Pakistan had begun paying priority attention to the protection of the environment soon after the Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972. Pakistan, as Chairman of G-77, played a leading role at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in 1992. Pakistan is one of a handful of developing countries to prepare a comprehensive National Conservation Strategy (NCS) in 1992 in Cooperation with national and international organizations.

To achieve the goal of environmental protection, Pakistan has signed international agreements, i.e., the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994; Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances; Basel Convention on Biological Diversity, 1994; International Convention to Combat Desertification, 1994.

In the regional context, Pakistan is working in close cooperation with regional organizations such as the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), South Asia Cooperative Environment Programmes (SACEP), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECC), United National Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). A number of joint activities have been initiated and are being implemented successfully. To protect the marine environment from Land Based activities, a regional Seas Programme of UNEP/SACEP is underway. Pakistan participated in the environmental Management Seminar organized by SACEP in Sri Lanka.

In pursuance of the Uruguay Agreement, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has come into existence . The first Ministerial Conference of the WTP was held recently. Pakistan actively participated in the meeting.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development is responsible for policy decisions on various issues concerning the environment. The Pakistan Environment Protection Council (PEPC) also exists in the Ministry under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister. Some of the major functions of the PEPC include enforcement of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1996; and the formulation of National Environmental Policies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In order to promote environmental protection, the Government created the federal Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development and its technical branches Pak-EPA; four Provincial Departments of Environment, and EPAs. To cope with the environmental situation, EPAs need to be strengthened and well equipped.

3. Major Groups: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Pakistan operations have focused on the development and the implementation of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS). The World Wide Fund (WWF), Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) and the Rotary Club are other major groups.

4. Finance: In order to accelerate sustainable development, local financing, as well as foreign funding is arranged through the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs Division. In addition, bilateral and regional cooperation to finance environmental projects is also undertaken. However, the availability of foreign funding has been a problem in the past. Steps should be taken by developed countries to flow more funds towards developing countries.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: As stated, Pakistan is seeking regional, as well as international cooperation to protect the environment and conserve its natural resources. Pakistan has been quite successful in cooperating with agencies, i.e. UNIDO, EU, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCAP, ECO, SAARC. SACEP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

No information.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus : Increasing Energy Efficiency is one of the fourteen core issues in the National Conservation Strategy (NCS).

Inefficient use currently results from essentially three sources: 1. overload demand of natural gas from both household and industrial consumers, causing a drop in pressure; 2. energy consumption of water pumps; and 3. inefficient lighting, hardware and appliances.

National targets
Annual Energy Conservation Targets in Percentage (1996-2000)
Sector
1996-1997
1997-1998
1998-1999
1999-2000
Industry
1.6%
3.3%
4.6%
5.5%
Transport
1.5%
3.0%
4.2%
5.1%
Buildings
1.1%
2.3%
3.2%
3.8%
Agriculture
1.2%
2.5%
3.4%
4.2%

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In 1987, the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Wildlife and Forestry set-up the autonomous Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), responsible for energy conservation and energy efficiency.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: ENERCON has been conducting data collection and field research. The knowledge which stems from this experience has served as the basis for training and public awareness programmes, including publications, seminars, workshops and advertisements in newspapers, radio and television. ENERCON has worked to identify opportunities which will yield over 56 million US $ in energy savings. Energy savings of 18 million US $ has already been realized. ENERCON has conducted 52 energy detailed audits and 85 preliminary audits.

In addition, the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Wildlife and Forestry and ENERCON have initiated programmes to promote efficient energy use. Pilot projects in Karachi and Faisalabad have been proposed. These projects will produce 500 to 1000 kilowatts. The Government has also implemented a programme to audit the energy efficiency of water pumps. The programme includes training of local workshop mechanics, testing facilities and pilot projects.

3. Major Groups: ENERCON has developed a Home Energy Conservation Seminar targeted at housewives and working women. To date, more than 12,000 women have benefitted from the seminar. ENERCON has trained trainers who respond to requests from the women's organizations and educational institutions in the four provinces.

4. Finance: Domestic resources are being made available for a Five-year Multisectoral Energy Efficiency Investment Programme 1996-2001 (Rs. 93.5 million); a proposed Natural Gas project (Rs. 97 million), intended to be a joint investment from both, the public and private sector; a water pump programmes municipal area (Rs. 158 million); agricultural tubewell programme (Rs. 250 million); and a Lighting Efficiency Programme (Rs. 80 million).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In 1995-1996, ENERCON conducted jointly with the ENERGY CONSERVATION CENTRE (ECC) Japan, UNIDO and UNDP a series of 9 Preliminary Energy Audits in Glass, Plastic Forming and Food Processing Industries.

ENERCON has developed a Rs. 92 million five-year energy plan for lighting efficiency in commercial buildings on a national scale. This five-year plan was made in collaboration with the joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$)
321
399
452
Real GDP growth (%)
5.5
5.5
7.7
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
191(a)
204
209
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
6.3
8.8
10.3(b)
Other data a= 1989 b= 1993

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Pakistan has the fourteenth highest population growth rate (2,8% per year) among countries with more than 1 million people. Among the nine most populous countries in the world, Pakistan is second in relative growth rate and third in population density. In 1995, the population of Pakistan was 128.1 million people. The total fertility rate, which has remained nearly unchanged for decades, is about 6.5 children per woman. Approximately 60% of infant deaths are due to infectious and parasitic diseases, most of which can be traced to polluted water. However the number of crude death rates has been declining, and life expectancy has risen in the last few decades. In recent years, infant and child mortality has begun to decrease.

One of the 14 core programmes of the NCS of Pakistan is integrating population and environment. Therefore, an important operational principle of the NCS is to reduce the rate of population growth as quickly as possible, while simultaneously improving the quality of the human resource base. Many facets are being used in the approach to solve the problem, including education, health, family planning, programmes for women etc.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Population Welfare is most directly concerned with demographic issues. The National Population Policy covers environmental linkages.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Government has provided information for the Population Conference in Cairo. There has been a national debate linking population and environment at the Government level.

3. Major Groups: Not applicable.

4. Finance: Not applicable.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
112,049
112,802
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
3.1
Surface area (Km2)
796,095
Population density (people/Km2)
154
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A mass awareness and education campaign has been undertaken to inform the public about water pollution and health hazards associated with drinking contaminated water. The campaign is a multi-media mix in nature and approaches the issues in simple and easy to understand terms and language, establishing a direct link between polluted water and disease and high infant mortality rates.

Another major ongoing activity is the mass awareness campaign for vehicular pollution. Special emphasis has been placed on the health hazards associated with vehicular pollutants. The campaign will also address the remedial measures and laws related to rising environmental and health problems.

In addition, the continuous campaign for tree planting has direct and indirect implications for health improvement. This has been an ongoing activity for many years.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

52.0

51.0

56.5

56.5
61

(M+F)
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
130
109
95
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
700(a)
400(b)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
67(c)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
24(c)
Other data

a= 1978 b= 1992 c=1988

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In 1995, the population of Pakistan was 128.1 million people, of whom 31% live in the cities, a figure which is expected to rise to 50% by the year 2020.

A large majority of new houses being constructed in Pakistan are not designed in accordance with the climate. As a result, house owners and occupants consume extra energy to make the houses comfortable for living. It is estimated that improved building designs can reduce household energy bills by up to 20%, and this figure could be increased to 50% by the use of efficient home appliances.

Among the integrated human settlement projects being implemented by Pakistan are the Orangi and the Khuda Ki Basti. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) in Karachi is an unplanned settlement which has grown rapidly from 1965 till 1994. At last count there were 800,000 people involved in the project. The programme provides services through a number of programmes, like low-cost sanitation and housing programmes, as well as assistance for segregated and illiterate or semiliterate low-income women, small family enterprises and entrepreneurs dealing with woodlots and orchards.

The second project is the Khuda Ki Basti in Hydrabad. The objective of the programme is to provide shelter, land and a range of services to low-income groups.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife is responsible for this sector. A Committee, appointed by ENERCON, reported to the Habitat-II Conference in Istanbul.

ENERCON has prepared a Building Energy Code as a supplement to the Building Code of Pakistan. The Energy code includes specific recommendations for both building design and mechanical equipment, such as fans, lights and air-conditioning.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Recommendations have been made to strengthen the existing in-house capability of the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, by maintaining the database on housing, human settlements and the environment. This will be the second phase of the data-base project.

3. Major Groups: Please refer to the projects described in the Status Report.

4. Finance: Financial issues: the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) implemented a user-fee approach to a wide extent. In 1993, this resulted in 57.2 million Rs. which were used by the local population for sanitation, while the OPP used 3.8 million RS. for research that year. The Khuda Ki Basti project was also financed by the occupants. In order to be part of the project, a membership fee of Rs. 1000 was required, along with a monthly fees of 50 to 100 rupees paid to finance the development of infrastructure.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: ENERCON has made a cooperative project called Energy Efficient House Design. The programme was a collaboration among UNDP, UN Centre for Human Settlements, and the University of South Wales (Australia). The objectives of the programme were to prepare a training guide and a 4-week training programme; to develop prototype designs of energy efficient houses and large scale dissemination of the final designs.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
32.0
34.7
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
4.9
4.4
Largest city population (in % of total population)
6.5
7.0
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, and Energy Conservation is responsible for environmental issues.

Pakistan has a fully developed National Conservation Strategy (NCS), which was approved by the Government on 1 March, 1992. The NCS deals with 14 core issues, which are: 1. Maintaining soils in cropland; 2. Increasing irrigation efficiency; 3. Protecting watersheds; 4. Supporting forestry and plantations; 5. Restoring rangelands and improving livestock; 6. Protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries; 7. Conserving biodiversity; 8. Increasing energy efficiency; 9. Developing and deploying material and energy renewables; 10. Preventing/abating pollution; 11. Managing urban wastes; 12. Supporting institutions for common resources; 13. Integrating population and environment programmes; and 14. Preserving the cultural heritage. The NCS works on a ten year planning and implementation cycle. The current cycle is 1992-2001.

Pakistan has prepared a draft National Environmental Act, which is to replace the Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance of 1983. This draft was prepared after consultations with more than 5000 individuals, organizations and groups including, trade and industry, environmental experts and NGOs. It has been submitted to the Cabinet for approval and is likely to be passed by the Parliament soon. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) was set up in accordance with the legislation of 1983. The major functions of the Council include enforcement of the 1983 Ordinance and formulation of comprehensive national environmental policy.

Every proponent of a project, the construction or completion of which is likely to have an adverse affect on the environment, has to submit at the time of planning an Environmental Impact Assessment to the concerned Environmental Protection Agency in the Province, confirming that the project will comply with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS).

Based on the experience of the National Conservation Strategy, policies are being redirected at institutional strengthening and human resource development, especially at the local and provincial level.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): Please refer to the Status Report.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In 1992, the Sustainable Development Policy Institute was created as an independent policy research institute in order to supervise and monitor the National Conservation Strategy.

The NEQS is meant as a vehicle for protection of the environment. Such standards now exist for industrial and municipal effluents, and for motor exhaust and noise. Standards to establish a charge on polluters and to introduce self-monitoring systems were to be introduced by the 1st of July 1996. There is a Standing Expert Advisory Committee in charge of regularly up-dating the NESQ. A mass-awareness campaign about NEQS has been launched. In order to test the NEQS for effective implementation, the Government has set up a Central Laboratory for Environmental Analysis (CLEAN). Companies within the Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Tanner and Textile industries have been approached to assess the status of compliance to the NEQS.

The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) has recommended creating a Pakistan Environmental Fund and an Environmental Bank. The PEPC is also responsible for setting up pressure groups and environmental clubs at workplaces and factories, in order to raise awareness and improve the environment.

3. Major Groups: Please refer to the preparations of the Draft Environmental Protection Act of 1996.

4. Finance: Please refer to Chapter 13.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Government of Pakistan has received assistance from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), for the implementation of NEQS.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol (1987) was ratified in December 1992.

The London Amendment (1990) was ratified in December 1992.

The Copenhagen Amendment (1992) was ratified on May 18, 1995.

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 19--: No information.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The UNFCC was ratified on 1 June 1994 and entered into force on 30 August, 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter For details concerning energy not used in transport, please refer to chapter 4.

Pakistan's greenhouse gas emissions are nominal, of which energy generation, industry and households are major consumers. A Cabinet Committee on Climate Change met for the first time on March 27th 1995. Its purpose is to monitor, evaluate and prepare strategies to cope with adverse impacts of climate change by creating an appropriate institutional mechanism which would operate by taking into account all sectors. Pakistan has developed a system of inventory of all green gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, which is periodically updated.

The diesel and furnace oil being marketed in Pakistan have a high sulphur (SO2) content. Pakistan is also facing numerous problems from the lack of efficient fuel burning, abnormal exhaust emissions from automobiles, inadequate tuning of engines, and improper repairs and maintenance. These problems mainly affect the larger cities where breathing difficulties can occur during peak-hours. Air quality clashing with the WHO standards is costing Pakistan about Rs. 25 billion a year from adverse health and other effects. The number of vehicles in the country increased from 0.85 million in 1982 to 2.8 million in 1995, showing an overall increase of 229%. It is envisaged that, with the present rate of growth, the number of vehicles will increase to 4.5 million by the year 2000, thereby adding to quantum green house gases.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Pakistan Environment Protection Council (PEPC) has jurisdiction in this area, and it has established National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Protection of the atmosphere is one of the fourteen core issues in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. PEPC has established a Committee on Clean Fuels, which has the mandate to make recommendations for the alleviation of atmospheric pollution. An incentive reduction scheme has been recommended in relation to the emissions from Compressed Natural Gas and Liquid Petroleum Gas powered buses, trucks, and urban public services, and a mandatory introduction of catalytic converters in two-stroke engines by July 1997 has been suggested. Vehicle emission regulations, are also being set to include Nox, Sox, SPM and Lead by the expert committee of PEPC.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: ENERCON has put together some programmes to reduce the outlet of greenhouse gases. These programmes involve: Setting up tuning demonstration centres in 9 cities; training 1,000 mechanics and workshop owners; providing funding for 100 tuning centres; conducting surveys that will lead to new policies and projects. It has also proposed to set up a computerized database on the quality of air for the six largest cities in Pakistan.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Please refer to #5 for international finance.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Ministry of Environment has approved the project "Fuel Efficiency in Road Transport" at a cost of Rs. 230.58 million, including a Rs. 220.55 million grant under GEF. The project will be executed by Enercon. The United Nations has extended major support to this project through UNDP. Support for phasing out Ozone Depletion Substances is provided through cooperation with UNDP, the World Bank and UNIDO.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Pakistan faces a general lack of capacity of institutions to promote an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources. However, policies related to capacity building, management and technology are at the planning stage.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The institutions responsible for implementation in this sector are: the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA); the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NGOs and Planning and Development Departments. These bodies are members of National Coordination Mechanisms for Sustainable Development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Please refer to Status Report.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The forest inventory identified a forest area of 0.042 million km2 in 1991. Forests are divided on the basis of whether they are state-owned or private-owned forests. The state-owned forests are again divided into 4 categories: reserved, protected, unclassified and resumed lands. Two-thirds of the public forest are non-commercial. The remaining one-third, located mostly on steep and unstable slopes of the Himalayas, is harvested. Production of timber from commercial forests is about 0.5 million m3. Pakistan has the objective of doubling its forest area, from the existing 5% to 10% of total land area. In order to meet this target, the Government has initiated various projects in an umbrella campaign of a Massive Afforestation Programme (MAP). This programme has 5 main components: 1. Mobilization of resources. 2. Nursery development. 3. Procurement of large forest lands. 4. Ensuring adequate technical capacity, and 5. Monitoring plantations. Numerous Public and Private Sector Corporations, from the National Highway Authority to Sui Southern Gas Company, have been involved in planting a total of 546 million saplings by the end of the monsoon in 1996.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed 15 October 1994 and ratified 24 February 1997.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter A National Plan for Combatting Desertification has been developed and submitted to the Interim Secretariat of the Convention for approval.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The institutions responsible for this sector are the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, the Arid Zone Research Council, Pakistan Forest Institute, the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Water and the Power Authority, and the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife and Energy Conservation. The legislation to combat desertification was revised in 1994.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Current land use in Pakistan is based on Satellite Imagery Interpretation. Relevant NGOs have mass-awareness programmes. Land degradation and human impact assessment have not yet been covered, although some surveys were done dating back to 1988. There is a serious shortage of trained staff and management, in addition to the lack of financial resources.

3. Major Groups: NGOs have independent programming which includes women's participation. Youths are not involved.

4. Finance: The National Conservation Strategy on restoring rangelands and improving livestock quality investment programme 1992-2001, is estimated to cost 82.63 million US $.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Experts from Pakistan have assisted Mongolia and Iran in the preparation of their National Action Programmes. The United Nations Environment Programme is providing financial assistance of 60,000 US $ for the preparation of the National Plan for Combatting desertification, a plan which will soon become operational since the Interim Secretariat of the International Convention to Combat Desertification has approved it.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Pakistan has five significant mountain systems: Western Himalayas, Karakoram, Hindukush, Suleman and Kirthar. Pakistan is troubled by the lack of land-use planning and land-use control, uncertain land tenure and an inadequate policy on sustainable development in mountain areas. The monitoring systems of the meteorological situation are poor, and have not improved since the 1980s.

The mountain areas which are cultivated suffer from soil and water erosion, as well as limited infrastructure and marketing facilities. These problems lead to a need for sustainable economic diversification, especially since, despite intensification of the use of farmlands in the mountain areas, these lands will never be able to accommodate the additional population growth expected and already apparent.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The institutions responsible for this sector are the Governments of Azad Jammu & Kashmir; North West Frontier Province; Northern Area; Punjab and Sindh.

Legislation regarding this sector includes: the Pakistan Forest Act of 1927, the Hazara Guzara 1936 Act, the Provincial Wildlife Legislation and the Provincial Fisheries Legislation.

The Cabinet on Climate Change has made recommendations to strengthen legislation in order to protect an area called Margallah Hills. The idea is to extend the existing area of Margallah Hills and then impose special regulations to preserve fauna, flora, bio-diversity and forests. Recommendations for the legislation are focused on prohibiting mining and quarrying, and preventing industry and manufacturing from getting established in these areas.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Pakistan is an agricultural country, and more than 50% of its population is employed in the agricultural sector. Less than 20% of Pakistan's land can be intensively farmed, nearly all of which is cultivated. In 1990, 209,400 km2 were in use as farmland. In general, farmers lack knowledge of operating characteristics and full capabilities of technologies within the agricultural sector.

Pakistan is faced with some common problems in both irrigated and rainfed areas used for agriculture. These problems can be summarized as erosion of soil, underuse of organic fertilizers and overuse of synthetic chemicals. In rainfed areas, overextensive cultivation is common.

The decision for intensification of farm lands in Pakistan stems from demographic reality. In rough terms, one hectare of cultivated land supported an average 5 people in 1993; by the year 2010, it is estimated that the same land must support nearly 10. Pakistan has developed strategies to ensure food security by 1998, which also includes the agricultural sector.

In 1981-82, a programme called "Matching Grants Programme" (MGP) was initiated. The MGP focuses on the development of infrastructure in rural areas, and is based on community participation. To date, about 22,000 schemes have been implemented in 26.500 villages. An evaluation of the MGP showed that the programme has had a noteworthy effect on the communities in terms of raising both socio-economic standards, and mass-awareness of hygiene and environmental conditions. Numerous meetings and working groups have been initiated to strengthen the knowledge and capacity within food production, improve access to agricultural markets, and manage land and fertilizer use. A National Rural Support Programme was established to promote education and health, based on community participation. In 1993, this programme was supported by the Government with Rs.1,000,000.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: MGP is structured so that the local councillor is normally the leader of the Project Committee which approves the projects. The councillor is responsible for collecting community finance.

Legislation covering Agriculture and Rural development includes: Insect Pest Control Act of 1959; The Pesticide ordinance of 1971; the Pakistan Pesticides Rules of 1973; and the Pakistan Agriculture Research Centre XXXVIII of 1981.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: The strategies to ensure food security by 1998 and to address rural welfare include women, indigenous people, local communities and NGOs. Local communities and NGOs are taken into consideration to review international trade relations and agricultural production. Women, youth, indigenous people, and local communities are also involved through workshops in developing and strengthening institutional capacity for plant genetic resources.

4. Finance: The Matching Grants Programme is financed as follows: half is funded through the Union Councils together with the communities, either in cash, or in kind; and the other half through the Directorate General of Local Government and Rural Development (DGLGRD).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In 1994-95, all of the Public Sector Development programmes were assisted by international organizations or foreign governments. The assistance provided included both human and financial resources, by various organizations such as FAO, UNDP, and the World Bank.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
256,100
257,500
Agricultural land as % of total land area
32.2
32.3
Agricultural land per capita
2,663
2,298
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
7,341
8,325
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT:

Pakistan is a party to a number of nature conservation Conventions which include :

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

The Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) - Bonn Convention

The Convention on Wetlands of international Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention)

World Heritage Convention

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

The Framework Convention on Climate Change

The Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD): Pakistan is a signatory and its ratification is being processed.

Pakistan has initiated preparation of a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) which should be completed in its first phase by the time that CSD V is convened (April 1997). The second phase of preparation will begin as soon as further GEF funding has been made available.

Pakistan has been successful in implementing the above-mentioned Conventions and this has resulted in a new lease on life for wild animals, the conservation of protected areas, including wetlands, and coastal areas. There is a great need to develop a mechanism for the implementation of all the Conventions. CITES, for example, can only be made effective if the Management and Scientific Authorities in the developing countries under CITES are made strong by increasing their capacity both in terms of finance, technology and staffing. Their research capabilities need to be extended. Rescue centres, which are required to be designated by the Parties, do not have the capacity to host confiscated species and therefore specific funding for this is required, particularly for Authorities and Custom Officers. Specific training of Customs Officers as well as Enforcement Officers is needed and which also requires funding in developing countries.

Pakistan has many wetlands of international importance, but so far, few could be identified for listing in the Wetlands Conventions. This Convention also does not have an effective funding mechanism. The Monitoring procedure of the Wetlands Convention could not assist Pakistan in developing its Wetlands and Coastal Areas and there is a great need for such a mechanism to be strengthened.

Only the Convention on Biological Diversity has a funding mechanism, while other Conventions do not. The governments, especially developing country parties, have to bear the costs of implementation of the obligations of the Conventions. Therefore, there is a great need for all of the Conventions to be technically and financially supported through the GEF mechanism and extended to all developing country parties. CSD should ensure that the funding of the developing country Parties is made obligatory, without which the world's heritage is not likely to be conserved on a sustainable basis.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Pakistan has many sites which could qualify for designation as sites for the World Heritage Convention. The search for an outstanding site which may qualify for designation as a World Heritage Site needs special attention. All previous efforts of Pakistan have not been agreed to by the World Heritage Committee, and due to a lack of funds, Pakistan could not explore such sites. There is, therefore, a need for UN Agencies and other international donors to come forward and assist Pakistan and other developing country parties in the identification of World Heritage Sites so as to save them from any further deterioration and take measures for their development.

Pakistan is a Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity and has taken up many measures before becoming a Party to this Convention. Pakistan has 15 National Parks, 86 Wildlife Sanctuaries and an equal number of Game Reserves. Management Plans have been prepared for 3 National Parks. The implementation of the management plans of these National Parks and preparation of the management plans for the remaining National Parks is required immediately. Similarly, many species are endangered and plans for their recovery are to be made immediately.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development is responsible for the implementation of this sector. The Ministry is involved in national decision-making.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There is a great need for capacity-building in all of the relevant institutions in Pakistan in all of the components of biodiversity. For example, the conservation of species and protected areas management requires the capacity of the provincial wildlife departments. There is a great need to appoint Park Managers in the National Parks. Presently, Forest Officers are posted in the National Parks as Park Managers and wherever needed in other forest areas they are transferred without the consideration of the needs of the specific National Park or Protected Area. The reason for this is because of financial constraints, as the Provincial Forests Departments cannot afford to place separate Wildlife Managers. The Provincial Wildlife Departments need to have permanent resource persons to make inventories in the protected areas, as the inventories that are made for PAs are not sufficient for policy formulation. The protected areas need well-equipped staff for checking the poaching of wildlife. Well-equipped Park Centres are required in order to raise awareness within local communities.

3. Major Groups: Local communities, including women, are involved in the conservation of biodiversity.

4. Finance: A sum of Rs. 52.5 million has been allocated to halt the decline in the state of Pakistan's biological resources within its ecosystems.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Through the funding of US$ 313,000 being provided by the GEF by the World Bank, Pakistan has initiated the preparation of a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) which is likely to be completed by the first quarter of 1997. However, this is a continuous activity and the BAP is likely to be completed in the second phase for which further funding of GEF would be required. Under this funding, an investment proposal is also being prepared for the management and development of three selected Protected Areas of Pakistan through possible funding by the GEF. A project entitled "Maintaining Biodiversity in Pakistan with Rural Community Development" is being funded by the GEF through UNDP at a cost of US$2.5 million. Upon the successful completion of the project, it is likely that Pakistan may receive another 3.5 million US$ from GEF through UNDP.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
9.0
9.0
1990
Latest 1996
Number of threatened species
60
60
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A special institutional body, the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, (NIBGE) is in charge of this sector. NIBGE tries to involve industry in its work by inviting management to discuss marketing possibilities for environmental protection. Workshops are being organized on a quarterly basis to enhance awareness and understanding of biotechnology issues.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: NIBGE is responsible for legal and policy issues related to this sector. In 1994, it had a professional staff of 68. NIBGE has an evaluation committee which yearly reviews programmes and makes suggestions for improvements. A Biotechnology code of conduct for the release of organisms into the Environment has been prepared for national adoption. The Code of Conduct has been modelled from the code of conduct prepared by UNIDO. The enforcement of the code of conduct will be in the hands of the Biosafety Committee which will check all handling of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). The procedure contains principles on biotechnology risk assessment and risk management.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Please refer to Status Report.

3. Major Groups: Traditional methods and knowledge of indigenous peoples are being accommodated in the policies of NIBGE.

4. Finance: In 1994, the national budget allocated to NIBGE amounted to 0.36 million US $.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: NIBGE has received support from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S.A.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed December 1982 and ratified 26 February 1997.

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

The Pakistani coast is exposed to negative environmental impacts from thermal pollution, increased oil spills, tarballs, and plastic and toxic effluents, including heavy metal. The coastal strip of Pakistan is arid, with less than 20 centimeters precipitation a year. Pakistan has mangrove on approximately 800,000 acres of swamp.

The Karachi Port is mostly polluted by non port related activities. An estimated 90,000 tons of oil products from vessels and the port's terminals are dumped every year in the port's water. To address the problem, the Karachi Port Trust has signed MARPOL 1972-1979. A green belt around Karachi Port is being implemented. The project includes planting 150,000 mangroves and 350,000 various other plants.

The Port Quasim Authority has initiated a number of activities which include mangrove plantations and locating industries in large industrial estates to clear the coastline.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife is responsible for the overall implementation in this sector.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Pakistan has access to and applies state-of-art technologies in the Marine Environmental Unit.

An allocation of Rs. 350 million has been distributed among three projects: a Marine Pollution Control Centre which handles emergency oil spills; a Marine Environmental Unit to monitor water, air, sediment and biota quality; and a Marine Pollution Board. The latter has been established to handle matters which are related to marine life and environment, and resources at risk; to provide advisory services to relevant organizations; and to review monthly progress in combatting and controlling marine pollution.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In general, Pakistan needs to address a vast array of problems regarding water usage, for example forty percent of urban deaths are caused by water-borne diseases. Special focus is also needed in terms of sodicity, water mining and the accumulation of salt in commercial crop roots. Surface water from rivers is the primary source of water in Pakistan. Infiltration from rivers, canals, watercourses, and fields is the main source of groundwater, which is a secondary resource. The limitation on some of the water available cannot be facilitated through storage dams. Pakistan is struggling with the fact that only 30% of the diverted water at canal heads reaches crop roots. In general, Pakistan needs a lot of integrated water and soil improvement. A nationwide study is being carried out to strengthen the baseline data on the state of existing urban and industrial waste water treatment facilities. This information will become the background material for a National Master Plan for this area.

Pakistan also has an on-going research-project which aims at assessing the water requirements of different species. The idea is to use the information for various forest extension projects. A water survey and analysis was carried out in Quetta, Pakistan.

Rivers Kabul and Ravi provide food, directly through fishing and indirectly through irrigation, as well as water for both drinking and industry.

The Rawal Lake has been selected for special attention concerning unsustainable activities, such as building latrines at specific locations and construction of septic tanks in the existing settlements. In addition, 3 projects have been recommended, concerning improvement of catchment areas and the provision of septic tanks and watershed management.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No general information.

In the specific case of Pollution Control in the Rawal Lake, a Committee under the chairman of the Chief Commissioner in Islamabad was constituted by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A pilot project in Karachi has been cleared for implementation. The concept of the project is to recycle waste water by sewage collection and by conveying the waste water to irrigate areas via underground pipes. The project also involves the use of a low capital and operating costs [Lagoon] system, and developing 500 hectares of land for irrigation. This project is a joint venture between the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board, and a private Austrian firm.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The Government of Punjab has been asked to provide funding of Rs. 57.75 million for the projects recommended for the Rawal Lake.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Asian Development Bank has worked with the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, under an Umbrella Technical Assistance Agreement, to study Rivers Kabul and Ravi and their environmental state. The initial study on River Kabul was conducted with the assistance of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
33
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals is a core-issue of the National Conservation Strategy.

Pakistan is suffering from the adverse soil, air and occupational effects caused by the use of chemicals in the textile and leather industries. These problems have led to various projects aimed at reducing pollution from the industries. The projects address toxic effluent reduction by using appropriate technology transfer, recycling chrome recovery, establishing institutions for in-house pollution control in the tanneries, and by establishing industrial complexes which provide the leather industry with the infrastructure and utilities required. In Pakistan, around 250,000 tones of hazardous medical waste is produced annually. Management of this type of waste has not yet been achieved.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: A Committee has been appointed by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council, to make surveys and recommendations concerning the alarming conditions of Hospital Waste. This committee is collaborating with the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, and they have launched a joint action plan.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The joint action plan to deal with medical wastes underlines the need for more training and education of relevant personnel, identification and strengthening of the proper institutions, and an initiative to raise awareness of problems.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: A Government project regarding the tanneries in Kasur City has an estimated cost of Rs. 264 million, which is being financed partly by a UNDP grant of 6.85 million US $, and a 30% contribution of the total cost by the Tanneries Association of Kasur.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified on 26 July, 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter The industrialization of Pakistan has had an effect on the environment, especially since the discharging of waste is being done without consideration to the treatment facilities that are required to maintain sustainability.

The environmentally sound management of hazardous waste is one of the core issues in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. The National Environment Quality Standard is being applied to the issue of waste management. In addition, Pakistan has prohibited the import of hazardous waste in accordance with the Basel Convention.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Please refer to the Status Report

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Pakistan has implemented a Pollution Release Project to monitor select industries in the Province of Punjab. The project includes data collection and data comparison of the National Environment Quality Standards. The data has helped set up a data base which serves both Federal and Provincial levels. The proposed action plan involves the collection of a pollution charge from defaulting industries under the National Environment Quality Standards.

3. Major Groups: The private sector, namely industry, is the target for the national policy (Action Plan) on this issue.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There is practically no solid waste management in Pakistan. Around 40% of the waste is discarded in the streets or at collection sites. Only half of the the urban wastes are disposed in sewers, with most remaining untreated. Solid waste treatment has been privatized in order to keep up with the demand for solid waste treatment services. Only Karachi and Islamabad have sewage treatment plants.

The environmentally sound management of sewerage and solid waste is a core issue in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. Consequently, National Environment Quality Standards have been implemented for issues related to this sector. This has led to some concrete measures; for example the waste problems of cement factories are being addressed by installing anti-pollution technology.

The following recommendations have been made to counter the consumption of 20,000 tones of paper within the Federal Administration: an improvement in paper collection, an emphasis on the use of recycling; and the launching of mass awareness campaigns.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The privatization of solid waste management was initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife. The Ministry is also responsible for the proposals in connection with the recycling of paper in Federal Government Offices.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Projects to enhance the capacity for solid waste at the municipal level have been established.

3. Major Groups: Communities are being encouraged to participate in enhancing solid waste treatment capacities.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The installation of anti-pollution measures in the Cement Industry is being assisted by UNIDO, Chinese experts, and M/S Environmental Resources Management, U.S.A.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1992
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
28,730 tons
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
0.67 Kg
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
US $25
million
Waste recycling rates (%)
20 %
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
1,250 tons
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)

(* 50% of the total waste generated)

Other data : *About 50% of waste generated in urban areas is collected and disposed off. The environmentally satisfactory disposal is estimated to be about 10% of total waste generated.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 12 March 1996.

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers: No information.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge : No information.

Curricula and educational material

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc : No information.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Pakistan has acknowledged that a higher level of development for and contribution from women is a precondition for achieving broad-based sustainable development. A permanent Ministry for Women's Development has been established and is responsible for training and education as well as the implementation of projects.

There are hundreds of women's organizations in Pakistan. However, in the rural areas there is no network among NGOs focusing on women's issues.

Family planning is receiving increased governmental attention because population growth rate is considered both a hinderance to growth and a threat to sustainability. The active participation of women is being accentuated in this process.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21 : No information.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment : No information.

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information.

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies : No information.

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively : No information.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation : No information.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation : No information.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): In Pakistan, there are thousands of NGOs, hundreds of which are involved in environmental issues. Others are involved in the promotion of education, mass awareness and the empowerment of women. Unfortunately, the NGOs are poorly developed and relatively ineffective. However the assistance of the NGOs to the Government is appreciated and considered productive. The National Conservation Strategy is based on the early warning and awareness-building facilities that the NGOs provide.

The most prominent NGO in Pakistan is the IUCN of Pakistan which helped the Government finalize the draft Pakistan Environmental Act of 1996.

The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife allocates around Rs. 30 million annually to NGOs for undertaking small-scale projects. In 1995-1996, some 147 projects carried out by 141 NGOs were financially assisted (Rs. 22.3 million) by the Government. This allocation is being handled by a Committee which also approves the NGOs and their projects and is receiving financial aid from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF).

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The implementation of projects related to Agenda 21 issues is very much the responsibility of Provincial Governments. Therefore, it is fair to say that strengthening of authority at this level goes hand in hand with the promotion of sustainable development in Pakistan.

Pakistan has initiated cross-sectoral projects which will enhance capacity regarding infrastructure, collecting and managing solid waste data, as well as other services for ten urban areas. The Provinces of Punjab and Sindh are planning projects which will contribute to increased public awareness and educational training. Some of them will be funded by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21 : No information.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output : No information.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs : No information.

List any actions taken in this area: A number of projects have been launched in the public and private sector. Some of the major projects include: a tannery pollution control project in Kaur, Korang; a pollution control project in Karachi; development of a textile processing industrial estate Faisalabad; and an environmental technology programme for industry (ETPI).

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No action has been taken in this area. However, recommendations towards the promotion of cleaner industrial production, general recycling, waste trading networks, businesses etc. are all part of the National Conservation Strategy.

Not much headway in this area. However, the Government has developed a strategy to tackle the issue. The crux of the strategy is private public partnerships for the promotion of cleaner production. The Government is grateful for the support of the following international organizations: UNIDO, UNDP, UNEP, JICA, NORAD, and CIDA.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with

sustainable development : No information.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The National Scientific and Technological councils and associations are widening their membership. These organizations have launched various programmes for the benefit of the general public.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies : No information.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices : No information.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Pakistan, being an agriculture based country, is fully aware of the significance of sustainable development practices. Various projects and programmes are in operation whereby farmers are being encouraged to apply sustainable farming practices.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In 1994, Pakistan was constrained by a weak fiscal capacity due to a narrow revenue base. Therefore it is unrealistic for the Government to impose more taxation for the financing of the implementation of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS). Pakistan is faced with having to rely entirely on donor support for the first three to five of the ten years of the NCS. In general Pakistan has many, and is getting even more, aid-worthy projects which are relevant for the NCS.

Since most of the projects in NCS are labour intensive, it is estimated that Pakistan stands to gain 80,000 jobs a year during the ten years of NCS.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: The financial philosophy behind the National Conservation Strategy is that of financial sustainability, meaning that a welfare economic surplus is to be expected, since the cost of the environmentally sound projects will be outweighed by the benefits in the long run. Recommendations have been made to redirect existing high-cost development programmes to fund 40% of the total NCS budget. The additional Rs. 90 million was to have come from the private sector, but because of the economic constraints, it may be difficult to meet this recommendations.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: One of the recommendations made in relation to international funding is the implementation of the debt-for-nature swaps, which would allow Pakistan to reduce its foreign debt by using the money for environmental conservation.

A Development Bank in Pakistan was found commercially inviable, therefore an off-shore Fund was recommended since it would have the necessary financial advantages, i.e. zero taxation, for attracting international investors. The Environmental Fund would have an Investment Advisory Company (IAC). The IAC would be composed of shareholders who provide the initial money 5.0 million US Dollars or 10% of the estimated requirements. The 90% would be private investors - local and foreign, and multilateral and bilateral institutions such as IBRD, IFC and the Asian Development Bank.

Recommendations for raising domestic funding include: introduction of the Polluter Pays Principle and other taxation measures in various sectors; adjustment of projects, for example on water; encouragement of private investment, for example in "Conservation pays" projects like recycling paper; supplement lotteries, and fund-raising schemes.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: New Economic Instruments - Consideration is being given to the use of an effluent tax as a means of enforcing National Enviromental Quality Standards. The precise modalities are under consideration.

ODA policy issues

Pakistan is a recipient country of ODA.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: Pakistan is involved in a project called "Transfer of Technology for Sustainable Industrial Development" with the Swiss Government. The project is administered by the Pakistani Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife and will be carried out by the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI). It involves two phases: the first one focuses on transferring Swiss technology and investments to Pakistani companies. The second one focuses on capacity building, such as necessary legislation, training and education. The Swiss government has granted 1 million US $ for the implementation of the second phase of the Pak-Swiss cooperation programme.

The SDPI was supported in enhancing capacity and expertise concerning technology transfer by the Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation (NORAD), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Swiss Development Corporation (SDC). The Environment and Urban Affairs Division and Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency have been supported in capacity building by a World Bank funded project on Environmental Protection and Resource Conservation.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: Pakistan is a member of APO and also benefits from the facilities available through UNIDO, UNEP, and UNDP.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

The Government has encouraged the industrial sector to utilize clean production processes. For this purpose, various incentives are available to industry which includes preferential treatment in loan facilities by banks and DFIs, and lower import tariffs on anti-pollution equipment.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

There has not been much headway in this area because of the lack of awareness and the higher cost of ISO certification. However, the government is giving due importance to the matter and the proposal is under consideration to devise a mechanism so that PSI may be accredited to do ISO 14000 certification locally.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

The Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) has launched a five-year Environment Technology Programme for Industry (ETPI) with the support and assistance of the government of the Netherlands. The main goal of the programme is to help Pakistani industries identify and implement the most economical pollution prevention and abatement technologies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: Science for sustainable development is at an early stage, which is reflected in its weak capacity features. For example, the science sector is not involved in decision-making at any level. It has not been given the attention that Agenda 21 calls for, in terms of increasing the number of scientists, nor the number of women being trained as scientists. In addition to the lack of promoting more scientific personnel, Pakistan has a serious problem with brain-drain to other countries.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development #15,940 1990
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Even with a low literacy rate of 27%, Pakistan has still managed to launch many activities which will increase general knowledge about sustainable development. Among other initiatives, a voluntary Environmental Corps has been established to monitor afforestation programmes and pollution control.

Over 3000 Educational Environmental Clubs have been set up in various parts of Pakistan. These clubs perform various task from assisting the Mass Afforestation Programme, to educating the public, and operating as pressure groups.

Pakistan is participating in the UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP).

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development The Government has decided to impose a compulsory research paper on the environment at secondary and intermediate school levels. General recommendations have been made aiming at educational measures in decision making, and to enhance environmental subjects in school textbooks.

b) Increasing public awareness The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development has been fortunate in its collaboration with the media. Mass awareness campaigns have been communicated through T.V.; radio and the press. The Ministry also finances writers and media to communicate the message of sustainable development.

A library and documentation centre will be established in Pakistan's Environmental Protection Agency. This centre will also be available to educational institutions, industry and non-governmental organizations.

c) Promoting training The Teachers Training Centre of Excellence in Islamabad is providing training for educators at tertiary level. UNEP has offered to provide assistance to the programme. The Government has also introduced a module on the environment in its Certificate of Teaching and Primary Teacher's Certificate courses.

The Journalists' Resource Centre for the Environment (JRC) trains journalists in reporting on the environment by running field workshops.

The Coastal Ecosystem Unit employs participatory rural appraisal methodology; and there is an Internship Programme at the World Conservation Union.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: Non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders such as local communities have been involved in mass awareness campaigns in the media.

At the Pakistan Forest Institute a specific programme in forestry development has been developed for women.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
35.4a
46
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
14.8a
21
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
48
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
2.0
2.7
Females per 100 males in secondary school
35.1
40.8
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data a= 1981

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: A major technical and capacity building move was the induction of specialized and subordinate staff in the Nation Conservation Strategy (NCS) Unit of the Ministry of the CIDA funded Pakistan Environment Programme (PEP) in 1996-97. The staff has been hired for an initial period of 3 years. Under the said programme, the NCS Unit is also building its capacity by acquiring computers and other equipment.

The Government of Pakistan has signed an agreement with the World Bank for a loan of US $ 29.2 million to undertake the "Environmental Protection and Resource Conservation Project (EPRCP)". The project would be the first phase in what could be a long term programme of international donor support. Under this project, there is a component of industrial strengthening of the Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development and federal and provincial Environmental Protection Agencies. The project has already commenced and is providing funding for staff training, technical assistance and additional staff positions in the Ministry and Pak-EPA.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Additional Comments

No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Last updated 1 November 1997