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National Implementation of Agenda 21

MONGOLIA

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Mongolia to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

MONGOLIA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: The Mongolian National Council for Sustainable Development

Date: 19 November, 1996

Submitted by: M. Badarch, Secretary

Mailing address: MAP-21, Government House-2, United Nations' Str.11, Ulaanbaatar-46, Mongolia-210646

Telephone: 328151

Telefax: 976-1-323189

E-mail: Agenda21@magicnet.mn

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(FACT SHEET)

NAME OF COUNTRY: MONGOLIA

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Mongolian National Council for Sustainable Development

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Dr. M. Badarch, Secretary, Mongolian National Council for Sustainable Development

Telephone: 328151

Fax: +976-1-323189

e-mail: Agenda21@magicnet.mn

Mailing address: MAP-21, Government House-2, United Nations' Str. 11, Ulaanbaatar-46, Mongolia-210646

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

Chairman : Mr. M. Enkhsaikhan, Prime Minister

Vice chairman : Mr. P. Tsagaan, Minister of Finance

Mr. Ts. Adysauren, Minister of Nature and the Environment

(see over the involved personnel in Institutional Arrangements)

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

Academic Sector 2 members

Business Sector 3 members

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved: Economic, Social and Environmental Committee of National Council for The Economic, Social and Environmental Committee of the National Council for Sustainable Development includes 6 members from the private sector and 10 members of NGOs respectively.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council: The Mongolian National Council for Sustainable Development was established in August 1996 to promote and coordinate the implementation of sustainable development in accordance with the decisions taken in Rio. The actual implementation is in the hands of all: the government, public administration, industry, private sector, as well as citizens. Therefore, the role of the Council is to make proposals and coordinate the activities of various sectors.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

(on file)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sustainable Development is an international universal concern. The Mongolian Government is focusing its policy on achieving the objectives of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Mongolia supports the world wide concept that sustainable development will be achieved through providing favorable trade conditions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The integration of trade and environment policies at high decision-making levels is discussed in Standing Committees of the Mongolian Parliament.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

- include environmental issues on the information fund on trade,

- include environmental protection issues in legislative documents on trade,

- conduct training sessions on the integration of trade and environment.

3. Major Groups: The Government, NGOs, trade and industry associations and the private sectors are being included.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Mongolia is actively participating in international meetings and fora on trade and development. Recently, developed concepts and recommendations are being reflected in the National Development Concept and implemented. Mongolia became a member of the World Trade Organization in July 1996.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Absolute poverty and unemployment are a universal concern

(to reduce poverty in Mongolia to 10% by the year 2000)

STATUS REPORT: One of six households, or one out of six persons is surviving on incomes below the poverty line. The official poverty lines, referred to as the per capita Minimum Living Level (MLL), were reestablished by the Mongolian Government in December 95, e.g.: Tug 8000 per person per month for urban households and Tug. 6900 per person per month for rural households. Urban poverty is higher than rural poverty in Mongolia. The urban poor include a substantial number of health, education sector workers and factory workers. Herders who own a small number of animals, pensioners, and female-headed households are identified as vulnerable groups.

Unemployment has only become a problem in Mongolia since 1990, and the unemployed are demarcated as a vulnerable group. The association between poverty and unemployment is very significant. Nearly 60 percent of the unemployed fall under the poverty line. As stated in the World Bank survey, poor unemployed persons are, on average, younger and live in households which have more children and fewer workers and often live with other household members who are unemployed. 75 percent of the unemployed are below 35 years of age, a result of the young age structure of the population and lack of opportunities for them. Major reasons for youth unemployment are the loss of job opportunities due to the deep economic crisis, low rate of salaries, lack of job opportunities related to their professional skills, and low educational levels.

Access to primary health care, clean water and sanitation is still a serious problem. The introduction of patients' fees and the reduction in real government spending since 1991 led to a rise in the cost of access to health services among the poor. Maternal and infant mortality rates are rising, particularly for poor households in outlying areas, in large part due to the deterioration in health.

Focus of national strategy

The Government of Mongolia introduced a six-year, multi-sectoral National Poverty Alleviation Programme (NPAP) in June 1994. The programme is designed to mobilize both national and external resources more effectively for the purpose of considerably reducing poverty in Mongolia by the year 2000.

The NPAP addresses poverty in a wide sense, going beyond simple income concerns to address issues related to access to social services and improving opportunities for improvement of overall human development. It also aims to prevent further increases in poverty through expanding opportunities and integrating poverty into economic and social policy-making.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Homeless street children will be under social care, and poverty among women will be reduced.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for formulating and implementing social policy measures. The National Poverty Alleviation Committee (NPAC), chaired by the head of the Cabinet Secretariat, consists of State Secretaries of relevant line Ministries. The Poverty Alleviation Programme Office (PAPO) is the Secretariat to the NPAC. The Poverty Alleviation Fund Council (PAFC) is responsible for overseeing the allocation of resources to the Aimags/provinces and Ulaanbaatar city. The Council consists of members of relevant ministries and NGOs. Poverty Alleviation Councils (PACs) consisting of local Governors and NGOs operate in all aimags and Ulaanbaatar at the Aimag and Sum/District levels.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Government is involved in the training of Government and NGO personnel at all levels and the training of provincial governors and officials responsible for population issues.

3. Major Groups: Vulnerable Group Organizations (cooperatives), Women's Organizations, NGOs.

4. Finance:

Domestic resources: The Government has committed 240,000 $US to the Poverty Alleviation for Vulnerable Groups Project. 290,000 $US was also committed to support the Management of the NPAP at both Central and Local levels. The Government has been making contributions to various activities which are related to Poverty Alleviation, mainly through ministries and NGOs.

External resources: About 55 million US$ has been committed/earmarked in direct support of the NPAP. A key funder is UNDP. Others are IFAD, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the New Zealand Government.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Mongolia has participated in the Regional Poverty Alleviation Programme for Asia and the Pacific since 1995. The Regional Poverty Alleviation Programme for Asia and the Pacific aims to complement regional and national efforts by an integrated set of interventions. These include building the capacity for poverty alleviation at the government and community levels; encouraging participatory approaches through empowerment of the poor; promoting and replicating successful community based poverty alleviation initiatives; improving the design and implementation of programmes at the local level, and establishing standardized cost-effective monitoring systems for human development and poverty across the region.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
Unemployment (%)
-
5.5
6.3
5.4*
Population living in absolute poverty
NA
NA
NA
800**
Public spending on social sector %
24.3
26.2
42.2
27.9***
Other data

* Unemployment rate estimated using unemployed persons registered at the labour markets in aimags and cities;

** Living "Standard Measurement Survey" conducted by SSO.

*** Percentage share of the health and education expenditures to total state budget expenditure. SSO Data.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

The issue of changing consumption patterns is a new concept and not well understood in Mongolia. There is a need for awareness programmes on consumption/production and its consequences, and legislation encouraging waste reduction and changes in consumption patterns.

National targets

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The main institutions that focus on the issue of consumption are : the Ministry of Agriculture and Industry, the Ministry of Nature and Environment and the Ministry of Infrastructure Development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
GDP per capita (current US$)
NA
NA
477
328*
Real GDP growth (%)
5.7
-2.5
-9.5
6.3
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
NA
NA
NA
NA
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
NA
NA
NA
NA
Other data Caloric intake per average person, kilocalories 2486 2621 1981 2277

* Calculated by the World Bank Atlas Methodology. Latest estimate has been done for 1994.

** Daily fat consumption per average person in grams.

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency
X
Energy efficiency:
Transport
X
Housing
X
X
X
Other
Waste:
Reduce
X
X
X
Reuse
X
X
X
Recycle

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
House-
holds
Civil
Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press)
I
R
R
I
I
Research
I
R
R
I
Evaluating environmental claims
I
R
R
I
I
Form partnerships
I
R
R
I
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies
R
I
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling)
R
I
Regulatory instruments
R
R
I
I
Economic incentives/disincentives
I
R
I
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

I
R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

I
R
I
Procurement policy
R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign
R
I
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: maintain the average annual population growth rate at no less than 1.8 percent.
STATUS REPORT: Up to 1990, policy measures were directed towards increasing the population. Since then, more emphasis has been given to maternal and child health, birth spacing, childbearing age, and infant mortality. In 1991, the President of Mongolia gave his approval of the "Population Guidelines" which emphasized human resources as the basic input to development. The Guidelines stress the stabilization of the population growth rate, linking biological optimal potential for reproduction with psychological, maternal and child health factors. In 1992, the Ministry of Population Policy and Labor was established and an officer was appointed to every aimag and city government to deal with population problems. In 1995, Mongolia promulgated a Population Policy which addresses basic issues of human life such as poverty alleviation, reducing unemployment by creating job opportunities and tightening the relationships among social groups. The main goal of the Population Policy of Mongolia for the period up to 2010-15 is to create conditions for maintaining the average annual population growth rate at no less than 1.8 percent, reducing the mortality rates of infants and children under five years of age by one-third and the maternal mortality rate by 50 percent from 1990 levels, and increasing life expectancy at birth. As stated in the Population Policy Document, the policy of ensuring the interrelationship between population and sustainable development shall be aimed at creating the conditions for the well-being of the population on the basis of securing the balance between the environment, population and sustainable development.

It should be noted that assistance from UNFPA and UNDP has been provided in the field of population activities.

The first international seminar on Population Policy was organized in 1993. In-service training and seminars for high and mid level government officials have been organized since 1993 annually.

The Government's view on population growth and fertility levels is that they are too low. The Government of Mongolia promotes measures to raise the rate of population growth and fertility levels.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Department of Population Policy and Social Welfare at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is the unit body most directly concerned with demographic issues.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The following training courses have been conducted:

* Three short-term training courses in demography for mid-level officials who are working at central and local Government organizations in the field of population (in 1994-96);

* Short-term course on inter-linkages between health and population for senior officers of the Ministry of Health and senior teachers of the Medical University (in 1996).

The following training and research centers in the field of population have been established:

* Population Teaching and Research Center at the Mongolian National University

* Human Study Center at the Mongolian Medical University

* Health Management Institute

3. Major Groups:

Reproductive age women

Youth

Children

Vulnerable Groups

4. Finance: Since 1992, the UNFPA intensified its support to Mongolia and allocated more than 4 million US$ to implement 5 projects in the field of population-related activities.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Department of Population Policy and Social Welfare at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for coordinating regional and international cooperation in the field of population.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 1995
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
2075.5
2221.3
2293.9
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
2.8
2.0
1.5
Surface area (Km2)
1566.5
Population density (people/Km2)
1.4
1.4
1.5
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Human health is of great concern in government policy. Maternal and child care is a priority of health policy.
STATUS REPORT: Public health care is an essential component in the Government's socio-economic development strategy. The public health service system has different administrative, financial and organizational structures with the aim of improving the quality of services at all levels. For this purpose, the system of family doctors with existing services at clinical institutions has been adopted to provide primary health care such as : providing basic medicine, prenatal and maternity care, family planning, ambulance services, child care, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and sexual diseases. Besides these, health care policy deals with treatments, supply by basic medicine and providing systematic treatment of common diseases.

There were 26 doctors, 65 nurses and 96 hospital beds per 1000 persons in 1995. The distribution and allocation of medical services is uneven in urban and rural areas. For instance, there are 56 doctors available per 1000 persons in Ulaanbaatar city, but 15 doctors in rural areas (NDB, 1996).

The decline in the health sector continues due to the lack of capacity in the rural medical establishments. Because of financial constraints, 90 percent of hospitals have a shortage of electricity, drinking water, communications and transport facilities which result in a low quality of medical services. There is a shortage of medicine, medical facilities and medical equipment in medical institutions. The former Ministry of Health has prepared a list of 200 essential medicines, but only 70 percent of these medicines are available.

Since 1994, a health insurance system was introduced in Mongolia. Approximately 98.5 percent of the population is included in the health insurance programme.

Access to primary health care, clean water and sanitation in Mongolia is still a problem.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for dealing with problems of national as well as local concern. Also the Departments of Health and Social Welfare at the aimag/province Governor's Office are responsible for dealing with related problems of local concern.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Healthy Cities Project is operating in Ulaanbaatar and Darhan leading to the preparation of action plans for improvements in the factors that effect health, such as water supply, sanitation, air quality, food, etc.

3. Major Groups: Mothers, Children, Workers.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: WHO has developed a Regional Healthy Cities programme. In Mongolia, committees have been established in Ulaanbaatar and Darhan to prepare plans to be presented at 1997 Workshops.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1989
1990
Latest 1995
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

NA
63

60

66

NA
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
78.9
64.4
44.4
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
121.6
186.0
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
NA
NA
NA
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
NA
NA
NA
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: to decrease the concentration of the population in the capital and larger cities, and develop satellite cities and regional centers
STATUS REPORT: There has been a change in the outdated authorities' guidelines which previously controlled the movement of the population and protects the people from exploitation. The new Constitution, in conformity with human rights, enhances the right of Mongolian citizens to choose their place of living, go abroad, and return. Priority is given to the development of the less developed regions in order to encourage urban-rural and rural-rural migration. Consequently, several laws and regulation related to migration and social security have been implemented.

Recent population distribution is characterized by an increase in the urban population, an increase in the population density in the forest-steppe zone and the stabilization of the rural population. This trend will continue further. At present, nearly a quarter of the population is concentrated in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, (600,000) where the population is 6 times higher than that of Darhan (100,000), the second largest city, and 10 times higher than in the Erdenet (60,000), the third largest city.

Generally, migration is from rural to urban areas and a high rate of urbanization is mainly associated with the lack of primary health care, uneven distribution of education and job opportunities, etc. The movements are caused mainly due to economic reasons. In rural areas, the cost of living is higher than that in the cities, living conditions are very poor, there is no electricity in remote som/bag areas, and there is an increase of theft of livestock near country border and remote areas. There is a necessity for human settlement policy in Mongolia. Rural and urban development should not be undertaken in isolation from each other, and therefore comprehensive planning should be taken. To cope with rapid urbanization, the Government should create favorable conditions for private sector investment in smaller towns and cities and require support mechanisms, such as physical and social infrastructure, and favorable fiscal and monetary policies. The following issues are considered important: determination of factors to limit socially negative phenomenon such as unemployment and poverty; eliminate disparities in the living standards of the population; create conditions of equal progressive development at urban, regional and national levels through urban development policy; and introduce highly beneficial, environmentally-friendly, non waste producing new technology that draws special attention to environmental protection and ecological balance, etc.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and the Ministry of Infrastructure Development are the responsible coordinating bodies for human settlement issues.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Vulnerable groups, Indigenous people.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
57.0
51.9
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
2.6
-1.6
Largest city population (in % of total population)
26.7
26.7
Other data

Note: All data are taken as of the end of the year.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Since of the Spring of 1990, Mongolia has undergone a major political and economic transformation, moving from a socialist to democratic form of government, and from a centrally-planned to a free market system based on private enterprise. The Government of Mongolia is continuing the policy of furthering the economic and political transformation process, promoting the privatization of state property and establishing laws protecting private ownership. Awareness of environmental aspects has been growing rapidly in the field of development in Mongolia. Environmental Impact Assessment procedures have been developed and are being used in development projects. The Government has adapted comprehensive master plans for energy and agriculture in which environment-related issues are included. The Government, NGOs and the private sector have been quick to see and respond to the inter-connectedness of environment and development issues. The Government, with World Bank support, has developed an environmental action plan in which the relationship between development and the environment is considered. There is a need to establish a comprehensive information framework at the national level by integrating environmental and development information.

For the purpose of implementing the goals raised in the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development, in the "Agenda 21" agreed in June 1992 at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro on "Environment and Development", countries are giving their attention to economic development with an orientation to environment and ecology corresponding to the world global trend of environmentally oriented development.

There is an unavoidable need to consider the following problems in the development of countries' long-term development policies: changes in "greenhouse" gases, the ozone layer, climate, increase in water level, drought, desertification, the loss of biodiversity, acid rain, natural disasters, etc.

There is a need for finding an optimal way to reduce the negative consequences of world global development, such as rapid population growth, the ecological crisis, shortage of fresh water, growth of poverty, etc in the XXI century.

Based upon the general ideas identified in "Agenda-21", there is a need for developing and implementing a Mongolian Action Programme for Sustainable Development with an orientation to the environment.

On the other hand, there is a need for making a revision in the document "Concept for Development in Mongolia", based upon the principles of "Agenda 21" by determining ways to implement, define the detailed activities in the Mongolian National Action Programme for Sustainable Development for the 21st century. Moreover, there is a necessity to formulate local action programmes for sustainable development for the 21st century.

The Capacity-21 programme was established by developed countries to help develop sustainable development concepts in developing countries. As requested by the Mongolian Government, the Capacity-21 programme is providing financial assistance for the project "Sustainable Development of Mongolia"

A. Project objectives

- to develop the Mongolian Sustainable Development Programme for the 21st century;

- to develop the Aimags Sustainable Development Programme for the 21st century;

- to implement pilot projects in order to promote the integration of economic development with environmental protection and to use economic incentives for the optimal utilization of natural resources and for protecting the environment;

- to provide public awareness and organize training in sustainable development issues for people of various levels of society.

B. Project implementation period

The project activities began in June 1996 and will continue for two years. The national staff will play the main role in the implementation of the project. UNDP has provided a Senior Advisor, and international experts will be invited for the short term.

C. The main activities of the project

As indicated in the project document during the its implementation period, over two years the following main activities will be carried out:

Cont'd

- develop the Mongolian National Action Programme for Sustainable Development for the 21st century (MAP-21 Document);

- develop 21 Aimag and Capital City Action Programmes for Sustainable Development for the 21st century;

- implement pilot projects in order to promote the integration of economic development with environmental protection and to use economic incentives for the optimal utilization of natural resources and the protection of the environment;

- establish a National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD) under the Prime Minister, and a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) and local technical consultants;

- provide the PIU and aimag's Capital City/local/technical consultants with computers and other equipment;

- appoint local technical consultants responsible for developing programmes for sustainable development and organizing training in sustainable development principles and developing action programmes for the 21st, century including training in computer applications;

- establish a Sustainable Development Advisory Committee and Economic, Social and Environmental Work Groups responsible for supporting activities for the formulation of action programmes for sustainable development at both national and local levels, and organizing workshops, discussions among them, etc.;

- prepare instructions on the formulation of local action programmes for sustainable development;

- search and find out the necessary international and internal financing possibilities and resources necessary for the implementation of sustainable development programmes;

- organize an international meeting for high level officials and mobilize financial support from international donors for the implementation of programme activities;

- prepare training materials, organize regional workshops.

D. Importance of the project

The importance of the project is to widen the following possibilities for national and local action programmes for sustainable development; develop and implement the pilot projects as part of the initial activities concerning the implementation of the action programmes; strengthen national capacity in sustainable development issues; and use the financial support of international organizations and donor countries to implement the national development action programme.

E. Project Budget

Over 60 percent of the project budget will be spent for developing the Mongolian Sustainable Development Programme for the implementation of pilot projects, purchasing equipment, and the daily running costs of PIU and local technical consultants, organizing regional workshops and training and awareness programmes. As indicated in the project document, the Government of Mongolia will be responsible for providing the PIU and local consultants with office space and office equipment.

F. Project activities

Since the beginning of the project period the following activities have been undertaken:

- in connection with the change of Government Cabinet, the National Council for Sustainable Development has been reestablished and new working directions and duties have been developed;

- selecting and appointing the project managers, ordering and purchasing the necessary equipment and installing it, and organizing training;

- appointing local consultants who will be responsible for the implementation of the project at the local level;

- organizing discussions on sustainable development issues and providing a briefing of project activities with several aimag and some Governors, officials and people from different organizational units;

- organizing discussion workshops on sustainable development issues among officials of the NDB (former), and the Ministry of the Environment.

Cont'd

G. Plan of immediate action

- organizing a Sustainable Development Advisory Committee responsible for assisting the PIU and reviewing project output, drawing conclusions and making recommendations;

- assigning aimag technical advisors responsible for the implementation of the project at the local level and organizing training for them;

- establishing an Economic, Social and Environmental Working Groups responsible for conducting surveys on key issues, developing comments and conclusions on sustainable development at national and local levels;

- determining the structure and content of national and local action programmes for sustainable development;

- preparing the instruction of the aimag action programme for sustainable development;

- organizing regional training workshops on sustainable development issues;

- issuing a "News Letter" containing information on UN and international activities on sustainable development.

In order to implement the project activities successfully, there is, of course, a need for support from NCSD members.Therefore, there is a need for establishing a Management, Coordination Group responsible for providing daily coordination and to organize a sustainable development Advisory Committee responsible for reviewing the developed documents within project activities and making comments and providing recommendations on them. Representatives from different sectors will be involved with the Committee.

Certain measures will be taken to involve government officials, NGOs, the private sector, scientists and professionals in the activities concerning the development and implementation of the National and Aimag Action Programmes for the 21st century. Attention will be given to the integration of project activities with other project activities that affect Mongolia's economy.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): Basic sectoral laws such as the Concept of National Development and the Environmental Action Plan have been developed. Biodiversity and Desertification Action Plans have been adopted by the Parliament.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See the above "Status Report".

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Mongolia cooperates with neighboring countries on Conservation Environment. The Mongolian Government is actively involved in UNEP activities. Mongolia has become one of the main supporters of different UN Conventions such as the Convention to Combat Desertification, Ozone Depletion and Biodiversity Conservation.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol (1987), the London Amendment (1990) and the Copenhagen Amendment were signed in September 1995.

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 1995

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The UNFCCC was signed 30 September, 1993.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted 30 September, 1993.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Nature and the Environment, the National Agency for Hydrometerology and Environmental Monitoring and the National Climate Committee are responsible for the protection of the atmosphere in Mongolia.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-Building/Technology Issues are in the beginning stage.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In 1993 and 1995, the UNFCCC, Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol and its Amendments were ratified. Mongolia participated in the US Country Studies Programme and its implementing ALGAS project.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
26.3
8.6
SOx "
-
-
NOx "
0.02
0.004
CH4 "
0.34
0.29
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High
STATUS REPORT: Mongolia's land area is about 1.56 million square km. and the population density is 1.4 persons per square km. Based on these statistics alone it would seem that natural resources would be in abundant supply, that environmental degradation would be limited, and land management not a high priority. The characteristics of the Mongolian land and climate, combined with past land use, have led to significant environmental degradation and have made improving land management a high priority for the future.

In general, land cover in Mongolia can be broken down as follows: 75.8 percent used for agricultural land (of which approximately 0.8 percent is cultivated; 1.6 percent used for hay-making, 97.6 is pastureland); 0.4 percent occupied by city and settlements; 7.4 percent for state special need (which includes land allocated for the state security and defense purposes, special protected areas, roads, and communication networks of national importance); 9.7 percent forest and shrubland; 1.0 percent area covered by water, and 5.7 percent state reserved land.

Mongolian land territory has been divided into six broad vegetation zones, which include : desert 22%, desert-steppe 19%, steppe 21% forest-steppe 26%, taiga%, and alpine 4%.

The Land Law was enacted by Parliament in 1994. Today, all Mongolian land is owned by the state. Under the land law, entities such as political, state, non-governmental, and religious organizations and citizens may posses and use land. Land is classified by its basic purpose and type, and the responsibility for land management lies with central or local government. The Constitution declares that private land shall be owned by citizens of Mongolia. A law concerning land ownership by citizens and land use fees is in the pipeline.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: In 1990, Mongolia established a unicameral parliamentary system entitled the "Great Assembly". The Parliament's general responsibilities include passing laws, defining domestic, foreign and financial policy, setting economic and social development guidelines, and supervising the implementation of its laws and decisions. The Parliament is divided into Standing Committees, each responsible for specific subject matter. Issues and laws in the environment field and natural resources, including land use, are handled by the Standing Committee on Agricultural Policy, Nature and the Environment.

The Cabinet Ministry is the highest executive authority and consists of the Prime Minister and nine Ministries. The Minister of Nature and Environment is responsible for land resource management, land use regulation and land protection within the Cabinet Ministry. The Ministry of Nature and the Environment prepares strategy documents and has authority on the adoption of standards and regulations on land relations issues. The Land Management Agency will be the main organization responsible for the integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources at the national level.

Through the relevant new land legislation acts, planning and management systems are highly decentralized and local authorities have authority over land relations. For instance, the Soum (the name of the smallest administrative unit in Mongolia) Citizen Representative Assembly will approve upon submission by the Governor, land management planning in their territory. Soum Governors make decisions on land possession and use by citizens, economic entities, and organizations.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: As mentioned above, the soum should have a specialist on land management and regulations who is required to educate people in land management and place land use planning experts in the local level.

3. Major Groups: Local people, all citizens, and decision-makers. The members of the Assembly at all levels, as well as Governors, may introduce an act and provide suggestions for decision-making. Citizens may participate in this process.

4. Finance: Not enough information available. However, there are expenditures on staff and on some scientific surveys.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Government of Mongolia supports various programmes and projects, directly or indirectly oriented to the management and protection of land resources such as : the ADB project "Strengthening land use policies", a Swedish Mongolian project on land mapping and cartography, the Khuvsgal lake, Selenge river watershed management programme, the DANIDA project on Natural resource management and planning systems, and several projects for the conservation of special protected areas. Also, other sectoral projects give special attention to land use planning and the protection of land resources.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: The total forest area of Mongolia is 15.3 million hectares. The forest area is mainly located in the northern part of the country along the Russian border. Most of the forests are inaccessible due to the lack of roads and the mountain relief pattern. Forest resources are distributed in Khangai, Khentii, Sayan, Altai mountains and sub-mountain areas and are divided into three forest vegetation zones.

a) The Khentii mountain's pine forest zone includes forest area of Khentii, Dornod, Tuv, Selenge, Bulgan aimags and the green zone of the Capital city of Ulaanbaatar. In this particular forest zone, the dominant tree species are Scotch pine, Siberian larch, and Siberian pine.

b) The Khangai mountain's larch forest zone includes the forest areas of Khuvsgul, Arkhangai, Uvurkhangai, Zabkhan, Uvs, Khovd, Bayan-Ulgii and Bayankongor aimags. The main tree species in this zone are Siberian larch and Siberian pine.

c) The Altai mountain's forest vegetation zone includes Govi-Altai, Khovd and Uvurkhangai aimags. In this zone, saxaual trees and others such as Gobi poplars predominate.

Compared to other Asian counties, Mongolian forests are very vulnerable to anthropological effects and have a very low growth capacity equal to a 1.5-2.0 m3/ha year.

Trees in Mongolia have great importance beyond their commercial value. Almost all rivers of the country, including the inflow to lake Bail, the largest fresh water lake in the world, come from forested watersheds of the Northern and Central part of Mongolia. In addition, trees serve as wind breaks to combat desertification and help stabilize agricultural lands.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Nature and the Environment implements policies and programmes related to forest resource management and use. Under the Ministry, an Agency for Nature Conservation, in conjunction with the Forest Bureau was established which is responsible for implementing forest policy. Aimag Governments execute forest conservation and reforestation measures through the aimag district, timber companies and individuals. The National Forestry Institute was established over 70 years ago.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The strategy of the sector focuses on management, protection of the forest ecosystem, prevention of forest fires and unexported wood production policy. During the past 20 years, 21 tree nurseries with a capacity of producing 20 million seedlings per year were established in the country. Mongolia has gained good experience and professional knowledge on forest reforestation. More than 10 thousand people have been educated in various forest specializations and there are currently 3 thousand employers in the sector.

3. Major Groups: The local people, commercial enterprises, reforestation planting specialists, indigenous people and youth.

4. Finance: In the national budget and social-economic plan of the country, certain funds have always been committed to afforestation/reforestation purposes. For 1995, the funding of the forestry sector from state budget was 126 mill. X/0.25 mill. US$.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: A Cooperation agreement on the forestry sector between Russia and Mongolia in 1995 and a cooperation framework have been established. A project on Forestry Management of the Selenge Aimag is being implemented during the period of 1993-1996 under the Japan International Cooperation Agency. World Vision International Organization in Mongolia is going to implement two Post fire Rehabilitation Projects. Mongolia has become a member of the Asia-Pacific Forest Commission to the UNFAO. Also, Mongolia is participating in regional projects on Forest Policies and Institutions. More than 10 national forestry specialists were trained in Germany and Japan during the last six years. International Experts from Japan, Germany, South Korea, and Finland visited Mongolia and exchanged opinions on the development of forestry management, protection and the conservation of forest resources.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1995
Forest Area (Km2)
152,943
152,943
152,943
Protected forest area
62,123
62,123
74,109
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
2,24
1,2
0,7
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum) no information
2,095
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
26,1
44,0
39,7
Export of roundwood product (thous. m3)
219.5
79.0
30.0

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed 15 October 1994 and ratified 3 September 1996.

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The process of desertification is affecting Mongolia. This process can easily be noticed with the naked eye. Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas is the result of various factors, including climatic variation and human activities.

Following this definition, 90% of Mongolia is vulnerable to desertification. These areas are, in the case of Mongolia, almost exclusively used as range lands, supporting about 28 million head of livestock.

Land degradation is not wide-spread, but also not uncommon. Especially around centres of socio-economic activities like roads and wells, or district (Sum) and province (Aimag) centres, degradation, and in the drier areas desertification have become apparent.

Anthropogenic causes of desertification include: overgrazing, inappropriate agricultural practices, deforestation, ill-planning and inappropriate use of the road network.

Keeping in view the adverse impact of desertification on socio-economic conditions as well as its ecological implications on natural resources, the Government of Mongolia, in collaboration with UNEP and ESCAP, embarked upon the preparation of a National Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (NPACD).

Before an approach for the sustainable management of Mongolia's land and water resources at a larger scale can be launched in the field, a number of activities are needed in the short run to develop and test potential tools that create an enabling institutional environment. Such activities include:

- Public awareness raising,

- The mobilization of existing knowledge on ecosystems and their uses: Traditional knowledge of resource users, results of research by Mongolian institutes,

- Review of Policies and Formulation of Action Plans at different government levels,

- Development of Appropriate Technologies and Methodologies (sustainable at the different actors' levels: resource users, national and local governments),

- Training of government staff,

- Instalment of monitoring facilities,

- Pilot projects in the field of integrated, participatory management of renewable natural resources.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: At the centre of all NPACD activities will be a coordination unit at the Ministry of Nature and the Environment (MNE). It will be fully integrated within the institutional framework of MAP-21.

Environmental issues are within the mandate of the MNE. Like other Mongolian government structures at the national and local level, it is limited in its effectiveness through a general lack of funds, which makes for instance recruitment of staff for new tasks difficult. This situation is certainly not better at the Aimag or Sum level.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Since the causes of degradation often are linked to human activities, effective participation is a leading orientation, notably for field projects. Another important orientation in this context is the emphasis on rangeland management. The recently adopted New Land Law provides a better adapted legal framework for the implementation of activities to curb land degradation.

3. Major Groups: The following major groups are important to combat desertification: local communities and people, farmers and herdsmen, decision makers, and indigenous people.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In recent years the Government, with assistance from the international donor community, has formulated a number of policy documents to serve as a framework for activities that influence Mongolian ecosystems and their uses.

Of particular importance to this NPACD are the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and the Mongolian Action Programme for the 21-st century (MAP 21). These documents provide a more general institutional basis where the NPACD can be considered to fill in certain chapters.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Land affected by desertification (Km2) no info. no info.
560 000
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There are no special management schemes or activities for the mountain areas.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High
STATUS REPORT: Mongolia is basically an agricultural country, although more than half the population lives in settlements of at least 500 people. The population increase (double by 2015) will most likely be concentrated in settlements, major urban areas and employment centers. Therefore, in general, agricultural resources and activities must provide for ever-increasing populations from virtually the same basic resources, therefore requiring an increase in productivity through intensification of grazing and cultivation.

The existing basic agricultural resource is grazing lands which support more than 28,000 animals used for food and transport, although irrigated and dryland farming have expanded up until the last few years. Unlike many southern Asian countries, Mongolia's cold, long winter, low rainfall, and short growing season reduces the productivity and the resiliency of grazing and cultivated lands to respond and recover from severe winters, droughts, wild fires, and poor cultivation practices. In addition, the weather pattern is not favorable for most cultivation, since the early spring, when crops are planted, is the dry season, with very strong winds which aggravate desiccation.

As in other sectors and activities, the distribution of agricultural resources is not even and is seriously and adversely affected by concentrations along transportation routes, market centers, water sources and supporting winter grazing grounds. These factors lead to severe overgrazing and desertification in marginal areas and rapidly declining productivity of grazing lands. Similarly, cultivation practices in both dry and irrigated areas tend to destroy the natural fertility and productivity of the soils and reduce productivity. Increasing losses of productivity in all agricultural sectors is further exaggerated by a lack of equipment and parts, fuels, electricity, skilled technicians, and immediate needs for sustenance and sales equipment and materials for scrap values.

Poor irrigation practices reduce the fertility of the soil and increase salinization in the upper horizons. At the same time, irrigation from groundwater lowers groundwater tables which reduces the recharge of rivers and lakes. Direct irrigation from rivers and streams further reduces river flows and recharge of surrounding local groundwater tables. These trends reduce both the quality and yield of water resources for irrigation and adversely affect soils. Salt-related soil losses are further increased by poor irrigation efficiencies for supply and application rates, while little concern is expressed for leaching water for salt removal through drainage. Where drainage is employed, drainage water returns to channels, rivers, and lakes.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry for Agriculture and Industry is primarily responsible for agriculture and rural development in Mongolia. In Spring 1996, the Parliament adopted the Policy on Rural Development of Mongolia. In the Parliament, there is a Standing Committee on Agricultural Policy, Nature and the Environment, and within the Provincial Governor's Office, the Division of Agriculture and Nature Environment. Soum Governors coordinate and make decisions on rural development. There is no specific environmental legislation for the regulation of agricultural pollution.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: More than 30 thousand farmers and 390 thousand herders are working in the field.

3. Major Groups: Herders, farmers, agricultural specialists and politicians.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International cooperation on agricultural development is quite good. The Government of Mongolia is involved in various technical projects from the World Bank, ADB, and foreign countries such as Denmark, Canada, Japan, etc.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1995
Agricultural land (Km2)
13 000
13 410
5 730
Agricultural land as % of total land area
0.8
0.8
0.3
Agricultural land per capita
0.7
0.6
0.3
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 1995
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
5.4
2.7
0.0
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed in 1995.

The Latest report was submitted in 19__ : No information.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Biodiversity protection and its rational use have been given very high priority by the Mongolian Government from the beginning of 1990 due to the appearance of various organizations. The Ministry of Nature and Environment has been focusing on including basic principles for the conservation of biodiversity in Mongolia in the National Development Concept of Mongolia and the National Ecological Plan and Protected Areas Programme. The forests of Mongolia, which cover 10% of the land area, are not dedicated to industrial uses. The Government has ratified the CITES Convention and is paying attention to the issues of selling rare and very rare species. Training sessions on this issue has been organized.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Nature and Environment is responsible for the conservation of biodiversity. The Ministry is involved in national decision-making concerning the use and development of natural resources. Some environmental laws like the law on forests, the law on natural plants, the law on hunting, the law on special protected areas and the law on environmental protection have been enacted in the period between 1994 to 1995.

The Mongolian Action Plan was developed and approved by the Cabinet in July 1996. The implementation of this action has already begun.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Forest and Hunting Research Institute under the Ministry of Nature and Environment, Botanical Institute and the Institute of General and Experimental Biology under the Academy of Science coordinates biodiversity research. In particular, the Gobu bear, snow leopard, wild camel, presvalskii horse and Argal are being studied. National forest expeditions conduct forest inventories on 400-500 thousand hectares of forests. Some biologists are involved in training under the Mongolian Biodiversity Project.

3. Major Groups: In the period of economic transition and the process of decentralization, Mongolian local statutory bodies are playing a key role in biodiversity conservation.

4. Finance: The Mongolian Biodiversity Project started with a Pre-Investment Feasibility Study that ran from July 1993 to the end of June 1994. The first Implementation Phase ran from 1 July 1994 to 30 June 1996 and was extended to 31 December 1996. The fund budget of this project is 1.5 US dollars. In addition to this, the Government committee on the conservation of endangered species and environmental protection fund spent approximately 0.3 million US dollars.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Projects from other countries like the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark are involved in the conservation of biodiversity in Mongolia. Also, Mongolia is cooperating with Russia and China on agreements on strictly protected areas near the border and agreements on migratory species.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1996
Protected area as % of total land area
6%
10%
1990
Latest 1996
Number of threatened species
685
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Medium
STATUS REPORT: The Mongolian Biotechnology Association, a new non-governmental organization , has started conducting a review of the needs of the public, including institutions, industry, etc. to assess the future of biotechnology development in Mongolia. "The National Biotechnology Programme Towards the Year 2000", initiated by the previous Government in 1989, is not currently being implemented due to the recent changes in the Government and the economic crisis.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The official bodies established to deal with legal and policy issues related to the environmentally sound management of technology, including biotechnology, are the Department of Science and Technology Policy, the Ministry of Enlightenment, the Ministry of Nature and Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and Industry and Ministry of Health and Welfare. In addition, several governmental bodies such as the Mongolian Academy of Sciences institutes and universities are involved in biotechnology research and development. National legislation will be developed on the safe use of biotechnology/gene technology through the recently founded Mongolian Biotechnology Association (MBA) after having signed an agreement with the Government. This agreement is now being formulated. The draft should include issues on safe and ethically acceptable use of biotechnology/gene technology. It also includes provisions for public consultations to ensure active and informed decision-making by the public.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The technologies used are manufacturing traditional fermented milk products in small holder levels and producting bacterial fertilizers. Embryo transfer in cattle and goats, radioimmunoassay and gene technology in medicine are being adopted. Molecular biology, microbiology, genetics and biotechemistry laboratories exist in Academy, Universities and Ministry institutes. The most specialized units are : the Institute of Biotechnology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, SHIM Research and Production Co. Ltd., MONENZIME, GENOMICS, National Center for Hygiene, epidemiology and the Ministry of Health and Welfare.

3. Major Groups: Scientists, researchers (on molecular biology, microbiology, fermentation, embryo transfer, biochemistry, animal genetics, virology etc.) and producers.

4. Finance: Money is allocated through the Science and Technology Foundation for all science and technology developments. There is no special foundation for biotechnology projects.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional and international cooperation has not yet been fully established. Cooperation attempts are currently being made and issues are under discussion. Membership in the International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology is being discussed.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Not Applicable
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: Mongolia is comparatively rich in water resources stemming from precipitation in the high mountains. There are 3,500 fresh water and saline lakes, 3,811 rivers and 187 glaciers. There are approximately 1.5 million ha of standing water bodies and 50,000 km of rivers. The surface area of all waters is 13,630 sq. km.

In the central region there is substantial water, partly in the form of large, fast flowing streams. However, in the desert south, western and eastern provinces, the water resources are much scarcer and are generally of poorer quality with increasing salts and diminishing water levels in groundwater tables, streams and lakes.

In the Gobi and nearby southern areas the ground water is hard and contains a high degree of minerals. These conditions have serious effects on the health of the human population there. More than 80 sums (villages) in 16 aimags have severe problems with water quality, with the water containing calcium, magnesium, chlorine, and sulphate which exceed safe limits for drinking.

There is an urgent need to improve water management, coordination, research and monitoring activities throughout the country. For example, chemical analyses have been conducted for water in only about 14 percent of the country's 20,000 bored wells. Chemical analyses have not been conducted for the water in about 20,000 dug wells. It is believed that water has been contaminated in 70 to 80 of these dug wells. In addition, inadequate bacteriological analyses have been conducted for the water in engineering wells in the settlement areas.

Water resources management, monitoring and controls have not been effective in maintaining water quality and supply, and generally have only documented the loss of resource reserves and quality.

Many urban water supply projects include much leakage and wastage from the distribution system while inefficient supply systems generate higher flows which overwhelm sewage treatment systems. It is estimated that in Ulaanbaatar, water wastage in high rise apartments amounts to 60 percent of the total used. In addition to loss of the water resources, this waste also overloads the sewage system and more than doubles the electricity requirements for operating the water supply pumps. Agricultural, rural residential and industrial uses of groundwater in Gobi, western and eastern Mongolia are contributing to low water table levels and increasing salinization.

The Mongolian Law on Water and relevant legislation act became effective in 1995. Implementation of this act will play an important role in water management and the protection of water resources.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Nature and the Environment is responsible for water resource use, management and development strategies. Under the Ministry there is an Agency for Environment Protection, which maintains national coordination and monitoring of the water resources. Governor's offices of the aimag and municipalities are responsible for water supply and waste water treatment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Consumers in industry, residents, specialists in water resources management and protection.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Actions to improve the supply and reduce the waste of water in urban areas include: replacement of electric pumps and other capital works (as recommended by the Japanese JICA Phase I Study); a public awareness programme in conserving water; an Emergency Leak Repair Programme (recommended by the World Bank); the introduction of meters for at least each portent block in Ulaanbaatar; and a graduated steeply rising tariff for excessive per capita consumption of water.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
420.0
670.0
363.4
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
2.2
5.0
2.8
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: It is estimated that Mongolia receives 7,276 kinds of different chemical substances, totalling 3,774 tons, for use in agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors. The amount of these chemicals imported each year is increasing. At the same time, the agencies in Mongolia that are responsible for toxic chemicals do not have adequately strict procedures for the storage, handing, transportation, distribution, and use of these substances. This, combined with the improper use and disposal of the chemicals increases the risk to workers' health and safety. Recent analyses indicate that 52,593 tons of chemicals are discharged into the environment per year. This total includes 68 different chemicals emitted into the air, 790 into the water, and 602 in the soil. Toxic chemicals are divided into three categories - highly toxic, toxic, and mildly toxic. In order to ensure the environmentally sound management of toxic and dangerous products, the following actions must be implemented:

- Complete and maintain an up-to-date inventory of toxic chemicals used within the country;

- Develop and implement a registration procedure for the import and handling of toxic chemicals;

- Establish related training programmes, for the handling, transportation, use and disposal of radioactive materials and toxic chemicals;

- Develop a master plan for the disposal of hazardous wastes; establish standards and identify location or locations for disposal.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Toxic chemicals are divided into three categories - highly toxic, toxic, and mildly toxic. The Chemicals belonging to each category are to be determined by the MNE and Ministry of Health and Social Protection. The MNE is primarily responsible for the regulation of activities and is charged with establishing a "non-staff" Toxic Chemicals Council for this purpose. In general, the regulation of highly toxic chemicals remains the responsibility of the MNE, while toxic chemicals are managed by local government.

Permits for the disposal of toxic chemicals are to be obtained from the aimag and Capital City Governors with recommendations of the environmental and health inspectors from the local area. Disposal of highly toxic chemicals requires a permit from the MNE with a recommendation from the Council.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Mongolia requires a regulatory framework and training for the proper handling, transportation, use and disposal of radioactive materials and toxic chemicals.

3. Major Groups: Government officers and inspectors, workers who are involved in use and storage of toxic chemicals.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Several national specialists have attended international workshops and courses.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
See status report above.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed 22 March 1989.

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in August 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The available monitoring data on hazardous wastes in Mongolia is limited. Industries and some clinics are major sources of hazardous waste generation in Mongolia.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: Solid waste from the cities poses two problems: collection and disposal. The lack of equipment or the break-down of existing equipment has left the main cities with insufficient capabilities for solid waste collection and transport. It is estimated that in Ulaanbaatar less than 70 percent of solid waste generated is collected and disposed of in official dump sites. As a result, there is a pile up of solid waste, and much is dumped in storm ditches and drains, creating problems there. There is also much less waste collection in the gher areas (traditional peri-urban settlements) than in the central cities. Wastes which are collected are transported to designated waste dumping sites on the outskirts of the cities. In Ulanbaatar, there are three sites situated on hilly terrain roughly 10 km. from the city centre.

Waste disposal usually involves dumping at sites without properly defined boundaries, where there are no arrangements for fee collection with consequent low revenues for companies involved. Where there is inadequate

containment, no adequate groundwater protection exists, nor usually, burial, and no control or management of dumping. Wastes are commonly burned, and in those sites which are close to settlements, the burning contributes to air pollution. The sites pose a serious risk to health and to the contamination of surface and groundwater resources. The present procedures also represent an economic loss since analyses of the waste indicates that 70 to 80 percent of the waste contents are potentially recyclable.

The immediate actions required include : the maintenance, reconditioning and where necessary, the strengthening of the existing solid waste collection vehicle fleet; review and development of opportunities for enhanced recovery of recyclable wastes of the waste stream; and evaluation of disposal options, including the question of economic incentives; and the development of sanitary disposal sites to handle domestic and industrial solid wastes, incorporating appropriate environmental controls. There is also a need to develop master plans for waste collection and disposal for each metropolitan area.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Nature and Environment and the Ministry of Health, Welfare are primarily responsible for the management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues. The bag and district Governors are responsible for the implementation of waste-related activities.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Producers, householders, waste collection and dumping companies.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
1300 000
878 600
1200 000
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
660
400
500
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
964 600
479 600
900 000
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Medium
STATUS REPORT: In Mongolia, diagnostic medical institutes and scientific research institutes that use radioactive materials do not take the proper precautions regarding the storage, transportation and use of the materials. This has resulted in radioactive materials contaminating the environment and expensive clean-up costs.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Governmental Special Committee is responsible for the control, safety and use of radioactive substances.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Mongolia requires a regulatory framework and training for the proper handling, transportation, use and disposal of radioactive materials and toxic chemicals.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed in 1968 and ratified in 1981.

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

In 1992 and 1996, women represented 3.9% and 10.5% of persons in Parliament in 1992 and 1996, respectively.

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge : Curricula and educational material have already been revised to promote gender relevant knowledge.

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc. will be in place by 2000.

24.2.d Mechanisms are being developed to assess the implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The policy of the Mongolian State aimed at ensuring equal rights for women is being implemented through a series of laws such as: the Constitution of Mongolia, the Civil Code, Family Code, Labour Law, Social and Health Insurance Law, Education Law and other relevant laws and regulations.

Article 16 of the Constitution provides that "Men and women shall enjoy equal rights in political, economic, social and cultural fields and family relations. The State shall protect the interests of the family, motherhood and the child".

The mechanism for the implementation and monitoring of the National Programme of Action for the Advancement of Women should be improved and strengthened and implemented under the State budget in order to be put into practice. However, the first stage has been to focus on gender-relevant issues in Government policy. There is still misunderstanding of this issue at all levels.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Relevant youth fora (3-4 most important) include : the Session of Executing Committee of the Asian Youth Council was organized (1994); the Youth Workshop of Asia-Pacific countries on "Wild nature" (organized and approved Ulaanbaatar Declaration, 1994); the Mongolian Youth Federation's delegation at the General Debate of the 50th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations (1995); and the Mongolian Youth Federation (MYF), was rewarded as the Worlds Best Youth Organization (1995).

Describe their role in

the national process: Youth are advisory participants in the national process.

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

In 1996, youth unemployment represented 75% of all unemployment.

25.5 The government is committed to ensuring that by the year 2000, more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): During the Second Forum of the MYF the priority challenges "New Generation-New Policy" of young people were determined and approved in order to increase youth participation in the development of the country. The main activities of the MYF are the following:

- Selection of the annual best young politicians and economist.

- Selection of the annual best student

- Scientific Conference of teachers and students

- Survey on present youth status

- The project for street children is being implemented

- Every year Youth Day is celebrated

- Surveys among youth are conducted

- Youth meetings and forum have been organized

In November 1996, the Mongolian Youth Federation's Forum took place to review the results of activities following the previous forum and determine further policy and activities.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a No process is currently in place to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments.

26.3.b Indigenous people participate on an ad hoc basis in national policies.

26.3.c Mechanisms to involve indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level are being discussed.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 Developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively : No information.

27.6 Mechanisms are being planned to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 NGO inputs in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation are adhoc.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making : No information.

There are at least 21 local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth : No information.

They involve ----% of population : No information.

The Government plans to support local agenda 21 initiatives.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Workers do not yet participate in National Agenda 21 discussions and implementation.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Mongolian Trade Unions' Association supports sustainable development policy. The following activities should be undertaken in order to achieve sustainable development :

- Ensure the participation of Trade Unions in developing economic and social policy.

- Create or improve mechanisms for providing a safe and healthy working place at national, sectoral and local levels

- Approve new laws and regulations on avoiding the transfer of environmentally unfriendly technology that affects the environment. Create new laws on cooperation agreements, employer, labour safety as well as the safe and sound environment to avoid the use of non-sustainable technology. Promote the creation of community agreements and conventions among national and local enterprises and institutions in order to protect the environment.

- Enhance national advisory committee activities to support the implementation of International Labour Regulations. Currently, Mongolia has ratified 9 sub Conventions. The Government will further prioritize the ratification of 26, 99, 131, 95, 173, 168,117, 127, 155st ILO Conventions.

- Organize training on socio-economic oriented economic concepts and implement public awareness programmes on sustainable development

- Implement pilot projects on certain topics within the programme framework.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output : No information.

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs: No information.

List any actions taken in this area: No information.

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): The equipment of processing factories has been used for more than 30-40 years. In order to produce cleaner products and protect the environment, the Government and enterprises should:

- Change leather and fur processing, wool and cashmere washing or processing technology,

- Use environmentally sound techniques and technologies for mining and enriching industry

- Restore land used for exploitation

- Transfer new technologies to produce ecologically clean products

- Establish environmentally sound packaging factories

- Develop and implement gradually a programme to change labour-intensive technology with sophisticated technology

- Conduct a survey on changing livestock raw material processing, mineral enrichment technology with biotechnology

- Promote renewable energy production

- Build-up water treatment facilities for relevant production and services and monitor water resource use.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b Not much has changed in the area of improving the exchange of knowledge and concerns between the s&t community and the general public.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development : No information.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): At present, there are over 100 research, scientific, training, experimental and production institutions in Mongolia with 3600 staff members. Since 1992, all funding for research institutes became project-based. The Science and Technological Foundation exists under the Ministry of Enlightenment. In 1996, there were over 300 research projects funded by this foundation. In 1996, Tg 1.5 billion was spent on science and technology. Realistically, in view of evaluating the advantages of Mongolia's present level of development, geographical position, enormous natural resources, scientific and research potential and staff, and infrastructure that the Government has achieved during the last 30-40 years, the Government believes that efforts must be concentrated on whatever is really possible to implement.

The Ministry presented drafts of the Mongolian Science and Technology development policy and concept to the Great Hural. There are great demands to improve science and technological management, financing, and to extend privatization in this field. Another urgent need is to improve the legislation base of the Mongolian Science and Technology development.

Mongolian Science and Technology policy would develop according to the priority trends which were defined in the documents.

1. Agriculture science and technology

2. Advanced technology of food production

3. Health and medical science

4. Biosphere specifics and natural resources, ecological balance.

5. Fundamental sciences, new materials and high technology

6. Technology of chemicals industry

7. Technology of metallurgical and machine industry, new sources of energy

8. Informatics and information technology

9. Social sciences and humanities.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies : The Government has been involved in short-term training courses on strengthening farmer skills before 1990. But last year's regional workshops for the managers and specialist. In 1996, such workshops were organized in the 6 aimags (provinces), involving 1200 persons.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices : There is not sufficient financial support for the improvement of farmer efficiency and achievement. Therefore, farmers unable to attain additional investment are compelled to not strictly observe sound practices and lack intensive measures. During the last few years, only 20-30 thousand hectors of land used fertilizer (Herbicide).

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies: In order to enhance the participation of farmers in the design of development policy, national and regional workshops will be organized to focus on their opinions. In the future, through scientific organizations and agencies, farmers will have access to new technology and best farmer practices.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high
STATUS REPORT: Six years have passed since Mongolia began the transition from a centralized planned economy to a market-oriented economy. The process of reform that covers all aspects of social life occurred at the time of global reform and the collapse of the socialist system in the former USSR and other COMECON countries. As a result of many external and internal factors, the economic crisis deepened and the living standards of the population sharply decreased. The Government is implementing a comprehensive policy-led activities phase which is aimed at : reforming the social formation and political system; privatization of state monopoly assets; initiating and developing a private sector and liberalizing prices, tariffs, and foreign trade, as well as creating a market economy legal basis.

As a result of the implementation of a comprehensive fiscal policy, changes have occurred in state budget revenues and expenditures as well as in the taxation system, thus making the financial system healthier.

Fiscal policy is directed towards the expansion of the budget revenue base, determination of the tax rate and the improvement of the tax collection system in order to ensure economic stabilization and create a basis for sustainable growth. New forms of taxation have been created and executed, such as social insurance fees for retirement and unemployment, accident insurance, additional taxes on diesel and gasoline, income taxes on services, stamp duties and fees on the utilization of natural resources. Tax revenues comprise 28% of GDP or 80% of the state budget.

In order to improve the budget expenditure composition, an insurance system has been introduced for the social welfare and health sector; measures have been taken to reduce public administration expenditures; charges have been introduced for occupational training courses; and the Government has intensified its control on budget revenues and expenditures. There has been a significant improvement in the state budget situation. In 1995, the overall budget deficit was Tg 11.4 billion. This is 24.6% lower than in 1994. The current account surplus is 2.9% higher than in 1994. The state budget expenditure is comprised of: wages 17.3%, subsidies to the local budget - 11.2% and state-agencies and social service expenditures - 28.7%.

In 1995 Tg 16.6 billion of subsidies were allocated from the state to local budgets totalling 33.8% of their total expenditure. Special attention should be paid to increasing the independence of the local Government from the state budget.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

For this purpose Government should:

a. Strengthen the State Budget. More capital should be distributed to development programmes by improving the current balance of the state budget.

b. Give greater attention to the development of infrastructure in order to support foreign investment.

c. Eliminate energy shortages in order to improve national economic capacity and increase the state budget for further innovation and reach world standards in the production machinery and technology.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

- promote private sector development through taxation policy

- increase the rate of savings in the GDP

- develop and implement a new fiscal policy, integrating price, money, loans, foreign balance of payment issues and the stabilization of prices and the exchange rate

- cooperation with international donor organizations to protect vulnerable social groups from poverty

- change the current situation of predominate social consumption expenses in budget expenditures

Cont'd

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: Big environmentally unfriendly subsidies have not been paid from the state budget. However, attention has been paid and activities have been taken dealing with the reduction of pollution, the restoration of land, and forestation.

ODA policy issues

Mongolia is a recipient country of ODA.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
7.87
98.89
82.30
111.9
64.13
Average for 92-
93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
8.4
18.8
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: The Mongolian Government has actively participated in International Cooperation in the field of clean technologies and waste minimization. Mongolia is widely using publications on Environmentally Sound technologies.

A national information system on environmentally sound technology has yet to be established in Mongolia. Mongolia does not have the appropriate technological capacity for creating links with regional information systems.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

The means of promoting clean technologies and waste minimization processes are being included in development and environmental legislation and related documents.

The Government has been conducting training sessions on environmental technology applications for people involved in government and the business sector .

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

Ecologically clean products are given certificates. Laws and regulations with articles encouraging environmentally sound technology have been approved.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

International environmental standards are being used selectively, for example, those that are appropriate for the Mongolian condition.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

With the technical assistance of the Asian Development Bank, the "Strengthening Environmental Management of Mongolia" project is being implemented. Within the framework of the project, initiatives have been taken to monitor small and medium-sized enterprises, using environmentally clean technology and developing environmental standards for them.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: The Ministry of Education of Mongolia is funding research programmes to promote sustainable development. All Ministries in Mongolia have research institutes. The main purpose of the above research institute is to conduct research in the field of applied science and use the research results in the promotion of management at all levels of the country. The Ministry of Nature and Environment has established an environment conservation fund for sustainable development activities which includes research programmes for climate change, desertification, biodiversity and natural disaster mitigation, and others. The results of the above research are being applied to the conservation of natural resources and environmental management in Mongolia. The Academy of Science is part of the Ministry of Education. The Academy of Sciences is funding research programmes related to basic science programmes. Also science for sustainable development includes university research.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

- create an appropriate infrastructure for science and technology

- support the successful work of scientists

- develop the social and economic sciences and humanities

- promote the fundamental sciences, new materials and encourage high technology

- develop new methods and technology for natural resource assessment and environmental management

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development
#2200
1995
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.)
$3 min
19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: The designation of 1996 as a "Year of Education" has its origins in a set of legislative initiatives undertaken by Parliament during 1995. State Education Policy, Education Law, the Higher Education Law, and the Primary and Secondary Education Laws represent collectively a renewed commitment to establishing education as a top priority in the overall development of Mongolian policy.
STATUS REPORT: The Mongolian Government pays special attention to the educational status of the population. The Education Law of the country classifies the educational structure as pre-school, primary, secondary and higher education. Until 1990, the state budget provided funds for the educational system of the country. Since 1990, the Government authorized the private sector also to establish educational institutions of various types. Currently, there are state and private educational institutions. The school enrollment age between 7 and 8 years and the primary education is up to the 6th grade in formal schools. Secondary education is classified into 2 grades, as general and professional secondary and it is also defined as grades 7 and 8 as middle classes and 9 and 10 as upper classes. Higher education has a significant impact on generating changes in society because of its specific teaching, research and activities related to the public. Today, around 26,925 students are graduating from 59 public and private higher institutions. Special attention is paid to formal school education as well as to non-formal education.

Specialized vocational training also plays a key role in training the manpower needed for national economic development. However, today Mongolian vocational and technical education and special attention is not cost effective. Since 1990, there have been positive changes in vocational and technical education and special attention was paid to training high skilled workers/craftsmen. Some of these institutions have now merged and the number of students in vocational schools has decreased since 1990. During the last 3 years, there has been a drop of 5,705 students and the total enrollment equalled 17,382. Training in these vocational centres is mainly limited to agriculture, construction and industry and has been subsidized by central and local budgets.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development The management of the current educational system is governed by the Educational Law of 1995 and educational planning, procedures and objectives are regulated by the Minister for the Enlightenment. The Mongolian educational network is covered by the following legislative acts:

The Educational Law, the Primary and Secondary Education Law, the Higher Education Law and the Government policy for education. In 1993, the Ministry of Science and Education (MOSE) with the assistance of ADB and Pittsburgh University of the USA, developed the "Mongolian Education and Human Factor" Master Plan for 1994 -1998, which has been approved by the Government on May of 1994. This Plan reflects education policy and the directives which should be implemented in the next five years in the fields of general, higher and professional education, informal education, and structure and management of the MOSE. Today, other Programmes and Projects are implemented and funded by local and international organizations, namely: the National Programme for Development of Children up to 2000, the Programme of Basic Education for all, the Project on Non-formal Education for Gobi Women, the Promotion of English Training, training of teachers, developing textbooks etc. These projects are of great importance in respect to the reorientation of education towards sustainable development and promotion of capacity-building for the next century.

b) Increasing public awareness see above

c) Promoting training see above

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: The female population of Mongolia consists of 50.3% of the total population. Mongolia became a State Party to the United Nation's Convention Against the Discrimination in Education in 1964.

The Government of Mongolia has been implementing the objective of providing women with education step by step and on a systematic basis. After the Revolution of 1921, the new Government implemented policies to ensure equal rights for women, and to provide educational opportunities for females and eradicate illiteracy among them. Various

Cont'd

methods have been used for policy implementation in this area. Some of them include: the establishment of a number of new schools in urban and rural areas, organization of literacy groups, short-term training courses in cultural and public centres, etc.

Due to this policy, Mongolia became one of the countries in the world which eradicated illiteracy among adult population, and it was awarded UNESCO's Literacy Prize in 1970. As the State has provided favorable conditions for women in acquiring education at all levels, today women constitute the majority of those enrolled at all educational institutions. In 1995, the proportion of the enrollment of female students in schools at all levels is as follows:

48.7% in educational establishments where Master's degrees or above were offered, 68.1% in institutes, 77.1% in special vocational schools, 48.5% in professional training schools and 54.6% in general secondary schools. In spite of the high rates of women's enrollment at all levels, the possibilities for women to upgrade their educational achievements after completing secondary school, through correspondence courses and evening schools are limited. As women constitute the majority of teaching staff in schools almost at all levels, they play an important role in the development of the educational level of the population.

As of 1994, women constitute 10-42% of the leading positions in NGOs such as the Federation of Mongolian Trade Unions, Mongolian Youth Association, Association of Disabled Persons.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: Percentage of salaries of total budget expenditures on education in 1980 was 28.6 and slightly increased until 1991. However, until 1994 it had decreased significantly.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994/95
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
96.5
98.4
NA
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
90.2
95.7
NA
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
91.6
86.7
83.0
Mean number of years of schooling
8 or 10
10
10
% of GNP spent on education
NA
12.9
6.04
Females per 100 males in secondary school
NA
108
112
Women per 100 men in the labour force
NA
250
233
Other data

In the school year 1995-1996, there were a total of 416.213 children between the ages of 8 and 15. Of that total,

51,544 children were not in school, 38,867 of those children were defined as dropout students who have left school as opposed to the 12,677 others who have never attended school. The majority of those who have never attended school are disabled children for whom special schools have been established. Unfortunately, many of those schools are inoperative because of lack of funds.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: The Government of Mongolia wishes to receive technical grants from donor countries for the implementation of several pilot projects in line with the programme areas of Mongolian Agenda 21. Also, foreign assistance is required for capacity-building in the implementation of the Mongolian Agenda-21 Strategy in the near future.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: Mongolia, as a developing country, gives a portion of its national income to UNDP.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

Mongolia has ratified the following international conventions and contributes to their implementation:

- UN Climate Change Convention (05.06.94),

- Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (05.06.96),

- Convention on Biological Diversity (12.93),

- UN Convention to Combat Desertification (22.08.96),

- Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

Additional Comments

The availability of data is "good"or "very good" with some gaps in certain areas. The National Council for Sustainable Development Secretariat, inaugurated in May 1996, was created to specify the goals for sustainable development in more detail in conjunction with other government bodies. Economic and social data, statistics and geographical data is published in the form of a statistical yearbook. Since 1996, a State Environmental Report has been published annually. GIS technology is a tool for decision making and is widely used in different areas of the country. Networks and computers with access to international information systems are generally available in Mongolia.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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Last updated 1 November 1997