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National Implementation of Agenda 21

NEPAL

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Nepal to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

NEPAL

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Population and Environment

Date: November 1996

Submitted by: Mr. Surya Nath Upadhyay

Mailing address: Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal

Telephone: 977-1-241586

Telefax: 977-1-242138

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

(You may wish to use pages v and vi to briefly present your national position five years after UNCED)

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(Fact Sheet)

NEPAL

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Ministry of Population and Environment

Telephone: 977-1-241-588

Fax: 977-1-242-138

e-mail:

Mailing address: Singh Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

Implementation of projects relating to the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

Submitted by

(Name):

Signature: Signed.

Title:

Date: 3 April 1996

Ministry/Office: Permanent Mission of The Kingdom of Nepal to the United Nations, 820 Second Avenue, Suite 202, New York, N.Y. 10017

Telephone: (212) 370-4188, 4189

Fax: (212) 953-2038

E-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Nepal has bilateral trade relations with several countries, around 17 in number, based on the Most Favoured Nations principle. With India the relationship is based on preferential agreements. It should, however, be noted that sandwiched between two giant nations, China and India, this mountainous Kingdom with rugged terrain has very high transport costs.

Various measures, including the export bonus voucher and the dual exchange rate system, have been introduced to stimulate exports. There are no restrictions on imports except on contraband items. In addition, payments for goods and services have benefited from the convertibility of the Nepalese currency.

Macro-economic stabilisation has been introduced in the Eighth Five-Year Plan to ensure economic growth. It aims at moving Nepal to a higher sustainable growth path by invigorating private sector participation in economic activities. To supplement this objective, Nepal has adopted a liberal trade policy in order to expand exports, to attract foreign investments, to make domestic products competitive, to diversify trade, and to generate employment.

Environmental concerns are gradually being incorporated into the trade sector. Nepal is now in the process of becoming a member of the WTO. As mandated by the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary rules and by the International Standard Organization (ISO, 14000), Nepal has shown growing awareness towards this direction. Likewise, in the case of trade-related investment measures, every attention is being paid to take into account environmental concerns. Since this is a new area for Nepal, international agencies have been expressing their support in contrast to more traditional kinds of assistance.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Environmental concerns are being looked in the process of formulating policies, plans and programmes.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Every attention is being paid to the development of labour intensive technology with prior environmental impact assessment. The focus is on the massive use of renewable resources.

3. Major Groups: Population, forestry, education, health, fiscal policies, and construction works are all involved in the area.

4. Finance: No.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Nepal participates in the work of UNCTAD, GATT (1994), ESCAP, WB, IMF, and ASDB in this field.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Foreign Trade
1991/92 92/93 93/94 94/95
Exports, f.o.b.

(a) India

(b) Other countries

13706.5

1450.0

12256.5

17266.5

1621.7

15644.8

19293.4

2408.9

16884.5

17898.8

3369.1

14529.7

Imports, c.i.f.

(a) India

(b) Other countries

31940.0

11245.5

20694.5

39205.6

12542.1

26663.5

51570.8

17035.4

34535.4

65526.7

20791.2

44735.5

Trade balance

(a) India

(b) Other countries

-18233.5

-9795.5

-8438.0

-21939.1

-10920.4

-11018.7

-32277.4

-14626.5

-17650.9

-47627.9

-17422.1

-30205.8

The information for 1991/92, 1992/93, 1993/94 is revised and for 1994/95 provisional.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

Almost half (49%) of Nepal's population lives below absolute poverty line. The Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-97) has set a target to reduce poverty by 7 per cent by the year 1997. The following strategies have been outlined in the Plan to meet the target:

- To develop a simple procedure for the identification of underdeveloped areas and poor families, and to use this procedure uniformly in all sectoral programmes.

- To carry out self-targeted and targeted programmes for poor people.

- To increase the access of the poor to the means of production.

- To make arrangements for awarding contracts of technically simple construction works to the groups of poor people.

- To initiate dialogue for negotiations with foreign governments and agencies for the employment of unskilled and skilled Nepalese labour seeking employment in foreign countries.

- To take environmental concerns into account when designing programmes.

- To make effective legal provisions against the exploitation of the poor and for the elimination of social evils.

A number of projects aiming at poverty eradication have been launched by different ministries in HMG/Nepal. Most of the projects are in the field of employment, vocational training, rural and adult/women's education, rural banking and finance, food for work, labour-intensive, small development projects in irrigation, roads, power, agriculture, basic health and rural self-help programmes.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Two types of programmes have been carried out to alleviate poverty in Nepal:

1. Targeted programmes, which have been especially designed for the benefit of the weaker section of the population, i.a. Intensive Banking, Gramin Bank, Integrated Rural Development, Rehabilitation of Landless People, Special Programmes for Backward Ethnic Groups, Food for Work, Small Farmer Development, Production Credit for Rural Women, Remote Area Development Programme etc.

2. Sectoral programmes, i.a. Cottage and Small Industry Development, Rural Electrification, Suspension Bridge Building, Crops Development, Horticulture and Vegetable Development, Livestock Development, Fish Production, Sericulture, Agriculture Trainings, Grants in Agriculture Inputs, Rural Roads and Trails, Small Business Promotion Programmes, Community Forest Development etc.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Many of the Ministries and Departments are included in trying to eradicate absolute poverty.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
Unemployment (%)
3.1
Estimated
Population living in absolute poverty
49
49
Public spending on social sector %
1991
Economically Active Population: Professor/Teacher Workers
130,653
Economically Active Population: Administrative Workers
Other data:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

Programmes are being formulated and given priority to raise national productivity through industrial growth. It has been deemed essential to modernize traditional industries in order to reduce production costs and to increase production potential. In addition, special consideration is given to commodities with export potential and to joint-enterprises in order to enhance product quality.

Nepal has adopted the following main policies: Education on nutrition will be taught from the primary level onwards in order to raise public awareness on the nutritive values of food, on the different types of food, on cooking methods to save nutritive values, on the way foodstuffs should be stored, and on the changes needed in eating habits. It has also been planned to introduce nutritive education into adult literacy programmes as well as into agriculture productivity- oriented projects in order to enhance the quality of food storages and to bring about changes in eating habits.

The Ministry of Supply is responsible for supplying essential commodities such as petroleum products along with coal, timber, food grains through National Trading Limited, Nepal Oil Corporation, Nepal Food Corporation, Nepal Coal Limited, and Timber Corporation of Nepal, etc.

National targets

1. The main target of the Nepal Oil Corporation is to provide pure aviation fuel for air crafts and for vehicles.

2. Kerosene oil depots have been established in places where regular energy supply for people can be ensured without harming the forests.

The Ministry of Supply provides liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking purposes in urban areas. Besides being a source of material for the biogas plants, the plantations of trees serve the objectives of the forestry programme.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Education; Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) with a Managing Board having representation from the Ministry of Finance; Nepal Industrial Development Corporation; and the Ministry of Supply.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: NOC has its own Fund for building oil reserve tanks around the country. The Fund is partly funded by the Government (foreign aid, ADB).

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
1995
GDP per capita (current US$)
174
183
207
220
Real GDP growth (%)
4.70
6.4
3.3
6.1
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
41,191
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data: Annual energy consumption per capita/kg of oil per capita in 1995/96:

Item/Quantity

Petrolium: 41,191 Kilo litre

Diesel: 250,564 Kilo litre

Kerosene oil: 208,780 Kilo litre

Aviation fuel: 40,621 Kilo litre

Furnish oil (Boiler): 18,449 Kilo litre

Light diesel oil: 4,375 Kilo litre

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local

authorities
Central

Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
X
Energy efficiency:
X
Transport
X
X
Housing
X
Other
Waste:
Reduce X
X
X
Reuse X
X
X
Recycle X
X
X

Comments: From 1990 - 1994, the number of registered vehicles increased by 53% from 68,891 to 130,958 vehicles. The rate of annual change was even higher during earlier years. At present, there is a reasonably good legal and institutional framework for waste management in Nepal.

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local

authorities

Central

Government
House-

holds
Civil

Society
Improving understanding and analysis
R
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
R
I
Research
R
Evaluating environmental claims
Form partnerships
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
R
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
R
Regulatory instruments
R
Economic incentives/disincentives
R
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R
Procurement policy
R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
R
Action campaign
R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: The reduction of the rate of population growth is a national priority for Nepal.
STATUS REPORT: The large size of Nepal's population relative to its resource base, and its high growth rate are at the root of many environmental problems in Nepal. Agricultural land base in some areas is reaching the saturation point, and the labour force is expanding faster than the off-form jobs. As a consequence, poverty is increasing. Measures to curb population growth are therefore critical to the success of any development and environmental programmes.

The main aim of HMG's population strategy is to reduce the rate of population growth. There is considerable evidence that the demand for family planning services is not being adequately met. Primary health care services are also not reaching those who most need them, resulting in high rates of infant and maternal mortality.

Family planning, though an essential means, is not the only effective measure. An effective policy to control the influx of external population and urban management as well as industrial growth are the means to bring a balance between population and economic growth. Programmes for developing women's capabilities as well as for encouraging them to educate themselves more and to win competitive jobs, will have important impacts in the long run.

The Government of Nepal considers population growth anf fertility rate too high, and and has tried to lower their rate.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

1. The Ministry of Population and Environment

2. The National Population Committee

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: UNFPA

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
18.5m
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
2.3%
Surface area (Km2)
147,181
Population density (people/Km2)
126
Other data: The population of the country increased from 15,022,839 in 1981 to 18,491,097 in 1991 with an annual growth rate of 2.08%. In 1991, 7.8%, 45.5% and 46.7% of the total population were found in the Mountains, Hills, and the Terai, respectively. Some 9.2% of the total population lived in urban areas in 1991.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In general, the health status of the population in Nepal is poor. The lack of potable water and sanitation, adulterated food supplies and paucity in medical facilities are major contributing factors resulting in the poor state of health. The lack of clean water, in particular, is imposing a high cost on the economy in terms of its impact on human health and productivity. The country's rapidly growing population is also placing a stress on available water resources.

It is necessary to initiate policies and to revise procedures, legislation and regulations in order to improve water supply management and to put sanitation into practice extensively.

In order to keep its national and international commitments, the Government has to provide health services for everybody by the year 2000. To this end, the National Health Policy (1991) has been reformulated with the objective of providing effective health services at the local level.

The main aim of HMG's Drinking Water and Sanitation Programme is to provide basic knowledge of sanitation and sanitary facilities to the maximum number of people to facilitate them to take up cleaning and conservation exercises.

In line with the call by WHO for eradicating polio from the Globe by the year 2000, a vaccination programme for children has been carried out through the observation of a special immunisation day all over the Kingdom.

A Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS Programme was launched in the fiscal year 1988-1989 in order to control on time the social and economic hazards emerging from the increase in the number of people suffering from such communicable diseases.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

1. The Ministry of Health

2. The Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: WHO

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1995
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

49
54.3

54.4

55.9

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
156
97.5
N.A.
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
850
515
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
42
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
6 20
Other data: Total fertility rate (per women) 5.8 in 1990.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In general, the adoption of the Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP), and the constitution of the Environment Protection Council (EPC) are significant contributions to the implementation of Agenda 21 including Chapter 7.

Nepal's participation in the Habitat II Conference (City Summit) in Istanbul, Turkey 3-14 June 1996, along with the commitments on priority issues, as stated in Chapter 7 and included in the National Plan of Action and Best Practices reports, are important achievements towards the realization of sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world.

However, it would be pertinent to review the progress achieved by Nepal regarding the implementation of the human settlement component of Agenda 21 which aims at improving the social, economic and environmental quality of human settlements, and the living and working conditions of all people, in several programme areas such as the following:

- providing adequate shelter for all;

- improvement of urban settlements management;

- promoting sustainable land-use planning and management;

- providing environmentally sound infrastructure facility;

- disaster mitigation;

- sustainable conservation industry activities;

- sustainable energy and transport system; and

- human resource development and capacity-building.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

1. The National Planning Commission

2. The National Habitat II Follow-up Committee under MHPP/HMG

3. The Ministry of Population and Environment

4. Department of Housing & Urban Development/ MHPP

5. The National Committee on IDNPR

6. Other HMG agencies and research organizations.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:These are undertaken by the related ministries and agencies.

3. Major Groups: HMG bodies as stated above, Municipality Association of Nepal, NGOs/CBOs, and professional bodies are all involved.

4. Finance: Finance is provided by HMG sources, municipal and local bodies, and multilateral and bilateral financing.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation is undertaken through the SAARC framework and with ESCAP; UNDP/UNCHS (Habitat); UNEP; other UN bodies; Global Programmes; UMAP; UMP; CITYNET; MEIP, etc.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
9.11
10.32
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
5.89
6.00
Largest city population (in % of total population)
2.27
2.56
Other data:

Total Population as of 1991: 18.5 million

- " - (estimate) 1996: 21.13 million

- " - 2002: 22.991 million/projection

Total Urban Population 2002: 12.93%

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Awareness of environmental issues has grown perceptably. There have been efforts to integrate environment into development-related decision-making. The Nepal Environmental Policy Action Plan (1993) has been succesful in integrating environmental concerns into different programmes and institutions. The Rio Declaration has stimulated environmental concerns at the policy-making level. A number of important measures have already been adopted to tackle some of these problems. There is a need to develop detailed sectoral action programmes to integrate environment and development into decision-making.

Since the management of the environment requires the involvement of various stakeholders, it is essential to establish a balanced approach and a coordination mechanism. In Nepal, a high-level Environment Protection Council has been established under the chairmanship of the Rt. Hon'ble Prime Minister. The Secretariat of the Council is located in the Ministry of Population and Environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): The Ministry of Population and Environment (est. 1995), sectoral ministries, the National Planning Commission (responsible for environmental monitoring and management).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: NGOs, the private sector and local authorities participate in the activities under all programme areas of this chapter.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Not yet defined as such.
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Every four years, starting in 1990, the parties shall assess the control measures in the protocol on the basis of available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.

Not more than 9 months after the close of a calendar year, each country owes data on annual production, use, destruction, imports and exports of controlled substances (from Annex A and Annex B of the Protocol).

Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 6 July 1994

London Amendment (1990) signed in 6 July 1994

Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed in 19--

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 19--

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Parties shall: (a) develop and publish periodic national inventories of anthropogenic emissions; (b) publish, formulate and update national programmes to mitigate climate change by addressing emissions by sources and sinks; (c) promote and cooperate in development of technologies, practices and processes that control or reduce emissions; (d) promote sustainable management and promote and cooperate in the conservation and enhancement as appropriate of sinks and reservoirs, etc.

Developed countries shall develop national policies and take measures (that demonstrate leadership role).

Developed countries to provide financial resources.

Each party shall report: (a) a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions be sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal protocol; (b) a general descriptions of steps taken or envisaged; (c) any other information the party considers relevant. Developed countries must report a detailed description of policies and measures it has adopted. Parties other than developed countries must submit their report within 3 years of accession or upon financial wherewithal. Least developed countries may submit at their discretion.

UNFCCC was signed in 2 May 1994.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-. Not submitted so far. Nepal being a least developed country, the submission of its first report is left to its discretion.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter:

a. Preliminary national inventory of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4 was prepared for 1990/91/92.

b. The Government of Nepal has actively promoted the development of greenhouse gas-free hydropower energy.

c. Conservation and extension programmes of greenhouse gas sinks like forests are being adopted and encouraged to be implemented even at community level such as in villages.

d. From 1990 to 1994 the number of registered vehicles increased by 53%, from 68,891 to 130,958 vehicles. The rate of annual change was even higher prior to 1990.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: With regard to the import and export of substances and products affecting the atmosphere, such as fossil fuels, industrial goods, agricultural chemicals and so forth, different governmental and non-governmental organizations make their own decisions depending on the national policies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There are no institutions or research groups with specific technology for improving the state of the environment. The Department of Hydrology and Meteorology has, to some extent, been supported by the US Government in assessing the nation's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, and in preparing the national inventory of greenhouse gases.

3. Major Groups: The Government policy for the massive production of hydropower energy in Nepal has largely been targeted to the vast village communities which otherwise depend on the already dwindling forests and woods - the potential carbon dioxide sinks.

4. Finance: The protection of the atmosphere is a worldwide concern, Nepal as a Least Developed Country cannot afford to invest in this issue without compromising its economic growth and development.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No regional cooperation is established yet on this issue.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1989/90
1991/92
1992/93
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
1.6006
1.7175
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
0.9377
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There is a great diversity in the nature of different geographical regions of Nepal. The Terai occupies 23.11%, whereas hills and mountains cover 35.21% and 41.68%, respectively, of the country's total land area. As regards land-use, 18% of Nepal's total land area is not in use, including barren land, land-slide affected areas, snow-covered land, etc. The land used for different purposes constitutes 82% of the total land area, out of which 20% is reserved for agricultural purposes.

Management of land resources has been deemed critical from the point of view of sustainable agricultural production. Improved agricultural output is the only way towards economic growth and poverty alleviation.

Soil fertility is a crucial element in determining the productivity of the land. It has been noted that soil fertility is declining in many parts of Nepal, having a negative impact on the yield of the key crops. Changes in farming practices are needed to reverse this trend, and institutional improvements are imperative for agricultural research and extension.

Agricultural policies must be flexible in order to conform to the features of different agro-ecological zones and thus taking the maximum advantage of the diversity of natural resources. As Nepal adjusts to these essential requirements, the production of food grains, fruit farming and livestock farming will be gradually expanded. In addition, district level planning will have a significant role. Therefore, a mapping system for districts will be developed taking into account different agro-ecological zones.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In order to make land-use and environmental information effective, an appropriate institutional system will be developed under the National Planning Commission by means of integrating scattered units into a single unit.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Thirty-seven percent (5.4 million ha) of the total land area of Nepal is covered by natural forests, and another 16% is potentially suitable for forest development or for land ranging. Forests are the main natural resources of Nepal. Various programmes have been launched to develop the forestry sector, including forest management programmes under which, for example community groups have been formed. Other programmes have been designed for the production of saplings, for afforestation, and for the implementation of national and leasehold forestry programmes. Likewise, programmes related to forests, soil and watershed conservation, and to the production and processing of medicinal herbs, have also been undertaken. Strengthening the capacities of both the governmental and semi-governmental organizations at all levels, from central to local level, is essential for the successful implementation of these programmes. Similarly, relevant laws and regulations are being reviewed and revised to meet the operational needs.

Examples:

I. The objective of the Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project

A. To raise the income of families living mostly below the poverty level in the hills.

B. To improve ecological conditions by minimizing deforestation in the fragile hills of Nepal.

Approach: A participatory approach is the basis for the implementation of the project. The project is specifically designed for the marginal and landless families to supplement the efforts of the Government's Community Forestry Programme. Main activities include the distribution of forest land to the poor; plantation of trees; establishing veterinary services for livestock; creation of income generating environment through training and increased facilitation of loan flows.

Current status (Progress up till July 1996.):

Number of Leasehold Forest Groups established: 335

Area of forests leased: 1,758 ha.

Number of households benefited: 2,345.

Number of seedlings planted: 2,4 million.

Amount of grass seed distributed: 5,000 kg.

Number of farmers trained: 70.

Number of animals provided with veterinary services: 150,000.

Number of districts covered at present (October 1996): 9.

Number of districts to be covered by August 1998: 12.

II. The Hill Community Forestry Development Project:

The objective of the project: To develop and manage forest resources through active participation of the local people to meet their basic needs of forest products.

Strategy: By gradually handing over all accessible hill forests to the communities (user groups) to the extent that they are able and willing to manage the forests.

Current status (from 1989/90 to 1995/96):

Number of user groups formed: 4,119.

Area of forests handed over: 256,051 ha

Number of households involved: 414,610.

The data were collected from 51 districts. In order to strengthen the capacity to implement the programme, several training programmes have been organized in the districts on various aspects such as community forest management and nursery management. In addition, workshops on user group networking and field trips have been organized for user groups and progressive farmers. Because of training, the user groups are more capable of managing the forests handed over to them. People are also more aware of the programme objectives, and take more interest in the community forest management and in informing user groups. The district forest offices receive more and more requests from the communities to participate in the project.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Local communities (user groups); District Forest Offices; Department of Forests; The Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation; The National Planning Commission.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Academic and technical training is provided to the concerned staff. The local communities are also provided with various kinds of training. Technology is provided for forest management, plantation and nursery techniques.

3. Major Groups: NGOs and local communities participate in the different activities under this chapter.

4. Finance:

The Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project:

IFAD: US$ 12.79 million;

Government of the Netherlands: US$ 3.36 million;

HMG/N: US$ 2.71 million;

Local communities: US$ 3.15 million.

Hill Community Forestry Development Project:

World Bank: US$ 15.5 million;

HMG/N: US$ 4.4 million;

DANIDA: US$ 6.9 million;

Local communities: US$ 3.15 million.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: World Bank; FAO; ITTO; IFAD; USAID; Government of the Netherlands; DANIDA (Denmark), SNV; Government of Australia; GTZ (Germany); etc.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
55180
NA
NA
Protected forest area
Not demarcated
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
519
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
590
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
18
Other data

4119 forest user groups formed;

256,051 ha forest handed over as community forests;

335 leasehold forest groups formed

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Nepal signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa in 1994, and ratified it in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Nepal took active part in the UN Conference on Desertification (1977), and in the formulation of the UN Plan of Action to Combat Desertification. Human efforts to enhance productivity and to manage natural resources began during the dawn of human civilization. Nepal being a mountainous country, combating desertification is a matter of great concern both in developmental activities as well as in regional cooperation.

Active participation of local people is important in land-use planning, forest management, and watershed development. Ecological rehabilitation and specific measures on land and resources have been the appropriate base for sustainable development. Experiences to date show that planning, decision-making and implementation efficiency is to grow from the grassroots level. Policies for resource management, ecological balance and industrial growth prevail in a broader sphere of human undertakings. Updating policy formulations need to be in terms of achieving the objectives through ensured implementation and of strengthening regional cooperation in specific issues of concern. National and regional activities need to be directed simultaneously and towards providing capacity for resource management.

Regional networks of cooperative undertakings are vital for Nepal. The Department of Soil Conservation is planning, implementing and monitoring the Soil Conservation and Watershed Management (SCWM) Programme through its District Soil Conservation Offices in 45 districts out of 75 districts in total. The SCWM Programme includes land-use development and improvement, land productivity conservation, erosion hazard prevention, infrastructural protection, and community soil conservation and income generation activities.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

At community level: User groups

At district level: District D C and District Soil Conservation Offices

At central level: The Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the National Planning Commission, the Ministry of Finance (MOF), and the Ministry of Population and Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Awareness-building and transfer of technology at the local level; capacity-building to the technical and professional staff.

3. Major Groups: NGOs, GOS

4. Finance: PP; national; and external assistance.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: FARM; CLASP (FAO); ICIMOD.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Nepal is a Himalayan terrain with hills and mountains covering 35.21% and 41.68% of the country's total land area. Because of the pronounced steepness and fragility of the land, there are landslide and erosion problems which limit the productivity of the land.

Migration from the hills and mountains to the Terai is likely to continue as new infrastructure increasingly opens up in the south, and as the disparity between incomes in upland and lowland regions continues to grow.

The hills and mountains need to be developed in an ecologically sustainable way with the development of watersheds and by providing hydropower to industrial establishments. Growing urbanization, markets and employment accelerate the economy in the hinterlands. This is still a matter of operational research and cautious practices. The ecologically and economically strained hills and mountains have to develop their unique but intrinsic potential to support the population growth. More research is needed in order to improve the productivity in terms of crop yield in the hills to serve the needs of the people living in the inner remote terrain.

Some policies:

- Sprinkler irrigation will be encouraged in the hilly regions when feasible. For example, lift irrigation schemes will be operated with electricity produced by small hydroelectric plants.

- Appropriate programmes relating to mountaineering and other associated arrangements under the Development of Mountain Tourism Programme will be undertaken with the objective of protecting the environment and increasing local employment.

Support will be provided to activities of the Water Induced Hazard Control Programme by organizing training and by feeding the available data in the continued scientific observations and analysis.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Population and Environment; sectoral ministries.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

Physiographic zones (%):

Terai: 14%

Siwalik: 13%

Hills: 30%

Mountains: 43%

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The agricultural sector alone contributes to about 60% of the GDP, and provides employment to nearly 80% of the entire population. The percentages of the total land area used for agriculture are 9.3% in the mountains, 43.1% in the hills and 47.6% in the Terai. It is estimated that about 986,898 ha of the land area (6.5% of the country's total land area) are still available for agricultural production.

Nepal has to integrate a developmental dimension into land productivity within the Rural Development Programme as well as open up off-farm economic opportunities for industrial development based on the resources available in the mountain terrain. Recent studies indicate that the pre- and post-harvest losses in food crops caused by pests and diseases range from 20 to 35%. In 1996, a severe outbreak of rice hopper affecting an area of about 2,000 ha was recorded in the main rice growing belt of the south amounting to a loss of estimated NRs 50 million.

Nepal may be among the few countries in the world where farmers use traditional botanical pesticides with considerable success in crop protection. Exploiting the skills and traditional technology of crop protection, HMG/N has launched an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programme in the Kingdom. IPM has now been endorsed as the national policy. In fact, one of the major goals of the ongoing Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-1997) is sustainable development.

After restoring a multi-party democracy, Nepal has been trying to practice decentralization through participatory decision-making. It is considered important in order to assist the people to exercise their power of choice, action, leadership and accountability.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: HMG/N is in the process of establishing a National Steering Committee for the effective launching of the IPM Programme. The Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with other line agencies such as the Ministry of Local Development, the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Forests are responsible for sustainable agriculture and rural development. The National Planning Commission (NPC) is the apex body formulating and monitoring the national plans on sustainable development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: HMG/N has established Regional Plant Protection Laboratories in five different development regions. There is still a lack of human resources, equipments and infrastructural support.

3. Major Groups: People - including farmers for agricultural programme, NGOs, and the private sector are involved in this field.

4. Finance: A project proposal called "IPM for the Reduction of Crop Losses" has been prepared and submitted to the GTZ (Germany). A similar project proposal viz. "IPM in Rice" has also been prepared and submitted to the FAO.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

- Nepal is trying to become a member of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Asian Plant Protection Convention (APPC) and similar international/regional agencies.

- Nepal is going to become a member of the WTO for which the Ministry of Agriculture has consituted a core group. Efforts are taken to follow the London Guidelines on Safe use of Pesticides.

- FAO and GTZ have given a positive response for the launching of the above mentioned IPM Programme.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1991/92
Agricultural land (Km2)
24,637.17
24,637.17
25,989.70
Agricultural land as % of total land area
16.73%
16.73%
17.66%
Agricultural land per capita
0.16
0.16
0.14
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
4.14 Mt.
6.489
5.27
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Nepal signed the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992, and ratified it in 1993.

Parties are to develop national strategies, plans and programmes for sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity and integrate them into general development plans.

Parties shall identify, monitor and maintain data on components of biodiversity.

Parties shall introduce appropriate procedures requiring EIAs for projects likely to have significant adverse effects on biological diversity.

Parties shall submit reports on measures which it has taken for the implementation of the Convention, at intervals to be determined.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed by Nepal in 1975, and the latest report was submitted in 1995.

Parties to take appropriate measures to enforce regulatory provisions and prohibit trade in specimens in violation thereof. Convention also governs treatment of animals in shipment.

Each party to prepare periodic reports on its implementation of the convention and to prepare: (a) an annual report listing export permits issued and species involved, and (b) a biennial report on legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

- Amendment of the National Park and Wildlife Conservation Acts (1973) in order to strengthen the implementation of the CITES.

- Formation of Antipoaching Units to combat poaching and illegal trafficing of Fauna and Flora.

- Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) organized a training workshop on CITES in Kathmandu in May 1995, in order to coordinate the actions of various organizations involved in the implementation of the Convention.

- Publication of 16 reports on biodiversity in order to identify gaps.

- The formulation of a Biodiversity Action Plan has just begun.

- Implementation of the Bufferzone Programme around the NP/WR in order to involve local people in the conservation of biological diversity.

- Three wetland sites have been proposed as Ramsar sites to conserve the biodiversity in wetlands.

- The areas of Manaslu, Kanchanjangha, and Ghatal are planned to become protected areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Nepal is trying to develop an innovative, decentralized decision-making process.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Department for National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) needs to expand its staffing and training activities for the effective conservation and management. Training of professional, technical as well as administrative staff is necessary in order to strengthen DNPWC's capacity.

3. Major Groups: DNPWC, national NGOs, international NGOs.

4. Finance: 67 million.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: World Wildlife Fund, IUCN, the Mountain Institute USA, CARE International, ICIMOD.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
13.78
13.78
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species Protected SPP by NPWC Act 1973
38
38
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: It has been necessary to develop, improve and use appropriate food preservation, storage and processing technologies in order to bring about essential upgrading in the nutrition level of the general public through an increased availability of food commodities in the country. In this context, biotechnology studies and research have been a priority concern. Therefore, technical support is needed to be extended to agro-industries.

The basic primary health services in Nepal include preliminary treatment of common diseases, immunization against infectious diseases, maternity and child health care services, family planning services, and management of essential medicines. In addition, the Government provides health education, information about food, nutrition, clean drinking water, and about sanitation and environmental practices which have been singled out as the major factors contributing to the poor state of health in Nepal.

Following are the main policies on environmentally sound management of biotechnology:

- Research will concentrate on the main problem areas, and special attention will be given to adaptive research for the improvement of cereal crops, horticulture, licestock as well as rural industries.

- Appropriate technologies from various developed and developing countires will be needed. Therefore, efforts will be made to have access to such technologies through governmental, non-governmental and private sectors.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Science and Technology was established in 1996 with the aim of conducting various programmes in the field of science and technology in an organized way, linking them with the national development process.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Not applicable.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In the process of being decided.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea has been signed but not yet ratified by Nepal.

Since Nepal is a land-locked country, this chapter is not applicable.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Not applicable.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Not applicable.

3. Major Groups: Not applicable.

4. Finance: Not applicable.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Not applicable.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Poverty alleviation through the sustainable development of water resources.
STATUS REPORT:

It is estimated that Nepal has a theoretical hydropower potential of 83,000 MW, of which 42,000 MW can be generated according to the economic feasibility studies. The installed hydropower generation capacity in the country is around 233 MW. This is less than 0.3% of the total theoretical potential.

With regard to drinking water, the national coverage at the end of the fiscal year 1993/94 was as follows:

Urban areas:

Population: 2,133,000

Coverage: 1,327,000

% coverage: 64.3%

Rural areas:

Population: 17,916,000

Coverage: 10,702,000

% coverage: 59.7%

Total:

Population: 20,049,000

Coverage: 12.074,000

% coverage: 60.2%

The coverages were made by the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation (DWSS), Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC), INGO's and national NGO's. UNICEF quotes a ratification coverage of 16% by 1995, whereas a sample survey conducted in 1991 established a coverage of 20%.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

- The Ministry of Water Resources

- The Department of Water Supply and Sewerage

- The Nepal Water Supply Corporation follows the government corporation decision-making procedures.

- The projects run by the Users' Committee follow the decision-making procedures of NGOs.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

- Few training programmes available.

- The Government of Nepal tries to clean its role in direct service delivery and to improve capacity for policy making and other coordination, monitoring and evaluation, research and development, and human resources development.

3. Major Groups: The Nepal Water Supply Corporation, INGO's and NGO's.

4. Finance: Nepal's water supply and sanitation authorities have not mobilized enough financial resources to enable them to operate and maintain their systems properly, much less contribute to investments.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Asian Development Bank has been involved in rural water and sanitation management in Nepal. The World Bank has been involved in water and sanitation management in urban settlements. Different countries have also been involved in water and sanitation management.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
212 billion m3
212 billion m3
212 billion m3/year
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
8
8.02
Population served by drinking water supply in urban areas (thousands) (% of the urban population covered)
714 (80)
1,196 (75)
Population served by drinking water supply in rural areas (thousands) (% of the rural population covered)
862 (6)
5,753 (35)

Population served by drinking water supply in total
1,576 (11)
6,949 (38)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high.
STATUS REPORT: To date, very little pollution abatement equipment has been used by industries in Nepal. Investors wishing to maximise profits have opted for the cheapest technology, which, unfortunately, often turns out to be the most polluting one as well. It is the people in general who have to face the consequences of such decisions. Therefore, industries need to adopt less polluting technologies, and for that, HMG may need to offer a limited range of subsidies as well as providing the technologies directly. Research has already been carried out in Nepal to identify pollution prone industries. The cement, leather and tanning, paper and pulp, soap and chemicals, sugar and textile industries have all been identified as major sources of various kinds of pollution.

Chemical manufacturing industries are now required to obtain a permit. The proponents need to submit IEE or EIA reports depending upon the annual production capacity. Importation of toxic chemicals also requires a permit from the Ministry of Home Affairs.

In the agriculture sector,

- Nepal has already prohibited some toxic chemicals like DINOSEB and dinoseb salts, fluoroacetamide, chlordane, chlordimeform, cyhexatine, edb (1,2- dibromoethane), heptachlor, and mercury compounds.

- HCH (Mixed isomers), DDT, dielfrin and aldrin are under an interim import decision to limit their use.

- HMG/N has just started to implement the Pesticide Act (1991) and the Pesticide Regulation (1993). By these laws, almost all the extremely hazardous pesticides will be banned from agricultural use for health and environmental reasons. - As of 1997, HMG/N will strictly follow the report and recommendations of the pesticides disposal expert of ANZEDEC Limited (ADB funded consultants). It is in line with the PIC procedures established on the basis of the London Guidelines as well as circulars of UNEP and IRPTC.

- The very dilapidated old stocks of pesticides were dumped from the beginning in secured stores in Amlekhganj. This is a severe problem at present, and Nepal seeks international asssitance to find and support a solution.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health controls the use of toxic chemicals.

HMG/N adopted the Pesticides Act in 1991, and the Pesticides Regulation in 1993. In accordance with these laws, Nepal has established the Nepal Pesticide Board which will assist the Government to formulate pesticides policies and to adopt regulatory measures for the safe use of pesticides.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Lack of sound human resoures, R&D and infrastructural support.

3. Major Groups: There are about 10 major importers of pesticides in the country and nearly 100 domestic retail outlets. The predominant users of toxic chemicals, especially pesticides, are farmers representing over 90% of the Nepalese population. Due to the lack of appropriate IPM technologies, farmers have been largely dependent on using these chemicals for pest control to obtain the expected yield. This has, in isolated cases, begun to cause health and environmental hazards.

4. Finance: FAO's assistance is being sought in order to strengthen plant quarantine and to implement the IPM programme.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: As a member country, Nepal takes active part in the work of RENPAP (Regional Network on Pesticides for Asia and the Pacific) of the United Nations, and tries to establish links with other agencies such as FINNIDA (Finland), GTZ (Germany) and so on.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

Total amount of dilapidated pesticides to be disposed as soon as possible: about 50 tonnes.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Nepal ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal in 1996.

Parties shall cooperate to disseminate information on transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Parties shall cooperate to promote environmentally sound low-waste technologies, to transfer technology and cooperate in developing codes of practice. Parties to assist developing countries.

Parties shall immediately inform affected parties as to accidents. Prior to the end of each calendar year, parties shall provide the following information on the preceding calendar year: (a) the authorities handling Convention matters; (b) information regarding the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes; (c) measures adopted to implement convention; (d) available statistics on human health and environmental effects of generation, transport and disposal of hazardous wastes; (e) information on agreements entered into; (f) information on accidents; (g) information on disposal options; and (h) information on development of waste-reduction technologies;

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

At present, Nepal does not perceive itself to have a hazardous waste problem. In the future, activities will be regulated in accordance with the Basel Convention.

In November 1996, the Ministry of Population and Environment organized a one-day workshop on the Basel Convention and management of solid wastes in Kathmandu Valley. In the workshop, environmental experts and concerned officials from different governmental and non-governmental organizations discussed national policies and programmes for the control of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal. In the conclusions of the workshop it was stressed that national policies need to be revised in accordance with the convention, and that the nature of toxic wastes should be identified so as to minimize their potential risks. Wastes from hospitals, laboratories, pathological clinics, and leather industry cause massive harm to human health. In addition, the experts stressed that it is important to see the issue of hazardous waste in a global context as well as a domestic context and to integrate this issue into overall sustainable decision-making.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Population and Environment is responsible for decision-making under this Chapter.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Nepal has a programme on waste management concentrating on street cleaning, waste collection, transport and landfill deposit activities. In urban and suburban areas, solid wastes have been identified as problematic.

The role of local governments needs to be strengthened as self-contained and active agencies in waste management. They are encouraged to take more responsibitlities in accordance with their capacities.

In 1987, an act was adopted with a view to systematize waste management in Kathmandu and to seek possibilities of recycling solid wastes into economic resources. In accordance with the act, the Solid Waste Management and Resources Mobilization Center was established. Composting activities were carried out by the Center with successful results, but were dropped for various reasons after 3-4 years. At present, the Center is responsible for the management of sanitary landfill sites, and the rest of the waste management activities are undertaken by municipalities.

Recently, HMG adopted a national policy for solid waste management in order to set standards for waste disposal, recycling and reuse. A National Council for Solid Waste Management has been set up under the chairmanship of the Ministry of Local Development. In addition, the Ministry undertakes major activities in this field.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Local (municipal) bodies are responsible in the field; the National Council for Solid Waste Management at the national level (policy formulation); and the Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Center (SWMRMC) is responsible for landfill management in Kathmandu Valley.

The responsibility for public sanitation is divided among several institutions: municipalities (drainage, sanitation and solid wastes); Department of Water Supply and Sanitation (drainage and sewerage although the Department does not actually have any sewerage operations); Nepal Water Supply Cooperation (sanitary sewars) and the Depratment of Roads (roadside drains).

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Municipal bodies and HMG/Nepal.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Government of Germany provided financial and technical support for the establishment of the Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Center in Kathmandu Valley until 1990. In 1994, the Government of India supported the municipality of Kathmandu with some modern equipements worth Rs-12 crores.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
590 tonnes
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a growing concern for Nepal. To date, there are no provisions for this newly emerging problem. Scientific research and consultation at regional and international levels is useful for Nepal when developing national policies and legislation in this respect.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Population and Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

Nepal signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women on 5 February 1991 and ratified it on 22 April 1991.

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women:

in government %

in parliament %

at local government level %

24.2.e Curricula and educational material is being revised to promote dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

24.2.f and 24.2.c Policies, guidelines, strategies and plans are being drawn up to achieve equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.

24.2.d At present, there are no plans to establish mechanisms to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Nepalese women have been unable to contribute in an expected way to development activities due to illiteracy, poor health, poverty and a traditionally conservative attitude towards them. The Ministry of Women and Social Welfare was established in September 1995 in order to make women participate in the main stream of development, to increase their involvement in every sector of development, to improve their social, economic, academic, political and legal status. Productive employment opportunities have been provided for them by increasing their efficiency through appropriate knowledge and skills, and appropriate environment and infrastructures have been created so that women are provided with an opportunity to play a decisive role at all levels from local to national level.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important): No information.

Describe their role in the national process: No information.

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

Youth unemployment 1992: No information. 1996: No information.

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training. NA.

The goal set in Agenda 21: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture was established in September 1995. Recognising the role of the youth in nation building, a high-level work-team was set up. The work-team recently prepared a report on the issue and submitted it to the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture. In accordance with the recommendations of the report, plans and programmes have been formulated such as infrastructural development, setting up of a National Youth Council, conducting youth awareness programmes in the districts, a Youth Day celebration, youth exchange programmes.

A large number of social organizations has conducted various youth activity programmes in order to promote and develop the dynamic vigour of today's youth for productive purposes.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information.

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies: No information.

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Various activities for the preservation and promotion of languages, literature, arts and cultures of different ethnic groups and communities will be taken up by the Archaeology Department, Royal Nepal Academy, Cultural Corporation and various non-governmental agencies.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5.developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Nepal considers NGO inputs important for the implementation of Agenda 21.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

There are now thousands of NGOs operating in Nepal. It is important to note, however, that despite the increase in the number of NGOs, they still operate on a limited scale and work only in a small minority of communities. Thousands of local self-help NGOs are involved in activities as diverse as the management of community forests or providing access to credit and agricultural labour exchange. They can mobilize local resources very effectively, since the projects are implemented by the beneficiaries themselves. They also have a large geographical sphere of operation, which can have a significant impact on the development of Nepal.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making. No information.

There are at least ------ local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve ----% of population

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Encouraging provisions will be included in the policies and regulations in order to promote the involvement of women working in the governmental and non-governmental service sectors in the policy-making process to a greater extent.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Nepal has ratified the ILO Convention No. 114 on tripartite consultation. As per this convention, a National Labour Advisory Committee under the chairmanship of the Honorable Minister of Labour has been established. The Labour Act (1992) has a provision calling for a Labour Relation Committee which aims at promoting bipartite relationships in maintaining and improving the working environment at the establishment level.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 Nepal has governmental policies for increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

1. Industrial Pollution Control Management Control has components such as minimization of wastage of

raw materials and energy, exchange of waste from some industries as inputs to other industuries.

2. Energy Efficiency Project audits the use of energy in various industrial sub-sectors

to minimize the amount of waste.

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

A growing number of people are exposed to pollution from industrial enterprises. A number of factors contribute to this process: industrial plants sited inappropriately close to population centres; insufficient emphasis given to fuel efficiency; little, if any, pollution abatement equipment used to reduce emissions, and a total lack of industrial pollution standards. To date, very little pollution abatement equipment has been used by industries in Nepal.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

No information.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Special attention will be given to the development of traditional indigenous technology. In this regard, the improvement, development and fine-tuning of existing technologies in rural areas will be encouraged.

In support of the programme on S&T, HMG/N has sought financial and technical assistance from GTZ, FAO and UN agencies to implement IPM & Pesticide Management Programmes.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Government of Nepal is working on policy measures in order to empower farmers for technology development, transfer and use in sustainable agriculture and rural development. The IPM Programme is an example of these measures.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Economic growth with stability, poverty alleviation and rural development.
STATUS REPORT: Of the annual budgets of HMG/N, an average of 35% is from foreign funds, and 62% of the development funding is ODA funding. Both the domestic and foreign resources are used for achieving high economic growth, poverty alleviation, employment, rural development and empowerment. Environment is a top priority. Agriculture, forestry, power infrastructure projects and the social sector give sustainability much importance in terms of institutionalisation, replicability and financial capacity.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

1. Population and environment are treated as a separate instrument sector.

2. Project screening depends on EIA and sustainability studies.

3. A number of projects - especially in the field of rural and local development - have been started keeping in mind the concepts of empowerment, self help and sustainable development.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

1. Polluter Pays Principle.

2. Surcharge on cigarettes and beverages.

3. Local development fee.

4. Duty concession for environmentally friendly vehicles.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: Elimination of rebate provided to public vans and cars in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Previously, a rebate was provided on import duty.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million) 217 236 243 295 350
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

It is estimated that gross domestic product (GDP) at factor cost at constant prices of 1984/85 grew by 6.1% in fiscal year 1995/96. In the previous year, the rate of GDP growth was estimated to be 2.9%.

Per capita GDP in 1995/96 was estimated to have reached NRs. 12,092 at factor cost as compared to a revised estimate of NRs. 10,877 for fiscal year 1994/95.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

Nepal is in the process of establishing this system.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

With regard to the promotion of EST, cooperation and capacity-building, the Ministry is looking forward to setting up information linkages and networks within a reasonable time in pursuance of national activities as well as regional inputs. The Ministry remains prepared to feed, to receive, to store, to disseminate and to retrieve information as per need. In this respect, Nepal remains prepared to consider available programmes in order to participate actively in the exchange and promotion of an information network system.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No work being undertaken.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

Not applicable.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

Not applicable.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

It is natural that a nation that is still predominantly rural in character has a need to develop its agricultural sector also in terms of science and technology. In fact, it has become necessary to develop science and technology in a manner which facilitates the development of local skills and technology and allows the mobilization of available natural resources.

Priorities:

a. Management and expansion of infrastructure necessary for the enhancement of the potential of scientific research in order to promote traditional research and to achieve economic benefits to meet the needs of today.

b. Promotion of technology transfer and replication.

c. Production of a qualitatively competent work force.

d. Screening of research findings before their publication, and dissemination of technology.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

The Institute of Science and Technology will make necessary arrangements for the fulfilment of the needs of competent scientists and technical manpower by widening the sphere of research at the national level, and by improving the provisions needed or raising the level of competence of the people at the Central Department of the Institute and the Campuses under the Institute. Research on major productive issues confronted at the national level will be encouraged including the establishment of graduate study programmes under the Institute of Science and Technology.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1991/92 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.)
Number of students enrolled in higher engineering education
2,268
2,080
2,029
2,052
Number of students enrolled in higher medicine education
1,777
1,499
1,098
1,136
Number of students enrolled in higher agriculture and animal science education
721
674
675
565
Number of students enrolled in higher forestry education
454
563
541
483
Number of students enrolled in higher science and technology education
12,113
12,272
14,109
11,028
Other data

Some 0.1% of national domestic product is used for research and development. This needs to be improved by allocating minimum 1% of national domestic product.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In Nepal, environmental education is integrated into social sciences and health and population education at primary, lower secondary and secondary levels. It is called Social and Environmental education (including health education) at grades 1-3; Environmental Science and Health Education at grades 4-5, Population and Environmental Education at lower secondary level (6-8), and Science and Environmental Education at High Schools (grades 9-10). Environmental education represents some 14% of the curricula except at the lower secondary level where the percentage is only seven.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development As in all other areas, education and awareness-raising is critical for shaping people's preceptions, attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. These efforts enable individuals to appreciate more environmental policies, legislation and regulations, and to foster individual responsibility towards sustainable resource management and development.

b) Increasing public awareness No information.

c) Promoting training Relevant environmental concerns need to be incorporated into the programmes of different training institutions, and HMG has already initiated programmes towards this end.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
Adult literacy rate (%) Male (Age 6+)
54.5
NA
Adult literacy rate (%) Female (Age 6+)
25.0
NA
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
30.1%
Mean number of years of schooling
NA
% of GNP spent on education
2.47
Females per 100 males in secondary school (grades 9+10)
47.9
Women per 100 men in the labour force
NA
1991
Pupil/teacher at primary education level
39
39
Pupil/teacher ratio at lower secondary education level
29
44
Pupil/teacher ratio at secondary education level
34
20
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

There is a lack of professionals both in the technical and managerial sectors. In order to raise the number of competent people working in the key positions, the Government is restructuring the Public Service Commission responsible for the official selection of professionals. Qualifications, experience and proven performance have been singled out as the main selection criteria. Furthermore, qualitative reorientation and further education and training are needed in order to get a meaningful return of the investments made. Foreign cooperation and assistance is also important in this respect.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

Nepal recognizes UNESCO's contribution in raising environmental awareness in the 1975's. UN conferences and UNEP's input have also been encouraging in promoting our concept on sustainability. The country looks very much forward

- to being involved in the UN operated project assignments

- to taking part in the regional capacity-building efforts

- to being assigned for regional issue investigation to upgrade our national manpower

- to being stimulated in the national programme in conjunction with regional and global meetings, activities and task forces of enquiries.

Nepal counts on the UN as the platform for providing opportunities for national growth oriented to regional issues and concerns. This meets the national aspirations of collaboration at various levels leading to the international sphere.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

Nepal is a party to several major international conventions relating to the environment. These conventions have stimulated the development of national legislation and regional cooperation.

Since the 1970's, the public awareness of environmental concerns has increased, and this can also be seen in the policy formulation, enactments and guidelines. The National Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines take into account industrial development, hydropower establishments and road work constructions. Environmental legislation has been passed in the Parliament in the context of the developmental needs of today.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
NA
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data


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