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National Implementation of Agenda 21

ISRAEL

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Israel to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

ISRAEL

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office:

Date:

Submitted by:

Mailing address:

Telephone:

Telefax:

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

FACT SHEET

NAME OF COUNTRY: ISRAEL

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

The Ministry of Environment

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Mrs. Nechama Ronen, Director General, Ministry of Environment

Telephone: (972) 2 6701411

Fax: (972) 2 611898 /2 513945

e-mail:

Mailing address: 2 Kaplan Street, Kiryat Ben-Gurion, P.O. Box 6158, Jerusalem, Israel 91061

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for National Environmental Policy and coordinating sustainable development projects, together with other concerned Ministries and organizations.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Non information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Immigration to Israel since 1990 raised the proportion of the population aged 15 years and over that was in the civilian labour force from 52% in 1992 to 54% in 1994. In general, women and old people have had greater difficulty in finding jobs. To help overcome this disparity, many immigrants have attended special occupational training or retraining courses. The percentage of unemployed people among the civilian labour force was relatively high in the first years of the last wave of immigration and reached 11.2% in 1992. It decreases to 7.8% in 1994 and 6.3% in the middle of 1995; the lowest rate since 1989. The percentage of married women in the civilian labour force rose to 50.2% in 1993 from 41.6% in 1983.

The majority of the labour force is employed in the services sector (67%), 29% is in manufacturing, and 4% in agriculture.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1993
1994
Unemployment rate (%)
10.0
7.8
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Private consumption per head was 14% higher in 1993 than in 1989, with a 3% growth per year. According to family expenditure surveys, the share of health expenditure increased in total expanditure increased from 5.3% in 1987 to 7.1% in 1993.

National targets

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1993
1994
GDP per capita (current US$)
12,205
13,644
Real GDP growth (%)
3.5%
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In 1993 the population of Israel was 5,261,400, almost six times its size (805,0000) at the establishment of the State in 1948. Both migration and natural increase determined this growth. Although immigration was greater in the first years of the State, considerable immigration has continued. The last wave of immigration occurred in 1990-1993. The increase in the total population averaged 1.8% per year in 1983-1989, and 4.0% in 1990-1993. Compared to those of other countries, Israel's population is relatively young.

The population density increased from 106 inhabitants per Km2 in 1960 to 242 in 1993, and the urban population has risen from 85% to 91% of the total population during the last three decades.

During the last wave of immigration, the arrival of 539,900 new immigrants increased the resident population by 12%. Of these immigrants, 462,800 were from the former USSR and 28,700 from Ethiopia. In 1990-1993, the Jewish population had an average growth rate of 3.9% per year, of which immigration accounted for 69%. In contrast, only 8% of the annual increase of 1.5% was due to immigration in 1983-89. For the non-Jewish population, immigration accounted for 26% of the overall increase of 4.2% per year in 1990-1993, but only 2.0% of the overall increase of 3% per year in 1983-89.

The natural increase in the non-Jewish population is nearly double that of the Jewish population, owing to high birth rates (the rate was 34.0, with 18.5 live births per 1000 population in 1993 respectively), and a low crude death rate owing to a younger age structure. In 1993, people under 15 comprised 40% of the non-Jewish population and 28% of the Jewish population; the figures for people 65 and over were 3% and 11%, respectively.

Although fertility rates are much higher among the Moslems and Druze than the Jews, the difference is considerably less than it was two or three decades ago. Fertility in Christians has fallen to a point close to the minimum required for generation replacement. In 1993, 112 000 live births were registered in Israel, of which 70% were in the Jewish population.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
5,261,400
Annual rate of increase (%)
5.7
2.5
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
242
Other data
Population growth (1990-1993) 4.0%
Total fertility rate (1993)
- Total population 2.9
- Jewish population 2.6
- non-Jewish population 4.2

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

At the national level, health promotion programmes have gained impetus during the last few years.

The health care system in Israel is in the midst of a long process of reform in both concepts and services.This process began recently, after many years of political and professional debate, and comprises three main components: the National Health Insurance Law, the withdrawal of the government from health care provision, and the reorganization of the Ministry of Health. Health expenditure has continued to rise as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), reaching 8.2% in 1993.

In June 1994, the Knesset passed a National Health Insurance Law that went into effect in January 1995. It made the provision of health services the responsibility of the central government. Under the new Law, all residents of Israel must be insured by one of the authorized sickness funds that operate in the country. The funds must provide the basic package of services defined by the Law. The NII handles the centralized collection of health insurance premiums and allocates resources to the various sickness funds according to a capitation formula. Every insured person has the right to choose his or her sickness fund. Each fund is obliged to accept any resident of Israel as an insured member, regardless of age, physical or mental condition.

The Ministry of Health owns and operates hospitals: 23% of the general hospitals, 50% of the mental hospitals and 4% of the geriatric hospitals. The remainder are non-profit or profit-making institutions. In the new system, the government hospitals will become self-financing non-profit institutions. The Ministry of Health will continue to supervise and control hospitals, but not to run them.

The Ministry will no longer be responsible for the day-to-day operation of health services. All its functions will focus on policy-making, long term planning, the setting of standards, quality control and quality assurance, and the collection and evaluation of essential data. The reorganization of the Ministry of Health has resulted in the establishment of new departments such as those dealing with the issue of standards.

The Ministry of Health set up a steering committee that determines policy and priorities in the funding of new projects. The budget is currently invested in operating intervention projects.

Numerous health education and health promotion programmes have been instituted to improve the population's health-related behaviour. In some areas, legislation and the creation of new organizational structures have accompanied these programmes. The major activities have focused on risk factors associated with the more common chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Expenditure on hospitals continues to take up the principal part of health expenditure. This percentage rose continuously until 1980, when it reached 47% of current expenditure. A decreasing trend began in 1980; in 1992 expenditure on hospitals reached the level of 42%. Expenditure on community clinics and preventive medicine has remained constant for the last decade.

Family health care centers are operated by the government, local authorities or sickness funds, according to an agreed geographical division. Israel has a network of these centers throughout the country. About 1000 are located in urban areas, and a public health care nurse visits small and peripheral localities at least once every two weeks.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Health

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The sub-district health offices operate projects by the family health centers on subjects such as nutrition and accident prevention. They organize health fairs and conduct training courses for young people, young mothers, and the elderly. In 1995, 5 community recreation centers began health promotion programmes, and another 15 are anticipated to participate. The programmes deal with subjects as nutrition, physical activity, etc. and their target populations include both the people who visit the centers, and other groups in the community, such as workers.

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance: In 1993, health expenditure amounted to 8.1% of the GDP, the highest rate in recent years; this figure was 7.8% in 1992 and 7.4% in 1988.

In 1993, households financed 52% of national expenditure on health, including health insurance premiums and out-of-pocket fees, compared to 32% in 1984. This rise was due to an increase in premiums and fees. Households' payment to sickness funds comprised 12% of health expenditure in 1984 and 25% in 1993. The reduction in the proportion of health care costs funded from general taxation has put an increasing burden on households. Out-of-pocket fees paid by households to purchase medicines and medical services provided by private physicians, clinics and dentists accounted for 20% of health expenditure in 1984 and 27% in 1993. Government financing decreased from 52% of national expenditure on health in 1984 to 44% in 1993. This financing includes the parallel tax, which accounted for 22% of health expenditure in 1984 and 24% in 1993.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1992
Latest 1993
Life expectancy at birth (total)

Male

Female

76.6

74.7

78.5
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
9.1
7.8
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
5.45
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

In 1993, about 70% of the population owed its housing, the figure for most recent immigrants , who arrived in 1992, was 18%. The average number of people per room was estimated at 1.1 for the total population and 1.3 for the new immigrants. The number of homeless people is estimated at less than 1000.

A government programme combines government guarantees to the banking system and direct subsidies to newly married couples, new immigrants and other persons who need help in obtaining housing.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Since the 1992 Rio Conference on Environment and Development, sustainable development policy has been integrated into Israel's environmental management program. The Ministry of the Environment is formulating a comprehensive sustainable development program in conjunction with government ministries, local authorities, industry, academics and non-governmental organizations.

Since the 1990s, environmental aspects have been incorporated at an early stage of the planning process into regional and national plans, in addition to environmental assessment of detailed plans of specific projects under the Planning and Building Law of 1965.

Israel today has become a densely populated nation, in which 92% of its 5 million inhabitants live in an area which covers only 40% of the land area, concentrated in nearly all in the coastal area. Since 1989, there has been a large influx of immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia. This phenomena, together with the peace process and the rapid rate of industrial development in Israel, has resulted in the drawing up of a national long-range master plan for the 21st century - "Israel 2020", which is in the final stages of completion and will be submitted to the government during 1997 with the aim of preparing comprehensive strategic documents which will form a framework for national plans for the next 20 years. Environmental considerations form an integral part of the master plan, which deals with sustainable development policies for various sectors, including transport, energy, the urban sector, tourism, agriculture and open spaces.

In November 1996, an Agreement relative to the Coastal Areas Management Programme for Israel was signed between the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan and Israel, constituting a three-year intensive program of coastal zone management. The main objective of Programme I is the development of a sustainable development strategy for Israel, by initiating dialogue with all sectors of Israel's economy (energy, industry, transportation, tourism, etc.). The inauguration of the program initiated a public debate, beginning with a seminar on a sustainable development strategy for Israel. The seminar, the second in a series of activities regarding sustainable development policies in Israel, included high level experts from the Netherlands' Ministry of Environment, Housing and Spatial Planning.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): Under the Planning and Building Law 1965 and the Planning and Building Regulations of 1982 (dealing with Environmental Impact Statements for all major development activities), all building and land-use planning activities in Israel are regulated at three levels - national, district and local. Environmental consideration in decision-making is incorporated in all development projects.

The Israel 2020 master plan was created under the auspices of the Ministries of Housing, Interior and the Jewish Agency Settlement Department and the Israel Lands Administration. It also involves the Ministries Finance, Education and Culture, Transport, National Infrastructure (including energy) and Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: Government Ministries as set out above, academic institutions, such as the Haifa Technion, Israel Institute of technology; local authorities; non-governmental organizations, such as the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.

4. Finance: No specific information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Within the framework of the multilateral peace talks for regional cooperation in the Middle East, the Working Group on the Environment has achieved consensus on several concrete projects designed to promote environmental projects in the region and encourage the integration of environment and development into the decision-making process on a regional level, where applicable. For example: Oil Spill Contingency Plan for the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba between Israel, Egypt and Jordan, with the aid of the European Union; a regional action plan involving Egypt, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, to control natural resource degradation and desertification, coordinated by the World Bank; endorsement by all 41 delegates to the October 1994 Working Group on the Environment held in Bahrain, of the Environmental Code of Conduct for the Middle East. The Code sets common guidelines and norms which will govern the development policies of each state in a manner which will not have an adverse impact on the environment of neighboring countries.

As part of the Middle East peach process and the bilateral negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians, environmental components were incorporated within the framework of the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip in Washington 1993. Amongst several bilateral agreements for environmental cooperation with a number of countries, Israel has agreements with Egypt (1993) and Jordan (1995).

Israel is an active member of the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan, together with 21 other Mediterranean countries, and is currently serving as one of the vice presidents of the UNEP/MAP Bureau 1995-1997.

A major focus of the development of shared resources in the Middle East is the Jordan Rift valley. Israel and Jordon have begun an integrated program of regional planning and pre-investment studies, including environmental impact assessment or key proposed subjects.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol (1987) was ratified in 1992.

The London Amendment (1990) was ratified in 1992.

The Copenhagen Amendment (1992) was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994.

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol were prepared in 1995.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter: The main sources of air pollution are energy production, transport and industry. Israel's air quality policy is based on the following elements: prevention of air pollution through the integration of environmental considerations and physical planning, monitoring and intermittent control systems, legislation and enforcement (including ambient and emission standards), the reduction of pollution sources, and the reduction of pollutant emissions from motor vehicles. According to this policy a new programme for the control of air quality was completed in 1994.

Israel's energy economy is based on fossil fuels, mainly oil and coal. Data on the amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere from fuel combustion show significant declines in the levels of sulfur oxides and lead, increased emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and no significant change in concentrations of suspended particulate matter.

In 1994, 63 air monitoring stations were operating in Israel. All of them monitor sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxided and particulate matters are monitored in most, and ozone and/or carbon monoxide in a few. A new network monitors airborne chemicals at the hazardous waste disposal site. The limited information available indicates that sulfur dioxide levels are mostly below regulation limits, nitrogen dioxide is significantly above the limits in some areas, and ozone levels are mostly above the recommended limits.

The monitoring network, as it is today, is not comprehensive enough for formulating a national air quality management programme. Consequently Israel has recently prepared a preliminary programme for a multimillion-dollar national air monitoring system with a central data storage and display centre. The national system will be based on three levels of activity: individual stations, regional control centres and a national data processing centre. The types of station will vary according to the nature of the pollutants. Some 50 stations are planned , in addition to the 63 stations currently in operations. The project will be implemented over a three-year period.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment, as the central body for environmental protection in Israel, is in charge of protection of the atmosphere. Following ratification of the UNFCC in May 1996, the government ordered the Minister of the Environment to establish an inter-ministerial committee to formulate Israel's policy under the obligations of the Convention. The Committee includes representatives from the Ministries of Industry and Trade, Transport, Finance, National Infrastructure, Science and Agriculture. Industry representatives and environmental NGOs are also represented on the committee. The possibility of introducing a comprehensive Clean Air Act, to replace the existing Abatement of Nuisances Law of 1961 is being examined.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A comprehensive new program for the management of air resources in Israel was completed by the Ministry of the Environment in June 1994. In 1994, 63 air monitoring stations operated in Israel. The Ministry of Finance recently allocated approximately $3 mil. for a nation-wide air monitoring system. This national system will be comprised of 24 new monitoring stations, two regional centers and a national control center for data storage, analysis and display.

3. Major Groups: Government representatives of ministries outlined above, industrial representatives, private sector, research institutes and NGOs take part in activities under this chapter.

4. Finance: Since ratification, Israel has made the required annual contribution to the Montreal Trust Fund, being $US 465,885 for 1996.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Israel has ratified the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol, the London amendment and the Copenhagen Amendment. At the 1995 Conference of Parties to the Montreal Protocol (reiterated at the 8th Conference of the CP in Costa Rica), Israel committed itself to a 25% reduction in the production of methyl bromide by 2001, a 50% reduction by 2005 & total phase-out by 2010. Intensive efforts are being made in Israel to find an environmentally safe alternative to methyl bromide.

Israel also ratified the UNFCC in May 1996 and is currently working on preparing the national report.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1994
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
6,341
9,566
11,497
SOx "
308
272
258
NOx "
79
146
188
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1995 and ratified in 1996.

* The last report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter In Israel, the Negev desert, comprising over half of the country's land area, is inhabited by only 7% of the population. Israel is extensively involved in afforestation activities in desert areas, utilizing existing landscape and geographical resources to ameliorate conditions around Negev townships and intensive savannization programs and research.

The high priority accorded by Israel to combating desertification led to the establishment, in January 1994, of the Center for Desert Research and Restoration Ecology on Sde Boker, a joint project of the Jewish National Fund and the Ben-Gurion University's Desert research Institute.

Israel is an active partner in current efforts to promote both regional and international cooperation in combatting desertification, both in the framework of the multilateral peace talks on the environment and the International Convention to Combat Desertification.

In a sub-regional Round Table Discussion on a sub-regional action programme to combat desertification in the lower Jordan Rift Valley, experts from Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, and Israel presented 15 joint project proposals to potential donors, in Amman, in February 1997. The proposals were based on a joint survey of a major watershed, the Rift Valley, shared by the three parties. The objectives of the survey were to detect desertification risks in this sub-region, and to identify gaps in knowledge required for averting these risks. The project proposals address not just the combat against desertification, but also conservation of biodiversity and dry land afforestation, as synergetic vehicles for promoting transboundary sustainable development of the dry land watershed shared by Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians. UNESCO has already announced in this meeting its pledge to support a transboundary binational Jordanian-Israeli biosphere reserve in the Rift Valley, for promoting sustainable development in that area.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: International cooperation in combating desertification is led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in particular in the Division of International Cooperation. The Sde Boker Center for Desert Research and Restoration Ecology is a leading force in international, regional and domestic efforts to combat desertification. Other authorities involved are the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Jewish National Fund.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A National Outline Scheme for Afforestation was approved in principle by the National Planning and Building Boards in 1993. The plan is being implemented by the Jewish National Fund (JNF) and designates over 15% of Israel's total land area for the conservation of forest lands. About 50% of the JNF's tree planting endeavors are carried out in forest lands. The JNF has instituted a relatively new program of savannization, aimed at preventing desertification and increasing productivity and biodiversity without resource enrichment. In addition, the Sde Boker Center for Desert Research and Restoration Ecology has integrated the Ben Gurion University's Desert Research Institute's academic frameworks for basic and applied research and the JNF's field experience in the development and management of open space systems. Various techniques and technologies developed in Israel for combating desertification have implications for regional cooperation on desert issues, for e.g. use of water harvesting techniques; saline water-based agriculture.

3. Major Groups: All groups mentioned in 1. (Decision Making Structure), including government ministries, universities and research centers.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Israel is one of the parties involved in two desertification projects within the multilateral peace talks - tri-lateral IACD project (Jordan, Israel & the Palestinians, the Desertification Initiative (Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Tunisia & the Palestinians). Israel ratified the International Convention to Combat Desertification in 1996, and has been actively involved since the beginning both in the preparation of the Convention and the 1st meeting of the Parties to the Convention scheduled to be held in Oct./Nov. 1997. The INCD commissioned a Regional Joint Study 1995-96, through the Swiss government to support-the Sub-regional Action Program for Combating Desertification in the Aqaba/Eilat-Jericho section of the Jordan Rift Valley. Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian teams took part in the study surveying and detecting desertification risks & proposed future activities. INCD & UNDP have approved the holding of a seminar to be held in Israel to discuss 3 conventions and their interrelationship - Biodiversity, Climate Change and Combating Desertification. The seminar will be held in Israel in March 1997. Israel is involved on bilateral cooperation in the subject of combating desertification with China, India, Turmanistan and Namibia.

1. Decision-Making Structure:

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

In 1992 Israel established the Ministry of Environment. The background to this is based on the evaluation that more than 50% of the area of Israel will become one of the most crowded area in the world.

The general trend in rural areas includes:
- Declining effective labor power working in agriculture,
- Increasing non agricultural entrepreneurship (from a low percentage to approximately 10% today, and projected increases for the future)

The main activities that substitute agricultural sustainable activities include tourism, commerce, and services.

Areas and subjects addressing rural and agricultural development are covered by projects which may include: research, development, semi-commercial, and commercial.

Another spectrum of activities in which we are working, on the decision-making level, include:
-National level projects,
-Regional and district level projects, and
-Community and private level projects.

A number of Ministries, including the Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Environment, and Labour, among others, are involved in projects aimed at promoting rural development and sustainable agriculture.

One of the most significant changes in raising awareness, regarding this subject, includes the introduction of periodical statistics, which attempt to cover and understand the major trends relating to the change in the rural structure. This applies mainly to the shift from traditional farming to developed entrepreneurship, going beyond agriculture. This, however, creates other environmental problems.

In general numbers we can say that the percentage of persons employed in agriculture amount to approximately 30% of total population in the rural area.

The structure of production in Israel include:
the "Moshave" - a private community with cooperative activities, and
the "Kibutz" - full cooperative farming and a regular system of private farmers.
It is also important to mention the total simultaneous movement of the whole system towards privatization and "profit centered concept".

Farmers' awareness is reflected in their work and their participation in symposia and volunteering committees.

Although they are in a position to identify major problems, the lack of financial resources limit their capacity for further achievements. Two of the most relevant achievements in this area are Integrated Pest Management and Bio-organic crops. These are well advanced both on a scientific and practical commercial level.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environmental Affairs, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, is addressing these subjects with other Ministries, Institutes, and Organizations.
This relates to three levels of decision-making and time frame:
Long term strategy: at the national level;
Medium term tactic: at the regional and district levels; and
Short term operative: at the regional, community, and private levels.
The spectrum of intervention means include: information, master planning, available forecasting, and environmental legislation and regulation against various types of pollution.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The scientific community is establishing methods and tools necessary for improvements in relevant areas regarding rural and agricultural development. Master Programmes, including feasibility studies, have benn finished in four subjects, and there are plans to implement regional pilot projects, such as recycling organic matters, plastic, among others. Progress is also reflected in locally organized institutes which identify ideas and needs and put them into practice.

3. Major Groups: Farmers, local entrepreneurs, and the scientific and technological community participate in projects which promote rural and agricultural development. There has been an impressive change in farmers and local entrepreneurs who are aware of the environmental problems they themselves create. The commitment of farmers and their representatives has been achieved and, in some cases, it has been possible to come to positive decisions which include investments and programmes (mainly in the North of Israel, a very sensitive area for the quality of water for the entire nation).

4. Finance: Finance is provided by the Ministries mentioned above, with the participation of various other institutes.

There is a budget allocated annually for various specific projects, ranging from research type projects to semi-commercial projects. There is also a budget allocated for advertising, promotion, and public relations, mainly for meetings and symposia. Negotiations are now underway with the Ministry of Treasury in order to define the criteria for direct financing of preferred projects.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
4,200
Agricultural land as % of total land area
Agricultural land per capita
1989/90
1992/93
199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data: Total land - approximately 21,00 (Km2)
Total irrigated land 2,000 (Km2)
Total cultivated land 3,500 (Km2)
Livestock production from all agricultural land 50%

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1995.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was ratified in March 1980.

The latest report submitted was in 1996.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Nature conservation and biodiversity protection is Israel is not a recent development. Israel's location at the crossroads of climatic and botanic regions gives the country a rich variety of plant and animal life. Within the small land area of Israel, two opposing climatic regimes are found - Mediterranean in the north, and desert in the south. The central part of the country is a transition area between these two bio-geographical regions. While about 25% of Israel's land area is preserved within declared nature reserves, most of them (80%) are located in the desert areas of Israel, and a large number overlap military training areas.

Following the second meeting of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Israel set out a series of steps to be taken for the purpose of preparing a national strategy plan for the conservation of biological diversity. Some are as follows: (1) The establishment of an interministerial committee comprised of representatives of the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, Interior, Science, Trade and Industry, Transport, Defense and Education; (2) the integration of conservation of biological diversity into environmental planning, and the preparation of guidelines for the protection of biological diversity which will constitute part of the Ministry of Environment guidelines for the preparation of EIS's, (3) priority to research proposals on the conservation of biological diversity to be partly financed by the Ministry of the Environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and is the main authority for nature protection in Israel. The Ministries of Education (under the Antiquities Law), Agriculture (under the Wild Animals Protection Law) and Interior have limited authorities on related issues. The Nature Reserves Authority and the National Parks Authority, both acting under the Ministry of the Environment, are the main authorities for carrying out nature protection policies. The Nature Reserves Authority is the scientific advisory body in Israel for the Convention on Biological Diversity.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Nature Reserves Authority (NRA) oversees Israel's 155 nature reserves, covering 33.5 thousand hectares of protected areas. One area in Israel - Mount Carmel - has recently been declared a biosphere reserve within the framework of the UNESCO Man and Biosphere program, and preserves a variety of ecosystems. In order to overcome the problem of habitat fragmentation in Israel, the NRA and the Jewish National Fund have cooperated on a so-called "Open Landscapes Plan". Geographical and lithological data, collected by the Jewish National Fund, and botanic data, collected by the NRA, is currently being compiled, evaluated and mapped on the GIS and NRA. The first part of the project (encompassing an area from Beersheba to Nazareth) is near completion; the second part (encompassing the Jezreel Valley, Upper and Lower Galilee and the Jordan Valley) will be ready in early 1997, while the Negev section will follow at a later date. The NRA has already drawn up a proposal for data collection, mapping and evaluation in order to develop an action plan for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

In 1993, a National Outline Scheme for Afforestation was approved to designate 160,000 hectares for the development and conservation of forest lands in Israel. The plan, implemented by the Jewish National Fund, calls for the planting of 200 million trees in an area of 81,000 hectares.

3. Major Groups: The major groups involved in nature conservation and biodiversity protection - in addition to the Ministry of the Environment - are the Nature Reserves Authority, the National Parks Authority, the Jewish National fund and Israel's leading environmental non-governmental organization - the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Israel is involved in regional and international cooperation regarding biodiversity protection on a number of different levels.

Bilateral - an Agreement on Cooperation in Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation has been signed with Jordan. A joint proposal to establish a marine peace park is being seriously considered. An Agreement on Cooperation in Environmental Matters and Nature Conservation and an Agreement in the field of Desertification have been signed with Spain.

Regional - Within the framework of the multilateral Middle East peace talks on the environment, the successful Gulf of Aqaba project has been developed. The project establishes a Jordanian Egyptian-Israeli Oil Contingency Spill Plan for the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat in order to protect the precious eco-system and the unique natural asset of the Gulf itself constitutes. Biodiversity protection in the desert region on a regional level is part of the wider desertification project involving Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, within the multilateral framework. As an active member of the Mediterranean Action plan, Israel is very involved on the Protocol on Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas. International - In addition to ratification of the Biological Diversity Convention and CITES, Israel recently ratified the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. Israel will host an international workshop in March 1997 dealing with three important international conventions - the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Biological Diversity Convention and the Climate Change Convention.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1996
Protected area as % of total land area
25%
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of Agriculture, specifically the Division of Plant Protection, established an inter-ministerial and inter-disciplinary committee on bio-safety, biotechnology/gene technology in December 1996. The Nature Reserves Authority is one of the professional bodies involved in the Committee, which also has representatives from universities and research centers, the Ministry of Science, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The committee will deal with recommendations for necessary legislative changes regarding bio-safety, taking into consideration the Convention on Biological Diversity, among other issues.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: A committee has been established to determine recommendations regarding legal and policy issues related to bio-safety, biotechnology and gene technology, to be headed by the Division of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture. The Nature Reserves Authority is the main professional representative, also being the professional focal point for the Ministry of the Environment regarding the Convention of Biological Diversity. One of the tasks of the committee is to recommend legislative changes regarding the biosafety, biotechnology and gene technology. Several scientific institutes and universities, together with industry and certain government ministries, are involved in biotechnology research.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: As explained above.

4. Finance: Some public funding is available from both the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Science for research endeavors in the field.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information available.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

Israel deals with all aspects of marine pollution: accidental and emergency oil and chemical spills from ships or terminals, polluting discharges from industrial or municipal land-based sources, dumping of waste at sea, airborne pollution into the marine environment, and litter in the sea or on the beaches. Israel's two coastlines - the Mediterranean and the Red Sea (Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba) - are among the country's most valuable natural assets.

In recent years, Israel has made significant progress in pollution prevention and protection of the marine environment. Funds for combating marine and coastal pollution for clean-up operations are generated by the Marine Pollution Fund, totaling $700,00 annually. Income is derived from fees imposed on all oil terminals and ships calling at Israeli ports and from fines collected from violators of marine pollution prevention laws and regulations.

Israel is an active member of the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan, (detailed in the Cross-Sectoral Issues section), through which a major program regarding coastal zone management and sustainable development has been initiated for Israel. The Coastal Areas Management Programme for Israel, approved by UNEP/MAP and officially launched in November 1996, constitutes the beginning of developing a sustainable development strategy for Israel, and as such is a significant aspect of Israel's implementation of Agenda 21.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Marine and Coastal Environment Division of the Ministry of the Environment is the national authority responsible for all aspects of marine and coastal pollution. The Division has adopted a multi-faceted working plan consisting of: detection of environmental problems along Israel's marine coastlines and territorial waters; prevention and abatement of all types of marine pollution; enforcement of national laws related to protection of the marine environment; updating of relevant legislation in accordance with international conventions and modern environmental criteria.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Ministry of the Environment has begun to develop a comprehensive national contingency plan expected to be completed by the end of 1997. According to this contingency plan, an ad hoc emergency headquarters will be set up in case of an oil spill emergency. The headquarters will be commanded by the Shipping and Ports Authority, and will include representatives from the Ministry of Environment, Ports Authority, Israel Defense Forces, Coast Guard and local authorities.

Research efforts at various academic institutions, in conjunction with industry experts, have been made regarding marine clean-up and pollution treatment by means of oil-eating bacteria. Bioremediation has also been successfully developed and used in a number of cases in recent years.

Israel's capacity in the Gulf of Eilat was dramatically improved in 1991 with the inauguration of a newly expanded pollution control and response center. The Gulf of Eilat's pollution control capabilities have been further expanded as a result of progress within the framework of the multilateral peace talks on the environment and the Bilateral Agreement with Jordan on Special Arrangements for Aqaba and Eilat concluded in January 1996.

Israel approved a National Outline Scheme for the Mediterranean Coast in 1983, with environmental aspects fully integrated therein. The Scheme protects open space along large sections of the coastline, including nature reserves, national parks and coastal reserves. It also includes a highly effective clause prohibiting development within 100 meters of the coastline. The Ministry of the Environment has developed a progressive GIS, with one of the first databases including a Mediterranean Coast database. An additional database for microbial and heavy metal monitoring stations along the Mediterranean Coast is currently being developed.

3. Major Groups: The Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Transport, Shipping and Ports Administration, non-governmental organizations (Israel Union Environmental Defense, Greenpeace-Israel) and local authorities are involved in this area.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Israel is an active participant in the UNEP Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) which provides an important forum for regional environmental activities and cooperation to protect the Mediterranean Sea. Israel has ratified the 1976 Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution and its related protocols. Israel has also ratified the Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 and the 1978 Protocol (MARPOL 73/78) and Annexes 1 and 2 of the Convention. Efforts are currently underway to ratify Annexes 3,4 and 5 of MARPOL 73/78 as well as the 1993 Oil Pollution Responsibility and Cooperation Convention (OPRC) and international agreements for compensation in case of large scale accidents - Civil Liability Convention and IOPCF (Fund) Convention. Committed to the objectives of the Barcelona Convention, Israel signed a tri-lateral Subregional Contingency Plan for combating major marine pollution incidents affecting the territorial sea, coasts and other related interests of Cyprus, Egypt and Israel in June 1995.

In November 1996, Israel signed an Agreement Relative to the Coastal Areas Management Programme (CAMP-Israel), involving work on a three year program regarding coastal management of Israel and developing a sustainable development strategy for Israel.

Cross-Sectoral Issues Cont'd

Within the framework of the multilateral peace talks, much progress has been made in the protection of the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba. In view of the sensitivity and importance of this area, Israel, Jordan and Egypt agreed to cooperate in combating pollution in the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba. A contingency plan has been developed whereby pollution control equipment is based in Aqaba, Nuweiba and Eilat to enable quick response and cooperation in protecting the environment. The plan saw success in September 1995 when Jordan and Israel cooperated in combating an oil spill in the Gulf. Subsequent to the Peace Treaty signed between Israel and Jordan on October 26, 1994, an Agreement on Special Arrangements for Aqaba and Eliat was concluded between the two countries in January 1996 with specific sections dealing with coordinated efforts for environmental protection in the Eliat/Aqaba area.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
*
**
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
**
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
**
***
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
**
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
**
***
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
**
**
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
***
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
**
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
*

(begun in November 1996)

J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
K. Human resource development and training.
***
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
**
**
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
**
**
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
*

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
**
**
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
*
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
**
**
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
*
N
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
N
N
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
N

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
***
***
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
**
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
**
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
***
**
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
***

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
**
**
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
***
**
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
**
***
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
*
***
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
*
**
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
**
**
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
**
**
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
*
**
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
**
**
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.
*

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
*
**
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
**
**
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
*
**
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
**
**
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
*
*
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
*
*
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
*

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) NOT RELEVANT

AIR TRANSPORT
RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights) 1. Frequency (external shipping)
2. Frequency (in-country flights) 2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation 3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
4. Cooperation at international level 4. Cooperation at international level
5. Economic viability of national air line 5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
6. Economic viability of regional air line 6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
7. national level training in skills for air transport sector 7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region 8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
9. Access to international training for air transport sector 9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
10. Supportive of ICAO

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Long term conservation of water resources and extended reuse of wastewater
STATUS REPORT:

Water and Wastewater Treatment and Reuse. All Israeli settlements are served by public waterworks, supplying a per capita average of 90 cu.m/year. Similarly 94% of the generated wastewater is drained to a public sewer and 80% is treated in biological treatment plants. Only 14% of the generated wastewater is drained without treatment to water courses, while 42% is reuse for irrigation after secondary or advanced tertiary treatment. A national plan to increase the reuse of treated effluent for irrigation is being implemented, aimed to achieve a reuse target of 65-70% of the generated wastewater.

Wastewater from households, agriculture, and industry may pollute the water sources. As water is so scarce, considerable efforts are being made to prevent such pollution, and effluents are recycled for secondary use. Administrative authorities have been established to control the contamination of groundwater and rivers by effluents, and to promote the restoration of the rivers. Increased awareness has resulted in improvements in existing water treatment plants and in planning of new plants that conform to the new standards on effluents. Investment in these plants has been extensive in recent years. The main use of treated effluent is in agriculture. Standards of effluent quality are strictly kept to prevent threats to health and damage to crops.

Drinking Water Quality. The Water Commission has initiated a project for rapid sand filtration of drinking water, which aims to reduce the water turbidity level to less than 0.5 NTU which is the acceptable standard in the E.U.

Water Conservation. A national campaign is being sponsored by the Water Commission, in which the use of water conservation devices at the household level is promoted. Pressure reducer devices for taps and showers, pull handle taps and double quantity dispensers for toilet cisterns are being introduced in order to reduce water consumption in households. without any discomfort to the user.

Water Demand Management. A shift from the traditional management of the supply side to the demand side is being introduced by the Water Commission. Water demand management is emphasized, combining certain measures which include: progressive water charges, price incentives for water reuse, public participation, water systems improvement, and introduction of advanced technologies in order to institutionalize sustainable use of water throughout.

Water Resources Protection. The Water Commission adopted an overall policy for the safeguarding of water resources. The major principle is to use the best technology and best practice in industry, agriculture, and society in order to minimize the pollution of water resources. The Water Commission oversees the planning and certification of development projects in order to protect water resources and their long term conservation for future generations.

Water Resources Monitoring. The state of available water resources is continuously monitored by the Hydrological Service Department of the Water Commission. The Annual and periodical Reports are used to influence the planning process and to control development projects. A water resources conservation map, restricting land use to activities that are not harmful to water resources, has been produced and considered in land use planning.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In a September 1993 decision, the Israeli government called for the establishment of a national contingency response system for chemical accidents. The system's steering committee is comprised of representatives of the police, Home Front Command, fire and emergency service, Magen David Adorn (Israel Red Cross), the Ministry of the Environment and other government ministries. Finances were allocated for the operation of the national contingency system and a two pronged contingency plan was established, consisting of an integrated action plan specifying the tasks of each body within the framework of the entire system.

The Hazardous Substances Law, 1993, provides the Ministry of the Environment with authority for the control of hazardous substances, including licensing, regulation and supervision of the various aspects of their production, use, handling, storage, marketing, import, export and transport. The administrative means for enforcement established by the law include a licensing requirement, in accordance with the Licensing of Businesses Law, for any premise engaged in the sale of hazardous substances, and a poisons permit requirement for any person dealing in toxic substances. The holder of a poisons permit, which must be renewed annually, is required to maintain a toxic substances register in which all sales and purchases of poisons are recorded. The law enables an authorized representative of the Minister of the Environment to enter any premise dealing with hazardous substances with the exception of pharmacies, for purposes of inspection, investigation or the collection of samples of hazardous substances. This authority provides the Ministry of the Environment with a powerful tool for the control and supervision of hazardous substances. The Ministry of the Environment is now investing major efforts in preparing the infrastructure for both implementation and enforcement of the law - the establishment of the permit system, discovery of the facilities requiring a permit, computerization of data and contacts with customs officials and chemical suppliers to ensure that hazardous waste is not delivered to industries which do not maintain the requisite permit.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Various bodies are involved in dealing with the subject, including the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, Industry and Trade, Health, Internal Security, Defense, in addition to Customs, the police force, fire and rescue services, Israel Red Cross and the Home Front Command.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: An Information Center on Hazardous Substances was established by the Ministry of the Environment in 1994 in coordination with the existing Home Front Command Information Center. Plans are currently being completed for the unification of these information centers into one centralized Information and Response Center for Hazardous Substances which will supply data on a 24 hour-a-day basis. The Information Center on Hazardous Substances collects data on safety, detection, identification, alertness, treatment, neutralization procedures and risk assessment. In addition, the center follows up on new developments in the area of legislation, regulation and restrictions, both worldwide and in Israel.

3. Major Groups: As described above.

4. Finance: The Israeli government allocated $US 22.6 million towards the establishment and operation of a national contingency response system for chemical accidents.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Within the framework of the multilateral peace talks, a regional workshop was held on the issue of Management of Toxic Substances and Waste hosted by Switzerland.

The Ministries of the Environment and Agriculture have set up an ad-hoc committee to make the necessary domestic arrangements and examine the effects of joining an Internationally Legally Binding Instrument for the Application of the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (PIC). Israel is thus preparing the necessary groundwork to sign the instrument when it becomes a Convention, expected to occur in

1997.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed in 1989 and ratified in 1994.

* The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1995.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Israel's hazardous waste regulations require that all hazardous waste be properly treated, recycled or deposited at the Ramat Hovav National Disposal and Treatment Site for Hazardous Waste, located south of Beersheba, the Negev. While these regulations are implemented by the majority of Israel's large scale industries, solutions have not yet been found to the problems encountered by small scale industries, some producing only a few tons of hazardous waste a year. Efforts are currently being invested to find economically feasible methods of transporting the hazardous wastes produced by these plants to the Ramat Hovav site. At Karnat Hovav, a state-of-the-art incinerator is currently being built, capable of burning about 15,000 tons of organic materials per year.

Israel is currently reviewing disposal and treatment options for other types of problematic wastes, such as medical waste. A joint committee of the Ministries of the Environment and Health, working according to guidelines on biological waste set by the World Health Organization, has called for the establishment of 15-20 regional disposal centers at main hospitals throughout the country.

In compliance with the requirements of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal, the Ministry of the Environment promulgated regulations, under the Hazardous Substances Law, dealing with the import and export of hazardous wastes.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The main authority for dealing with hazardous wastes in Israel is the Ministry of the Environment, on a national and district level. In addition, a few powers remain under the authority of the Ministry of Health.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Licensing of Business Regulations on hazardous industrial plants was promulgated in 1993 and requires owners of industrial plants in which hazardous substances or wastes are stored, sold, processed or produced to take all necessary measures to treat these materials according to the best available technology. Used Oil Regulations, under the Abatement of Nuisances Law, the Licensing of Businesses Law and the Water Law, came into effect in December 1993. The regulations call for the collection of used oil in specially-designed receptacles for eventual disposal either to the Ramat Hovav Hazardous Waste Site or to a recycling facility.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Israel is party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, following ratification of the Convention in December 1994.

As part of the ongoing cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, a workshop on Harmonization of Hazadous Waste Management Practices was held in November 1996.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Solid Waste : It is estimated that each person in Israel produces an average of 1.6 kg of solid waste a day, resulting in a total annual quantity of waste produced in the country by a population of 5.3 million equal to 3.1 million tons. Until 1993, about 96% of Israel's domestic waste was disposed in landfills in 514 waste dumps, most of which were unregulated. In June 1993, the government took a landmark decision designed to expedite the establishment of central sanitary landfills, close hundreds of illegal waste dumps and create infrastructure environmentally-safe solid waste disposal. Since June 1993, 198 illegal dumps have been closed. It is estimated that by 1998, some 80% of the country's waste will be safely discharged at 20 environmentally-safe landfills (5 central sites and 15 local sites). As part of the Minstry's integrated solid waste management policy, several waste-to-energy plants will also be established.

The cost of solid waste disposal is expected to increase. Recycling can be an economical solution for part of the problem. Today, 6% of domestic waste is recycled. The total percentage is higher, owing to recycling during the production process. The goal is to recycle 25% of waste by the year 2000.

Waste Water Treatment : Because of the combination of severe water shortage, contamination of water resources, densely populated urban areas and intensive irrigation in agriculture, wastewater treatment and reuse is high on Israel's list of national priorities. Effluents constitute the most readily available and cheapest source of additional water, and provide a partial solution to Israel's water scarcity problem.

Of the total volume of municipal wastewater produced in Israel, about 90% is collected by means of central sewage systems; 80% is treated; and nearly 70% is reclaimed for reuse, mainly for irrigation of non-food crops and animal fodder. By the year 2000, recycled wastewater is expected to provide up to 400 MCM of water per year for agricultural purposes. During the last three years, a major drive has been carried out to build new, modern treatment plants for most of Israel's major cities - Jerusalem, Haifa, Netanya and Hadera.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Solid Waste : The Ministry of the Environment, through its Solid Waste Division and District Offices and the local municipalities, are primarily responsible for solid waste management. Siting of landfills and other waste disposal locations is within the authority of local municipalities and subject to the Planning and Building Law and its regulations as well as the National Outline Scheme for Solid Waste Disposal.

Wastewater Treatment; The Water Law of 1959 establishes the framework for the control and protection of Israel's water resources, authorizing the Ministry of the Environment with responsibility for preventing pollution of water resources. Other ministries, including the National Infrastructure Ministry through the National Water Commission, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Interior Ministry also share responsibility for the treatment of wastewater.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Solid Waste: The impending closure of waste dumps and their replacement by a few central landfills will significantly increase the cost of solid waste disposal from $US 5 per ton of waste to an average of $US 20 per ton. Calculation of the economic and environmental costs of landfilling is expected to expedite the move to low-or non-waste technologies and to encourage the implementation of waste reduction, reuse and recycling options. To facilitate these developments, Israel is redoubling its efforts to promote recycling by every possible means - research, legislation and pilot projects. The current goal is to reach a lO% recycling rate by 1997 for post-consuteer waste and approximately 25% by the year 2000. The Collection and Disposal of Waste for Recycling Law was passed in June 1993. The law authorizes local authorities, and obliges them when so required by the Minister of the Environment, to allocate sites for recycling centers and to install recycling facilities and containers. In order to facilitate the adoption of relevant by-laws by local authorities, the Ministry of the Enviroment drafted a model by-law on the collection and disposal of waste for recycling.

Wastewater Treatment: By Israeli law, no industrial plant can be approved until it ensures adequate treatment of its industrial wastewater prior to discharge into the municipal system. An important issue currently being reviewed is the disposal and treatment of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A Ministry of the Environment team has consolidated a policy which would require sewage treatment plants to treat the sludge to a point where it will not cause odors or attract insects. Some 30-50% of the sludge will then be used as fertilizer, with the rest earmarked for landfill disposal.

3. Major Groups: No further information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Bilateral cooperation between Sweden and Israel focused in 1995-1996 on the issue of solid waste management. Bilateral cooperation with Turkey and Egypt has focused on the issue of wastewater treatment and management. Within the multilateral working group on the environment, a regional workshop was held, hosted by Italy, on solid waste management, and attention has been given to the issue of wastewater treatment within the multilateral working group on Water. A major part of the cooperative action in the field of the environment between Israel and Palestinian Authority focuses on the two issues of solid waste management and wastewater management and treatment.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

Amount of Total Recycling Waste in Israel (December 1995)
Domestic Waste (M.T./yr)*

(post consumer)
Total Waste (M.T./yr)*

(include post-consumer)
Paper/cardboard
122,000
183,000
Compost
48,000
48,000
Plastic
6,000
20,000
Glass
2,000
Aluminum
4,000
20,000
Used Oil
8,000
Scrap Metal
330,000
TOTAL
180,000
611,000
Total % Recycling
5.8%
15.7%
* M.T./yr= Metric Tons/year

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Israel's prime concern in the management of low-level radioactive waste, produced by hospitals, research laboratories and institutions, and industrial and agricultural premises, is population safety and environmental protection. The Nuclear Research Center in the Negev operates and monitors Israel's only national disposal site for radioactive waste. The Ministry of the Environment operates a computerized database management system on radioactive materials, with data on licensing, import and distribution, waste disposal and transportation. Supervision of the disposal of radioactive waste has improved recently, and a report was prepared based on the number of drums containing radioactive waste which were transferred from all institutions in Israel to the national disposal site in the Negev. Within the framework of the advisory committee on radiation, a report on waste disposal and treatment procedures has also been prepared.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Part of the responsibilities of the Ministry of the Environment's Radiation Division include supervision of radioactive materials and radioactive waste facilities. The authority for low-level radioactive waste management in Israel is the radiation officer appointed by the Minister of the Environment under the Pharmacists Regulations on radioactive elements. The regulations authorize the officer to issue a license for waste disposal services, after consulting with the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

24.a Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

24.b assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

24.c and 24.d formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc.

24.e establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Brief comments on this chapter:

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.a establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.b reducing youth unemployment

25.c ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

Brief comments on this chapter:

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

26.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

26.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Brief comments on this chapter:

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.a developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.b reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.c promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.d establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter:

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.a encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter:

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.a full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.b (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter:

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.a increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.b encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.c increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter:

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.a improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with

sustainable development.

31.b developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35:

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.a promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.b developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.c enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

No information

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

No information

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

No information

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Israel is a multilingual society. The two main official languages are Hebrew and Arabic. Other languages are widely spoken, including English, French, Russian, Spanish, and Yiddish. Hebrew is the language necessary for integration in the labour force and other areas of life.

Education is compulsory until the age of 16. The educational level of the Israeli population has steadily increased. The proportion of people with at least a basic education has increased from 65.3% to 85.3% over the last 30 years. Illiteracy has practically disappeared among younger age groups, although it still exists in a small proportion of the elderly, mainly among women.

In 1993, 18% of the people aged 15 were university graduates; the corresponding figure for women were 17%. Women comprised 54% of university students in 1992/93, compared to 36% in 1964/65. The general trend has been towards a more educated population. In 1993 the median number of years of formal education was 11.8, compared to 10.7 in 1980 and 8.8 in 1970.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

b) Increasing public awareness

The population's awareness of environmental issues is growing, and air and water pollution are key issues.

c) Promoting training

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
10.7
11.8
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

Article 12 of Annex III of the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, signed in Washington on September 28, 1995, specifically deals with environmental protection.

Agreement Between the Government and the State of Israel and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt in the field of Agricultural Ecology, signed in 1993.

Agreement between the Government of the Hashmite Kingdom of Jordan and the Government of the State of Israel on Cooperation in Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation, signed in 1995.

Agreement on Special Arrangements for Aqaba and Eilat between the Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, signed in January 1996, has specific sections devoted to Environment, Energy and Natural Resources, and a proposed binational marine peace park.

Agreement on the Subregional Contingency Plan for Preparedness and Response to Major Marine Pollution Incidents in the Mediterranean between the Republic of Cyprus, The Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel.

Israel hosted an Expert Meeting on Synergies among the Rio Conventions, supported by the Governments of Israel, Japan, Denmark, and also by UNDP, to elucidate the links between the Convention on Biodiversity, the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention to Combat Desertification and the Forest Principles, and correspondingly to detect the overlaps, convergencies and synergies between these Instruments.

The meeting pointed at some means for attaining synergy: (a) identification of a national "entry point" - a dryland country will focus its efforts in combating desertification and use it as an "entry point" for addressing also the other conventions, whereas a country with much forested area will use the Forest Principles as an entry point; (b) establishing a coordinating mechanism between the national focal points of each of the conventions, as well as between the conventions' secretariats; (c) identification of indicators that apply to the assessment of progress in all instruments, establishment of a monitoring system and harmonizing the information gathering and analysis procedures, to enable the quantification of progress made towards sustainable development in the implementation of the conventions, and (d) use of this analysis for non-overlapping, shared, streamlined reporting.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
X
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Last updated 1 November 1997