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National Implementation of Agenda 21

SRI LANKA

COUNTRY PROFILE
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Sri Lanka to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
New York
20 November 1997

United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

SRI LANKA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Forestry & Environment

Date: 20 November 1997

Submitted by: (Ms) C. Amerasekare

Additional Secretary

Ministry of Forestry & Environment

Mailing address: Ministry of Forestry & Environment

No. 6 Unity Plaza

Colombo 04, Sri Lanka

Telephone: 588274

Telefax:

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

Sri Lanka is a small island in the Indian Ocean with a land area of 25,000 square miles and a population of 18.3 million. Topographically the island consists of a south central mountainous region which rises to an elevation of 2,502m and is surrounded by broad lowland plains at an elevation of 0-75 m above sea level. From the mountainous regions nine major rivers and 94 other rivers flow across the lowlands into the Indian Ocean.

Sri Lanka, despite its small size, has a rich biodiversity distributed within a wide range of ecosystems,ranging from rainforests to grasslands, rivers, wetlands and freshwater bodies and coastal and marine ecosystems. In terms of plant species diversity there are over 3,800 species of flowering plants of which 23 percent are endemic. Similarly, a rich faunal diversity exists with high endeminism. Available information shows that Sri Lanka's biodiversity per unit of land area is among the highest in South Asia.

Sri Lanka inherits a culture and a lifestyle friendly to the environment. The legislative framework for the protection of the environment was in place to a large extent in Sri Lanka even before independence. Since independence, Sri Lanka has been implementing national strategies and plans to achieve sustainable economic growth with equity and social development. These programmes for economic and human resources development enabled Sri Lanka to achieve a comparatively high quality of life at low per capita income levels. The national policy to solve the growing problems of poverty and unemployment, compounded by population pressures, was to achieve a faster growth rate through diversification of agriculture as well as developing industry.

In the recent past, the ability of the Government to carry out development activities in order to accelerate economic growth and improve the distribution of income has been severely constrained by its involvement in unavoidable defence and security operations in the North and East of the country. The Government's priority is to restore peace. However, the Government has given assurance that the priority attached to development will not be comprised on this account.

The past few decades have seen a transformation in Sri Lanka from a traditional agricultural based rural economy with sustainable lifestyles to a more diversified and commercialized economy trying to move away from total dependence on agriculture to solve the growing problems of unemployment and poverty. Successive Governments allocated more and more resources for the construction of dams and irrigation works; they expanded the area under cultivation, thus depleting forests; established industries; created infrastructure, and expanded urban centres to achieve a rapid economic growth rate to alleviate poverty. These development programmes and pressures of an increasing population resulted in the degradation and depletion of natural resources. Although the legislative framework for the protection of the environment, such as the Forestry Ordinance, the Flora & Fauna Act, the Fisheries Act and Coast Conservation Act were in place, the institutional capacity for their implementation was inadequate and little attention had been given to the environment in the implementation of development programmes. Continuing poverty accelerated the rate of environmental degradation. Problems associated with economic activities such as land degradation and deforestation, air and water pollution, health hazards, loss of biodiversity and climatic changes emerged and, recognizing these, the Government passed a National Environment Act in 1982. To strengthen the institutional capacity to implement laws and regulations a regulating body called the Central Environment Authority was established. A separate Ministry for environment was also established. Thus, in the 1980s, the Government began to pay more attention to the environment.

With the Rio Summit, the Government of Sri Lanka began to follow a more focused and a concerted policy towards sustainable development. During the medium term 1996-2000, the Government will further pursue the objectives of accelerating economic growth, while ensuring equity and a higher quality of life particularly for the poor by following a strategy which has the following main features.

1. Market-friendly economic policies and the private sector to be the engine of growth.

2. Raising overall investment by creating a conducive policy environment, peace and stability.

3. Government's role to be supportive of the private sector by creating infrastructure and implementing economic reforms.

4. Development of ports, shipping and financial and capital markets to be major regional service centre.

5. Policy measures to make industry and agriculture internationally competitive.

6. Promotion of exports through appropriate tax, tariff, interest and credit policies.

7. Welfare programmes to mobilize the resources of the poor for the development process.

8. Private investments in manufacture and infra-structure development.

A National Environment Action Plan was developed to provide the policy framework for sustainable development. A participatory approach was followed in preparing this policy. In addition, a Forestry Master Plan to determine land use and promote forestry development as well as a Coastal Zone Management Plan were developed. A National Biodiversity Action Plan has been prepared with World Bank assistance to protect and manage biodiversity. In order to integrate environment concerns into development plans the National Planning Department has introduced environment screening of all public sector investment projects. Environment Impact Assessment [EIA] has been made statutory for all prescribed projects and the EIA procedures are being constantly reviewed and updated . Sectoral EIA guidelines are being finalized for a number of sectors. Environment Protection Licensing [EPL] Scheme is compulsory for all projects. The issue of EPL has been decentralized.

Sri Lanka has signed and ratified the UNCED agreements and conventions. The Ministry of Forestry and Environment continues the implementation of obligations under these international conventions on the environment, such as the Montreal Protocol, Climate Change Convention, Basel Convention and the Biodiversity Convention.

In formulating environment policy and in implementing action plans to meet the obligations under international conventions, the Ministry of Environment uses interagency committees representative of all development Ministries/Agencies, the private sector and the NGO sector. The greening of national accounts is accepted as a desirable goal to be achieved. Cross country surveys have shown that there is a positive relationship between poverty and environment degradation. The poor are both agents and victims of environment damage. Growth and environment are two sides of the same coin. Therefore, it is imperative for a developing country like Sri Lanka with a low per-capita income and a high unemployment rate, to achieve a high rate of economic growth to improve the standard of living of the poor to minimize environmental degradation stemming from poverty. The main constraints to achieving sustainable development are the inadequacy of finances and technology and a supportive system of global trade and international cooperation. Twenty percent of the export earnings of Sri Lanka are derived from agriculture exports consisting mainly of tea, rubber and coconut. Volatile commodity prices have an adverse impact on export earnings and the economy. The market restrictions on garment exports etc., restrict the growth of

Sri Lanka's industry and exports. These limitations to Sri Lanka's ability to generate export earnings and its physical limitations to the expansion of agriculture, make it extremely difficult to mobilise domestic resources for development. A more equitable trading system supportive of sustainable development is needed. In the context of limited domestic resources, enhanced international cooperation is vital for achieving the goal of sustainable development. Since economic development is essential for the prevention of environmental degradation, trade and the transfer of funds and technology should not be subjected to environment conditionalities.

FACT SHEET

SRI LANKA

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

1.1 Ministerial Sub-committee on Environment

1.2 Inter Agency Committees

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Mr. K.A.S. Gunasekare, Secretary, Ministry of Forestry & Environment

Telephone: 94-1-868048

Fax: 94-1-502566

e-mail:

Mailing address: Ministry of Forestry & Environment, Sampathpaya, Rajamalwatte, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

2.1 Ministerial Sub-committee; H.E. the President (Chairman)

Members: Minister of Environment; Minister of Industries; Minister of Plan Implementation; Minister of Agriculture Development; Minister of Tourism; Minister of Cultural Affairs; Minister of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; Minister of Science and Technology; Chairman, Board of Investments; Director General National Planning.

2.2 Secretary, Ministry of Forestry and Environment (Chairman)

Members: Secretary, Ministry of Industries; Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture Development; Secretary, Ministry of/Fisheries & Aquatic Resources; Secretary, Ministry of Science & Technology; Secreary, Ministry of Education & Higher Education; Secretary, Ministry of Trade & Commerce; Secretary, Ministry of Public Administration; Home Affairs & Plantation Industries; Secretary, Ministry of Finance; Secreary Ministry of Cultural Affairs; Secretary, Ministry of Health & Indigenous Medicines; Director General, National Planning; Director General Fiscal Policy; Director of Census and Statistics; Director General Health and Indigenous Medicines; Director General, Natural Resources Energy & Science Authority; Director General, Natural Aquatic Resources Agency; Director, Fisheries; Director General, CISIR; Conservator of Forests; Chairman, CEA; Director, Wild Life; Officials from Provincial Authorities nominated by Chief Secretaries of Provinces; Representatives of Chambers of Commerce and Industry; NGO representatives; Members of Academia; Representatives from the Police Department; Attorney General's Department; Import Control Department and Research Organizations.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

As in 2a.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

LIFE; IUCN (Local Chapter); Environment Foundation; Mihikatha Foundation, Journalists Forum, March for Conservation (over 130 NGOs).

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

The Ministerial Sub-committee gives national policy guidelines.

The Inter-agency Committees coordinate and direct the implementation of policy and programmes by relevant ministries and agencies and address issues related to a critical environmental area assigned to each Committee. These areas include international Conventions on Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Montreal Protocol; EIA; Biodiversity, Economic Incentives, Environment Legislation. The Inter-Agency Committees take coordinated action, undertake studies and provide environmental advocacy.

Submitted by

Name: Mr. K.A.S. Gunasekera

Title: Secretary

Signature: Signed.

Ministry/Office: Ministry of Forestry & Environment

Telephone: 94-1-868048

Fax: 94-1-502566

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sri Lanka is conscious of the importance of international cooperation for sustainable development. There is an urgent need to provide additional resources from the international community in a predictable and an assured manner to support the efforts of developing countries. The ODA target for aid of 0.7 percent of developed countries GNP must be reached if the commitments made by the developing countries at the Rio Summit are to be met. These resources must be made available commensurate with the needs and priorities of developing countries. Private sector capital inflows have become important to meet investment needs. Several measures were taken to encourage private foreign investment and to give a fillip to local manufacturers and exporters. Implementation of a policy of encouragement of the private sector and discouragement of the public sector from commercial and business oriented activities, and further liberalization of the economic process, were directed towards encouraging foreign private investment. Several tax measures were introduced to invigorate the capital market. These included extension of tax holidays, turn-over tax exemptions and duty-free import facilities on projects; specific imports were offered for companies in the manufacturing and service sectors. Substantial resources were allocated for the development of infrastructure.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training and equipment provided by UNDP and USAID to private sector industry enhances its capacity and competitiveness. The Public Enterprise Reform Commission is mandated to advise the Government on reforming the public sector, upgrading production and services with access to international markets, acquisition of new technology and expertise, and developing and broad-basing the capital market. The Government has taken steps to invite private sector investment in selected new ventures on a BOD/BOT basis. The maximum tariff on imports has been brought down to 50%. The Third Tariff Commission has been appointed to further study the tariff structure to enhance value added exports.

3. Major Groups: Special emphasis is given to children in the area of human resource development. A national plan of action for children has been formulated. Legislation is in place to prohibit child labour in industry. Women's groups are encouraged and assisted with training and credit under the banking system and the Samurdhi programmes. A Women's Charter has been formulated and approved by the Cabinet. The Children's Secretariat and the Ministry of Women's Affairs promote interest in the work of these groups. Compulsory schooling has been introduced.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Sri Lanka is committed to the ideals of SAARC and expects to phase out quantitative restrictions in respect of all imports, once the balance of payments position improves.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

Sri Lanka reaffirms the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 which emphasize the need to eradicate poverty and reduce disparities in living standards to achieve sustainable development. Appropriate domestic economic policies and special interventions are needed to combat poverty. A favourable international economic environment, particularly favourable terms of trade, debt relief, access to markets and enhanced international cooperation to provide technical assistance and financing, as well as environmentally sound technology, will strengthen the domestic effort and pave the way to sustainable development.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Sri Lanka has a three-pronged strategy for combatting poverty:

1. Achieving economic growth and development to create employment and improve the standard of living;

2. Achieving human development through the provision of improved health and education services, meeting basic needs, protecting vulnerable groups and ensuring human rights;

3. Direct interventions aimed at those who have not benefitted from growth-related policies [low income groups].

Such interventions are to ensure employment and empower the poor through building up their assets by providing credit and training.

These strategies are fully integrated with the development plans and programmes at the national and provincial level; the last of the above points is implemented through the Samurdhi Programme. The programmes are implemented through the Janasaviya Trust Fund, the School Midday Meal Programme and the Samurdhi Naya Niyamake (Credit Scheme), started in June 1996, and the National Development Trust Fund (NDTF).

The Samurdhi Programme, which commenced in June 1995, was the major strategy of State intervention to combat poverty among the marginalized groups. The implementation is twofold: income supplement (programme), and social and economy infrastructure development, with increasing employment opportunities. The Programme covers

1.5 million families. 182,000 families benefitted from the dry rations programme in the North and East. Nearly 50% of the population were covered under this Programme. Free health and education are provided to all.

The Samurdhi Naya Niyamake Scheme was introduced mainly with a view to assist small- and medium-scale businesses. The loans are provided at a low interest rate for income-generating activities. Funds are provided under the Samurdhi Economic Infrastructure development programmes for community infrastructure projects. Skills development programmes are carried out for the Samurdhi beneficiaries and an insurance scheme has been introduced to encourage savings. The "Lottery Fund" has been introduced to generate funds for the Samurdhi Programmes.

These programmes are directed to create alternative employment and to avoid over-exploitation of resources.

Self-employment and employment opportunities provided through community participation in infrastructure development will alleviate poverty, which is one of the main causes of deforestation, land degradation and over-exploitation of other natural resources in Sri Lanka.

In addition to direct intervention, a number of integrated rural development programmes, and rural and urban water supply and sanitation projects are being implemented. Human settlements or housing programmes are implemented with foreign assistance, especially for plantation labour.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Finance Ministry, National Planning Department, and the Ministry of Youth Affairs (the Samurdhi Authority), formulate policy to be approved by the Cabinet. State banks and credit institutions decide on credit eligibility. Individual beneficiaries and NGO Groups are involved in taking investment decisions.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Janasaviya and the National Development Trust Fund implement skills development programmes to assist the poor in obtaining self-employment.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

The experience of over-consumption and unsustainable lifestyles in the developed countries has brought focus to the adverse impact of unsustainable patterns of consumption and production on the environment. Sri Lanka, being a poor country does not, as yet, experiment in extravagant lifestyles on a significant scale. However, with expanding trade and globalization and growth of communication, patterns of demand for consumer goods are being altered.

The Government has pursued tariff policies which encourage moderation in the demand for luxury items and the adoption of lifestyles and consumption patterns which do not have a deleterious impact on the environment. Environment standards are enforced by the Central Environment Authority (CEA) to abate pollution of air and water. The CEA also conducted training workshops and awareness programmes and projects to encourage recycling of wastes, and the adoption of cleaner technologies.

National targets

The Government plans to switch to using unleaded petrol in the transport sector. Under the World Bank-funded MEIP, it is planned to set up common effluent treatment plants in the main industrial centres. The certification of industrial products which meet the prescribed standards of environment-friendly production packaging and waste disposal, remain desirable goals.

The process of development and increase in the number of households is increasing the consumption of energy. The development of alternative sources of energy is given priority. The consumption patterns of the poor should be considered as survival consumption. Moreover, it should be emphasized that the consumption of energy by an individual in South Asia is about one-twentieth that of a person in a developed economy. Air pollution is also extremely low when compared to the developed countries. However, Government policy and its target are to maintain sustainable consumption patterns. In pursuance of this, the import of refrigerators using ozone-depleting substances has been banned.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$)
Real GDP growth (%)
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sri Lanka reached an advanced phase of demographic transition in a comparatively short period and at a relatively low per capita income level. The population grew at an annual rate of 1.3 percent during the period 1990-1995 and 1.1 percent in 1996. The mid-year population is estimated at 18.3 million for 1996. The fertility rate declined from 5.3 during 1952-1954 to 2.6 during 1985-1987. The pace of decline in the 1980s has been rapid due mainly to the use of contraceptives. Strong Government commitment and support from the Family Planning Program as well as donor support have also contributed to this success. The mortality rate remained steady at 6 per thousand during the 1980s. Infant mortality declined by 37 percent, due to increased health care and the success of the immunization programme. Life expectancy increased and was estimated to be 72.5 years in 1991. The maternal mortality rate declined to 5 out of every 10,000 live births.

It is estimated that, given the likely changes in fertility, mortality and migration, the population of Sri Lanka will increase to 19.3 in the year 2001. The number of elderly will increase and the number of reproductive females will also increase. Therefore, greater programme efforts are needed, particularly in view of the high density of population per acre of land. The Government policy is to reach replacement level fertility, an average of 2 children per woman in the reproductive ages, by the year 2000.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Health Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, is the highest policy-making body on the subject of population. The National Coordinating Council on Population (NCCP), chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Health and Indigenous Medicine, coordinates and monitors the national population programme.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The National Health Bureau of the Health Ministry is responsible for the service delivery programme and uses non-governmental agencies in family planning activities. Training and awareness creation are carried out in a variety of ways.

3. Major Groups: NGOs have been given financial assistance for family planning activities.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: To sustain the momentum that has been built up and to achieve the demographic goal of replacement level fertility by the end of this decade, Sri Lanka will need continued international support in specific areas such as contraceptive supplies, education, training, monitoring and supervision of the programme.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sri Lanka has followed a policy of investing in human capital for the last four decades. Due to the interrelationship between the different aspects of education, health, nutrition and other social services, investment in each generates benefits in the others. In Sri Lanka, a network of basic education and health services has covered the entire country. The maintenance of this network over a 50-year period has generated inter-generational benefits. Consequently, although Government expenditure declined from 9.9% of GDP in the 1960s, to 6.4% in the 1980s, many social indicators continued to improve; for example, life expectancy increased to 72 years, and infant mortality and maternal mortality declined. But morbidity levels are still high. In the context of existing resources, constraints in meeting the increasing demand for preventive health care and attractive health facilities are the major challenges faced in regard to the health sector.

New diseases such as HIV/AIDS have placed further stress on the meagre resources available for the health programs. The incidence of communicable diseases has expanded significantly. In view of the emerging need for strengthening preventive health care, the Government placed emphasis on the control of communicable diseases, improvement of maternal and child health care and nutritional levels as well as on the promotion of health education. Also, progress has been made in the eradication of polio: 96% of the population were vaccinated in 1996. A second medium-term plan has been developed to control STD/HIV/AIDS. Also, a national "danger" control programme and mosquito control programme have been launched. However, despite these measures, the incidence of malaria increased by 29% in 1996.

With the increase in demand for health service and the public sector resource constraints, there is a compelling need to promote private sector health care.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Health Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, is the policy-making body. The Secretary, Ministry of Health and Indigenous Medicine, is responsible for the implementation of programmes; directors of special programmes implement them under the supervision of the Secretary of Health.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There is a need to improve pre-service training and provide refresher training after graduation, to improve the quality of service, and upgrading of skills in all categories of health service. A project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) will provide training to indigenous medical practitioners.

3. Major Groups: NGOs are involved in health education and in the implementation of family planning programmes.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International co-operation is vital bilaterally and between specialized agencies, for upgrading skills, services and in the exchange of information, as well as in the maintenance of standards.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sri Lanka, one of the original signatories to the Vancouver Action Plan 1976, introduced a number of approaches in its human settlements programme. The enabling approach, the "self-help" housing programmes, the "one million" housing programme, and the Sevena housing grant programme, are among such new approaches to promote human settlements. Sri Lanka initiated the UN resolution on "Shelter for All by the Year 2000" to focus international attention on human settlements.

The total number of housing units in the country was estimated at 3.9 million in 1996. The average annual demand for new housing units in the country in the same year was estimated at 70,000, with a higher rate of increase in the urban sector. In addition to these new constructions, the high proportion of semi-permanent and improvised houses in the housing stock is evidence of the importance of upgrading these houses, and relocating and upgrading the shanties, which are estimated at 150,000 in all urban centres, and which is another area requiring urgent attention.

The policy of the Government towards the housing sector is to meet the demand for new housing particularly in the urban centres and upgrading the sub-standard housing stock. The main thrust of the housing strategy was to promote self-help initiatives and mobilize the initiatives of the private sector. The public sector housing programme was directed towards extending assistance to low-income families to build new houses based on the enabling approach and introducing special housing projects to relocate slum and shanty dwellers. The National Housing Development Authority (NHDA) implemented a number of public sector housing programmes such as the Jana Udana Programme, Sevana Housing Grant Programme, Urban & Rural Housing Programme, the Estate Housing Programme, Direct Construction Programmes, Disaster Housing Programmes, et. al.

In order to strengthen private sector housing development activities, the housing finance system was upgraded. In the context of limited availability of funds, it was necessary to promote private sector programmes by providing infrastructure and incentives. Initial action has been taken to elevate the Housing Development Finance Cooperation into a fulfledged financial institution with legal powers to deal in the capital market with a view to generating resources for the housing sector. Improved technical know-how and increased availability of housing material at reasonable cost were requirements to facilitate private sector housing. In addition to the loans provided by State agencies, the two State banks disbursed housing loans throughout the country. The World Bank assisted the construction industry's training project and the Second Vocational Training Project helped in establishing the Institute of Construction Training and Development (ICTAD) which has helped in the provision of skills and focussed on the selection and use of cost- effective technologies. A Housing Finance Steering Committee was established consisting of Government and private sector representatives to coordinate housing finance policy at the national level.

The Government has clearly identified the urgency of improving the country's environmental sanitation as a means of improving the standard of living of the poorer segments of the population. The NHDA implements the Urban Basic Services Programme with the housing sector to improve the living conditions of slum and shanty dwellers. Under this programme, direct assistance is given to improve sanitation, waste disposal and surface drainage. However, the resource constraints limit the coverage of this programme.

Sri Lanka has been in the vanguard for achieving shelter for all, particularly for the poor, and is committed to the implementation of the national plan of action as well as the global plan of action agreed to during Habitat II. The goal is to achieve healthy, safe and more equitable and sustainable human settlements. In this endeavour, the participatory efforts of the NGOs and enhanced technical and financial support from the international community are vital.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Sri Lanka has consistently followed policies and programmes for economic growth with equity and social welfare. The five-year investment plan targetted resources for the achievement of these objectives. Poverty alleviation programmes and the development of social infrastructure were emphasized in these investment plans within given resources. Environment protection, which is an integral part of Sri Lankan culture, is reflected in the principles of its governance. The constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka provides for the protection of the environment by the Government and individuals. Legislative enactments and State policy directives clearly show the commitment of the Government to protect natural resources. The growing trend towards popular participation in the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources stems from these constitutional and legislative provisions and the cultural heritage. However, the UNCED process gave direction and momentum to this process of environment protection. A conscious effort is now made at the national and provincial level to integrate environment concerns into the development process. A National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) has been developed to provide the environment policy framework for development programmes and projects. Decision-making has been made more participatory by involving the stakeholders in society in drawing up the NEAP. Decision-making in development and environment management has not only been integrated through the NEAP, the process has been decentralized by the devolution of power to Provincial Councils. Environment is an unfolding subject under the constitution and provincial environment statutes are being developed within the framework of national policies.

The National Planning Department has introduced environmental screening of new public investment projects. The need to integrate environmental and developmental decision-making at the project formulation stage itself has been recognized as important for economically efficient, socially equitable and responsible environmental management and sustainability of the growth achieved. Therefore, analytical tools such as Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Protection Licensing (EPL) have been made use of. A Gazette Notification under the National Environment Act makes it obligatory for all prescribed projects to conduct an EIA which has to be evaluated and assessed by the Central Environment Authority (CEA) to give environmental clearance. Appeals can be made to the Secretary, Ministry of Forestry and Environment. An environment protection licence is mandatory for all projects. The EIA reports are open for public scrutiny. EPL has been decentralised to local authorities.

The Inter-Agency Committees, consisting of representatives of development Ministries and Enforcement Authorities, as well as the private sector, formulate, review and revise EIA activities, regulations and EIA policy.

To achieve the objective of participatory decision-making and the integration of environment decision-making and development decision-making, a mix of instruments including legislation, regulation, fiscal incentives, voluntary agreements, education, and awareness campaigns, are used.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet):

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Montreal Protocol (1987) was ratified on 15 December 1989

London Amendment (1990) was ratified on 16 June 1993

Copenhagen Amendment (1992) was ratified in July 1997

The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was prepared in June 1997

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was ratified on 23 November 1993

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat has not yet been submitted.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment is the focal point for both Conventions. Interministerial committees have been set up to consider relevant issues and make recommendations. Important decisions need ratification by the Cabinet Ministers.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training programmes for refrigerator technicians are planned in 1998. Transfer of energy-saving technologies and low-emission thermal power generation technologies are needed. Undergraduate courses on renewable energy and energy efficiency are planned under the GEF Project.

3. Major Groups: Government Ministries, Departments Statutory Corporations, Universities and NGO groups, are involved in implementing the Montreal Protocol and the UNFCCC.

4. Finance: Currently, the Government of Sri Lanka provides a contribution in-kind for the two programmes.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: There was a regional programme on the impact of climate change under SAARC in 1992. Sri Lanka was also a participant in the Regional Study on Global Environmental Issues, funded by the Asian Development Bank in 1992-1993.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A Land-use Planning Unit has been established in the Ministry of Lands with a view to planning development in a sustainable manner and conserving natural resources. This Unit identifies different types of soil for agricultural purposes. There are coastal development laws in which lands are identified for development projects, such as the construction of hotels, taking into account the need to protect the marine environment. The Development Authority has undertaken a zoning exercise to decide on where to place various development projects.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Deforestation is one of the critical environmental problems in Sri Lanka. Forest cover which stood at 44% of the land area in 1956, declined to 27% by 1981, and the present forest cover is estimated at approximately 23% of the land area. This situation was brought about by both poverty and affluence. Nearly 70% of the people are rural and agriculture dependent. The rural poor destroy forests for cultivation and to meet energy needs. The affluent and the entrepreneurs use more and more timber without replacing the forests. The development process also contributed to the deforestation.

The Government's efforts to arrest deforestation through the enforcement of stringent laws, such as the Forestry Ordinance and the Wild Life Conservation Act, have resulted in limited success. A forestry sector Master Plan was prepared and it was revised in 1993, with the aim to protect and develop forest cover. A five-year implementation plan, based on the Forestry Sector Master Plan, has been prepared with the involvement of the private sector and NGOs. New approaches to forestry management, such as with community participation, are being adopted under the five-year plan for forestry development. In the Plantation Sector, financial assistance is provided for timber plantations. National tree planting campaigns are carried out by the Ministry of Forestry and Environment to increase the forest cover in urban areas and to mobilize the energies of school children and youth in promoting reforestation. Research into seeking alternatives to timber use is promoted, but financial and technological constraints limit these efforts to the minimum.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Forestry and Environment lays down policy in consultation with the Department of Forests. The Chief Conservator of Forests implements the programmes. The Cabinet approves major policies and investments on the recommendation of the Ministry.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Department of Forests trains officials in forestry management. Technology for timber sawing needs to be improved to reduce waste.

3. Major Groups: NGOs are involved in developing forestry development plans. Youth and NGOs participate in tree-planting campaigns. NGOs contributed in preparing the 5-year forestry development programme which commenced in 1947 with ADB assistance. Environmental groups exercise vigilance and assist law enforcement authorities in the prevention of illicit logging.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International cooperation is needed to build capacity and transfer technology.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

N/A.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: N/A.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: N/A.

3. Major Groups: N/A.

4. Finance: N/A.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: N/A.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Agriculture continues to be an important sector in the economy of Sri Lanka, contributing 20 percent of the GNP. Between 1991 and 1995, the agriculture sector was able to absorb 89 percent of the public investments per annum. The Government implemented large irrigation projects, like the Mahaveli Programme, to increase food production and employment opportunities for the rural poor.

The major goals of the Agriculture Sector are, inter alia, to:

1. Increase the productivity of the land and farmers' incomes in a sustainable manner;

2. Improve processing, marketing and storage;

3. Increase the productivity and efficiency of the Plantation Sector;

4. Stabilize and reduce the cost of living;

5. Create an exportable surplus for balance-of-payment support.

In order to achieve the above goals, a recently established National Development Council has appointed a Task Force to recommend policy changes to address issues such as agriculture research, extension, marketing, pricing and the role of the State in providing services and inputs and the role of the private sector in providing inputs, and multiplication and distribution of seeds.

To ensure the sustainability of agriculture, a number of measures are being introduced to strengthen the capacity of farmers, improve the marketing of agricultural products and to popularize sustainable agricultural technology. A seed and planting material policy was approved in 1996, with the aim of establishing seed enterprises with the private sector. A Cultivation Insurance Scheme and a Livestock Insurance Scheme are being established to assist farmers in times of drought and floods. Farmers' organizations have been established to strengthen their bargaining power. By the end of 1996, a total of 12,934 farmers' organizations had been established. In response to an FAO prediction of a food shortage, the Ministry of Agriculture launched an island-wide food drive called 'Vaga Lanka' which aims at combining modern and traditional methods of agriculture. This involves agriculture and adopting integrated farming techniques. The emphasis placed on integrated pest management contributed to a reduction in the use of pesticides in 1996.

During 1996, the Department of Agriculture conducted Farmer Field Schools for integrated pest management (IPM) in 21 districts and 3 Mahaveli Systems; 800 field-level IPM demonstrations have been conducted in selected areas. Rural credit schemes have provided agricultural loans. A number of policy measures are directed to give an impetus to agricultural exports. Plantation Sector Reforms (privatization) are expected to improve the productivity and efficiency of the Tree Crop Sector.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for policy decision making with the approval of the Cabinet.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Farm machinery and testing institutions have been set up by the Department of Agriculture to assist farmers at the State Farms.

3. Major Groups: Farmers' organizations and Samurdhi Animators focus on mobilizing the rural

poor to upgrade their skills and create employment opportunities.

4. Finance: The agriculture credit policy is to provide credit support for farmers.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
Agricultural land as % of total land area
Agricultural land per capita
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity

Sri Lanka signed the Convention in June 1992 and ratified it in March 1994.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Sri Lanka is one of the few countries in South Asia having a wealth of biodiversity. Within a land area of 25,000

sq. miles, this rich biodiversity is distributed within a wide range of eco-systems varying from rainforests to grasslands, freshwater bodies, wetlands and rivers, and coastal and marine eco-systems. An important feature of the climate is that there are two basic eco-zones: a wet zone and a dry zone. Since these two zones are not sharply distinct, there is also what may be termed, an "intermediate" zone gradually merging into the wet and the dry zones. These climatic conditions and the panorama of natural eco-systems in the country support over 3,800 species of flowering plants, of which 23% are endemic, 314 species of fern and derivatives of the fern family. Species diversity is also high among mosses and fungi. In addition, the country has a high faunal diversity. Available information shows that Sri Lanka's biodiversity per unit of land area is among the highest in South Asia. The diversity of the country's biological resources has not yet been fully surveyed. Conservation and sustainable use of these resources based on the indigenous knowledge systems and practices is ingrained in Sri Lanka's ethos and way of life.

Major legislative enactments on the biological resources of Sri Lanka are the National Environmental Act 1980, Forest Ordinance, The Flora and Fauna Protection Ordinance, National Heritage Wilderness Areas Act, Botanic Gardens Ordinance, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, the Plant Protection Ordinance, and the Customs Ordinance.

The concept of environmental protection is enshrined in the country's constitution.

The preparation of the Biodiversity Action Plan was undertaken in response to Article 6 of the Convention (CITES). While consolidating the ongoing efforts of conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, the Action Plan aims at establishing a policy and programme regime, which brings national action to various aspects of the subject, including capacity-building and bio-safety measures, in tune with the articles of the Convention.

The Government is to adopt this National Biodiversity Action Plan for the conservation and sustainable use of these resources in the near future. Wildlife preservation, in the form of zoos and national farms, is used for the ex-situ preservation of wildlife. Also, efforts are being made to strengthen the legislative framework to derive maximum benefit from biotechnology while minimizing its risks. The lack of technology and technical capacity, as well as financial constraints, have weakened the national efforts to protect biodiversity.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Forestry and Environment is responsible for policy-making with the approval of the Cabinet. A network of over 100 NGOs has been built up and biodiversity focal points have been established in development ministries and agencies to get environmental advocacy in formulating biodiversity

policies.

The developed countries should ensure that benefits of biotechnology accrue to the country of origin of the biological resources; these benefits to include royalty payments and transfer of technologies to the countries of origin of the biological resources in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

It is also necessary to develop an internationally recognized regime for recognizing the property rights, both intellectual and physical, of the local communities. The capacities of biodiversity-rich countries should be built up to enable them to carry out bio-prospecting and undertake technology assessment for protection of their resources. The introduction of transgenic and alien species should be only with the requisite safeguards.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Attention is given to institution building including capacity-building, and developing bio-safety measures in keeping with the articles of the Convention. Sri Lanka is trying to build up a bio-technology information network and capacity in the area of taxonomy. The facilities for cryo-preservation of germ plasma in the country are very limited. The Plant Genetic Resource Centre at Peradeniya is the only institution with such facilities and only a fraction of the range of the agricultural germ plasma available in the country is stored at this centre. It is necessary to build capacities and develop programmes for gaining a better understanding of the different components of the country's biodiversity. The country's capacity in the area of taxonomy needs to be built up. The opportunities available for training in this area are limited.

3. Major Groups: School children and youth, as well as NGOs, are the targets of biodiversity awareness-creation programmes. "Young Zoologist" Clubs in schools encourage biodiversity education and conservation. The Ministry of Forestry and Environment provides assistance to a number of NGOs involved in biodiversity awareness-creation programmes for conservation.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: There is regional and national cooperation for technology transfer, capacity- building and for the exchange of information. The SAARC countries cooperate in identifying regional issues and taking regional and international measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources. However, national action regarding conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and an equitable share of benefits, demands contributory action on the part of the international community, particularly the developed countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea - signed and ratified in 1994.

The Government of Sri Lanka has various laws, rules, and regulations for dealing with activities in the coastal zone. A coastal zone management plan indicating various zones has been prepared by the Ministry of Fisheries in order to adopt an integrated approach to the management of coastal resources and to involve local communities in the planning and implementation of programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of marine resources and the conservation of the coastline.

Regulations have been developed to prevent over-fishing and the coastal management plan provides for zones to conserve marine species threatened by indiscriminate fishing and the use of inappropriate fishing techniques. The policy on coastal fishing has been oriented towards mitigating the adverse effects on the environment and maximizing the protection of fish in a sustainable manner. A national contingency plan to deal with oil spills is also under consideration.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

The Department of Fisheries and Coast Conservation, under the Ministry of Fisheries, is responsible for policy-making and implementation. The major policy decisions are approved by the Cabinet.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See "Status".

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: A Water Resources Council has been established to plan the water resources at the macro level. All related agencies are represented in the Council and an integrated approach has been adopted for the protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources. The Central Environmental Authority (CEA) has published water quality standards as well as standards for industrial effluent that could be discharged into water bodies. Other agencies, such as the Department of Irrigation and the Department of Agrarian Services, have been alerted to ensure quality water. The IFS has undertaken a study on water pollution, including the sources of such pollution. The Water Resources Board is most concerned about the underground water supply and studies are being undertaken to ascertain the volume of water supplies.

The main supplier of drinking water for the urban centres, namely, the National Water and Drainage Board, has a strong programme to monitor the water quality of the Kelani River, before releasing it for drinking purposes.

The Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project is ongoing and has improved the sanitation facilities and raised awareness about the need for maintaining hygienic standards in water supply.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Water Resources Council is a coordinating body which has no legal proponents. Decisions are made by respective agencies and they follow a hierarchial order.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The water quality monitoring capacity of related agencies is not adequate. Simple technologies, like water testing kits which would be used by school children, would be useful to promote a culture of water quality monitoring.

3. Major Groups: Comprised of industrialists and domestic users, different water charges have been introduced for these two groups.

4. Finance: The National Water and Drainage Board is seeking a foreign loan to tap the Kalu

Ganga River, approximately 40 km from Colombo, to augment the Colombo Water supply.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Central Environmental Authority acts as the focal point for chemicals, under the prior informed consent procedure. A complete inventory of chemicals in use within the country was completed. Relevant data on those chemicals have been computerized and are available for risk assessment purposes. The International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) database on chemicals is also to be installed.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention

Sri Lanka ratified the Basel Convention in August 1992. The Ministry of Forestry and Environment is the focal point and the Central Environment Authority is the competent authority for this convention.

The regulations for the internal management of hazardous waste were published in 1996, by the Ministry of Environment. Regulations for the transboundary movement of hazardous waste are being formulated and will be brought into operation under the Import and Export Control Act.

Guidelines are being prepared for the safety measures to be adopted during collection, transportation, storage, recovery, recycling and disposal of hazardous wastes.

A project under World Bank funding was completed to establish an inventory of hazardous waste, the current disposal practices in Sri Lanka, and also to carry out a prefeasibility study to identify and rank suitable hazardous waste disposal sites. Arrangements are being made to prepare a National Action Plan for Clinical Waste Management.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Efforts to Reduce Generation of Hazardous Waste

At present, waste minimization programs are being carried out for selected industrial sectors. In addition to that, several regulatory measures taken by the Government help indirectly to reduce the pollution caused by high- and medium- polluting industries.

Some of the significant regulatory measures are:

Environmental Protection Licensing Scheme

Environment Impact Assessment Scheme

Siting of industries in an industrial estate or park to ensure proper waste disposal. Projects to relocate certain hazardous industries, such as tanneries and pesticides, are ongoing.

Some fiscal incentives are given to industries under certain conditions to use advanced technology in order to minimize and control pollution and other wastage. Training programs have been arranged for the officers who are involved in hazardous waste management.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Co-ordinating Committee for the implementation of the Basel Convention, chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Forestry and Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Due to the high cost of, and inadequate accessibility to, environmentally- sound technology and the level of technical capacity to select, maintain and use the proper technology, industries find it difficult to comply with the hazardous waste regulations. The capacity of the regulatory bodies are also inadequate to ensure the effective implementation of the new hazardous waste regulations.

3. Major Groups: The Ministry of Forestry and Environment; Central Environmental Authority; Ministry of Shipping, Ports, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; Ministry of Trade, Commerce and Food; Ministry of Planning Ethnic Affairs and National Integration; Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training; Ministry of Defence; Ministry of Health and Indigenous Medicine; Ministry of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development; Ministry of Industrial Development; Marine Pollution Prevention Authority; Federation of Chamber of Commerce and Industries of Sri Lanka; Ceylon Chamber of Commerce; Board of Investment of Sri Lanka; Ceylon Fertilizer Corporation; Sri Lanka Ports Authority; Pesticide Registration Office; Sri Lanka Customs; Government Analyst Department; Ceylon Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research; Import and Export Control Department.

4. Finance: Sri Lanka lacks financial assistance for the efficient implementation of the Basel Convention. Particularly, financial assistance is essential to build the capacity of the country for hazardous waste management, including establishing hazardous waste disposal facilities.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

24.a increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Sri Lanka signed the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, in July 1980, and ratified it in October 1981.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge. Curricula and educational material

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for the achievement of equality in all aspects of society, including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

The Women's Bureau implements a number of programmes to improve the economic status of women by providing skills and assisting in self-employment schemes. Also, trade union activities are very significant in Sri Lanka.

Women in Sri Lanka are acknowledged as being advantageously placed. Women were granted universal franchise in 1931. Extensive social welfare programmes, like free education, free health care and free food rations covering the entire population, were implemented by successive Governments. Since independence, in 1948, these policies paid dividends as may be seen from the high literary rates and life expectancy rates for women. As a result of these policies and the cultural heritage of recognizing women's rights, the gender disparities in Sri Lanka are insignificant. The world's first woman Prime Minister was from Sri Lanka. The constitution recognized gender equity. The legal system is supportive of women's rights and free legal assistance is available. A Charter for women has been approved by the Cabinet to ensure gender equity and freedom from sex discrimination. Its provision can be enforced in the courts of law. This Charter has embodied special provisions for protection against gender-based violence. A National Women's Committee, appointed by the President, continuously monitors the implementation of all provisions in the Charter.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995, to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing Agenda 21.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Raising the living standards and reducing poverty among all groups of people remain the main priorities of the Government. Peace and security are vital for achieving these objectives. While the quality of Sri Lanka's human capital has improved continuously over the last five decades, unemployment has become the major problem, particularly of youth, and now stands at 11.6 percent. Although there had been a decline in six vaccine-preventable diseases and the health status of children improved, the general health status of the country declined due to an increase in communicable diseases. In the context of existing resource constraints, meeting the ever increasing demand for both curative and preventive health care was a challenge to the Government. Special immunization programmes were implemented for the benefit of children. Improvement of the economic status of major groups is important for improvement of the education and health of these groups. The Government launched the Samurdhi Programme to promote self-employment, particularly among the youth in rural areas, to alleviate poverty by using their own strength. The Ministry of Social Services provides a variety of programmes to assist the destitute and vulnerable groups in society. The Public Assistance Programme alleviates distress among the sick, aged and those who are unable to work. The number who benefitted from this programme increased to 332,064, in 1996.

The disabled number 8% of the island's population. The community-based rehabilitation programme for the disabled is implemented in 55 Divisional Secretariat Divisions. This programme is limited, due to financial resources constraints. The Department of Probation and Child Care Services, the Children's Secretariat, the Ministry of Women's Affairs and the Women's Bureau are institutional arrangements for the welfare of these two major groups. The Department of Probation & Child Care (DPCC) and the Children's Secretariat implement a number of programmes to protect children from child abuse and prostitution and improve their nutrition and health status. NGOs which provide residential facilities for destitute children are provided financial assistance by the Government. The Children's Charter, based on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, was approved by the Cabinet in 1992, and the implementation of its provisions is monitored by a National Committee. A presidential Task Force was appointed recently to make recommendations to prevent child abuse and prostitution of children.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The population of Sri Lanka consists of an indigenous group of people called 'Vanniye Attho' or Veddhas. The Government is promoting the development of 'Vanniye Attho' so that they are brought into the mainstream of development, while protecting their culture and tradition. The constitution provides equal rights and privileges to them. Sri Lanka believes that they should be provided food and nutrition, security, health coverage, education facilities and financial assistance, in keeping with their social and cultural conditions. A survey of a sanctuary for the Veddhas has been completed and the Cabinet of Ministers has appointed a National Committee to formulate and implement a National Programme of activities for the 'Vanniye Attho'. The grandson of the chief of the Vanniye Attho is a graduate of the University of Colombo. The future programmes of activities will be directed to meet their educational, health, nutritional and cultural needs.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of Agenda 21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):No information.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Ministry of Forestry and Environment gives very high importance to developing a rapport with industry to promote cleaner technologies and pollution minimization programmes. Under a US-Aid funded project, the private sector industrialists are provided training and awareness programmes on pollution control and environmental standards, cleaner technologies and recycling of wastes. Under a UNDP project, a programme to demonstrate pollution minimization methods and the benefits of recycling wastes is being implemented very successfully. A forum for improving the dialogue between the Government agencies and the private sector for the promotion of sustainable development, known as the Lanka International Forum on Environmental and Sustainable Development (LIFE), has been established.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information.

ODA policy issues

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: No information.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: No information.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

No information.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 3,483 1985
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

No information.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

b) Increasing public awareness

c) Promoting training

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

No information.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
91.3a
93
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
82.0a
85
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
92
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
2.7
2.7
Females per 100 males in secondary school
104
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

a = 1981

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
19 December 1997