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National Implementation of Agenda 21

GUYANA

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Guyana to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

GUYANA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Date: 24 September 1997

Submitted by: Mr. Clement Rohee, Minister of Foreign Affairs

Mailing address: Takuba Lodge, 254 South Road & New Garden Street, Georgetown, Guyana.

Telephone: 61607-9

Telefax: 59192

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

FACT SHEET

NAME OF COUNTRY: Guyana

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

_________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): _________________________________________________________________ _________________

_________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Telephone:___________________________________ Fax:__________________________ e-mail:_________________________________

Mailing address:_________________________________________________________ __________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson:______________________________ ______________________________________________

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

No information

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Guyana has formulated a National Energy Policy (NEP) where the basic core idea is the substitution of imported fossil fuels through the promotion and increased use of renewable sources of energy with which Guyana is well endowed. Recognizing the vital link between energy and development, the NEP administrates short, medium and long term technological options for satisfying energy demand.

Guyana is well endowed with renewable energy resources including hydropower, biomass, solar, wind and biogas. The NEP reviewed energy supply mixes and recommended a shift toward further use of renewable sources of energy.

Co-operation with the newly established EPA to ensure energy planning and project implementation are done in an environmentally acceptable manner has already begun through a Natural Resources and Environment Advisory Committee.

Efforts are being made to promote energy conservation through public awareness programmes. Energy Audits at various industrial and other enterprises are being undertaken.

In the area of transportation there has been the introduction of unleaded gasoline into the Guyana market. As of January 1999, leaded gasoline will no longer be imported. The GNEA, EPA and GNBS are collaborating on a programme to ensure gasoline using vehicles are fitted with catalytic converters and with the setting of vehicle emission standards.

Mining has contributed significantly to Guyana's economic well-being. In 1994 gold has become the largest source of export earning accounting for 28% of the total compared to 7% in 1992. Bauxite and gold in the same year accounted for a total of 46% of export earning. This demonstrates that mining maintained a strong position in Guyana's economy. Thus, one can emphasize its importance to sustainable development.

Government therefore recognizes the need to sustain and encourage large scale exploration in the area of gold production and foreign investment in the mining sector, together with the medium and small scale efforts of our local miners who are expected to contribute 28% of the 450,000 ounces of gold production projected for 1997.

In recognizing the competitiveness of the mining industry and noting the importance of its contribution to economic development, Guyana has established a policy on mining. This policy has firmly cemented the foundation for continuous growth in this sector and will allow the sector its rightful role as a principal catalyst for sustainable development in the future.

Guyana has integrated in its policy on mining plans to deals with social and environmental issues arising from mining activities. In the areas of land use, the government encourages multiple land use and is in the process of finalizing a land use policy. It has also addressed issues with respect to indigenous people.

The GGMC has also recognized that the regulation of small and medium scale mining is difficult because of the number and mobility of operations thus they have undertaken to implement an Environmental Management Agreement (EMA) for these operations. The EMA covers all aspects of mining including the use of equipment, sedimentation, control, vegetation removal, storage and disposal of chemicals and fuel handling and uses of mercury.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Draft legislation to form a new Guyana Energy Agency has been completed. This new agency will incorporate under one umbrella all of the various energy related departments and units which would allow for the improvement in institutional arrangements. This will ensure more effective and efficient co-ordination planning and monitoring of energy matters.

The Agency responsible for mining, the Guyana Geology and Mines Commission has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the EPA which will ensure that Environmental Management is integrated in mining activities. Thus all large scale mining operations are subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment as provided for under the Environmental Protection Act.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$)
Real GDP growth (%)
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Government of Guyana explicitly endorsed the concept of sustainable development and the promotion of sound environmental management when it published the details of its policy and actions on the environment in the National Environmental Action Plan. This plan was approved in May 1994 after a series of consultations with NGOs, governmental and other interest groups. Recognizing the importance of establishing a legal framework to implement these policies and actions, Guyana passed an Environmental Protection Act in June 1996. The Government of Guyana now uses this as the regulatory instrument to implement environmental policy and to promote environmental management which is integral to sustainable development.

This Act establishes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the institution with the mandate for coordinating environmental management and provides for the management, conservation, protection and improvement of the environment, the prevention or control of pollution and the assessment of the impacts of economic development activities on the environment.

The EPA created various mechanisms for action with respect to Environmental Management as follows:

- setting of standards of environmental quality

- environmental impact assessment

- licensing of activities with the potential for pollution

- penalties and fines for environmental degradation

- monitoring of anthropogenic impacts on the environment emanating from industrial and other activities

- public awareness and environmental education

Guyana has recognized that environmental management is a multi-disciplinary task. In this regard the EPA carries out its task through linkages with sectoral Natural Resource Agencies and the involvement of stakeholders and other interest groups.

In order to commence full operation of the EPA the government will receive financial assistance from the Inter-American Development Bank to implement an environmental management project. This project aims to strengthen the technical and organizational capability of the Agency and will also assist in the legal and regulatory framework in environment and natural resources management. Under this project the government plans to strengthen the environmental management capacity of selected sectoral agencies, ministries and local governments with significant environmental management responsibilities. In this regard initial work will begin with the mining and forestry sectors with which Memoranda of Understanding have already been signed.

It is widely established that sustainable development cannot be achieved without an integrated approach which involves the public and private sectors and other groups.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): At the governmental level the integrated approach has been undertaken by two statutory bodies. There is a Cabinet Subcommittee on Natural Resources and Environment which is chaired by the Executive President. All issues related to sustainable development with regards to natural resource use which requires policy decision are thoroughly discussed and reviewed by this committee before taken to Cabinet.

At the Technical level there is the Natural Resource and Environment Advisory Committee (NREAC) which includes the heads of natural resource agencies and the environmental protection agency.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The environmental monitoring capability of the EPA has been enhanced through the establishment of a laboratory facility to undertake monitoring of various chemical parameters and to determine their environmental effects. This was established through a private sector donation.

3. Major Groups: In the development of activities or programmes with regards to sustainable development, the participatory model is widely used and appreciated. In addition efforts to promote shared responsibility with different stakeholders - government, private sector, non-governmental organizations and local communities have evolved over the years. Major groups participate in the decision making process and in some cases NGOs have been active in developing activities for sustainable development at the local and national level.

4. Finance: See status report

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See status report

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Montreal Protocol (1987) ratified on 12 August 1993

London Amendment (1990): not yet signed

Copenhagen Amendment (1992): not yet signed

The latest report to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat was prepared on 31 December 1996

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was ratified in 1994.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

No report has, as yet, been submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat due to the unavailability of financial wherewithal.

However, Guyana is moving toward compliance with its obligations under the Convention as follows:

(i) Guyana will be participating in a regional project to be executed by the OAS and known as "Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC)."

Under this project, Guyana will join with other CARICOM States to develop national programmes to mitigate climate and climate change by monitoring same. In so doing, Guyana will:

- create climate change databases

- inventories coastal resources and use

- conduct coastal vulnerability and risk assessments

- formulate a policy framework for coastal and marine management

- develop an economic valuation of coastal and marine resources

- develop economic and regulatory proposals for adaptation to climate change and;

- provide for institutional strengthening and human resource development of relevant national agencies.

(ii) Guyana has applied to the UNDP and GEF for assistance in developing and publishing periodic national inventories of anthropogenic emissions. A UNDP consultant visited Guyana in late 1996 to assess the needs of the country and we are awaiting this report which may then lead to GEF financial support.

See also the information provided in chapter 4 on energy related issues.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: See status report

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Guyana recognizes that land use planning is only as effective as the goals that guide the exercise. Many countries practice land use planning based on economic efficiency goals. Guyana has adopted sustainable land use planning, in which multiple goals such as conservation, spatial equity, as well as economic efficiency, forms the basis for land evaluation and land use decisions.

Guyana has turned attention to the comprehensive management of its natural resources, a key element of which is land use planning of those geographic areas where our natural resources lie. In this regard significant progress has been made in some fundamental land use tasks.

1. A land use baseline report has been prepared. This report assembles all of the land use legislation, institutions and processes; identifies the land use issues and makes recommendations for the implementation of land use planning in Guyana. The report benefitted from country wide local consultations at the community level.

2. A National Land Use Plan has been developed.

3. A map of existing land uses and a land use classification system has been prepared at the national level.

4. A geographical information system has been installed; training has been given to key personnel and a data base is being created, this database will be the basis for national decision making in land use matters.

5. A pilot regional land use plan is being initiated. This pilot study will serve as a model for the planning of other regions.

Much work remains to be done in the following areas:-

1. Resource valuation

2. Land evaluation

3. Soil mapping at the district and local levels

4. Institutional capacity for land use planning

5. Legislative reform for natural resource management

A key concept in sustainable land use planning is the interrelatedness of resource utilization. One cannot consider forestry without the people who live in the forests, nor can we talk about water pollution in isolation from economic activities that pollute the water, or about watershed management without hydropower development. Accepting the global nature of sustainable development and the need for a comprehensive focus, it is our contention that in the area of natural resources management, sustainable land use planning should not only be a key consideration, but also an essential one.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: See status report

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See status report

3. Major Groups: See status report

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC) is responsible for the administration and management of the forest resources of Guyana under the Forest Act Chapter 67:01 Laws of Guyana.

Since 1992 the GFC has rehabilitated twelve of eighteen forest stations, established four new stations and forecast the establishment of four additional stations for 1997-98.

A Code of Practice for responsible forest management was worked out with the Forest Producers Association of Guyana during two years of consultation and was introduced to the industry for voluntary adoption in July 1996. The GFC and the EPA are working together to ensure its full acceptance by industry.

According to statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization the annual rate of deforestation in Guyana is negligible at less than 1%. The GFC has stepped up its programme to monitor deforestation and other activities in the state forests while examining measures to combat unacceptable practices.

There are no reforestation programmes in Guyana because selective logging activities have made little impact on forest canopy. Natural regeneration of the species composition is currently encouraged.

Local forests still supply all the domestic demands for timber and there is no evidence of any scarcity. There are not any major wood using industries at this time to justify the establishment of plantations.

The GFC has withdrawn from influencing the trade in timber products. This is in keeping with Government Policy to encourage the forces of supply and demand to evolve the policing mechanisms in the market place.

The Commission has successfully introduced improved systems to ensure better collection of forest revenue and in 1996 the Government approved increases in Royalty and Acreage Fees to logging and Sawmill Operations.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: See status report

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See status report

3. Major Groups: The GFC has created buffer zones around Amerindian villages and has streamlined logging activities to prevent encroachment on these communities. Currently the commission is collaborating with the Ministry of Amerindian Affairs to demarcate Amerindian land boundaries.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Overseas Development Administration (ODA) of the British Government has been providing technical assistance since 1994 to the Guyana Forestry Commission under a Project for the "Institutional Capacity Strengthening of the GFC."

Included in this project are the following:

1. The Organizational Restructuring of the GFC - implemented in January 1997.

2. New wages and salary structure to attract and retain trained staff- introduced in January 1997.

3. The Completion of a National Forest Policy. This document is in its final stage after two years of consultation with industry, public and private sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) indigenous groups and other interested parties. To be completed by April 1997.

4. Review of Revenue Systems

5. Law Revision

6. Education and Training support programmes for staff to improve administrative, management and forest monitoring capabilities.

This project is scheduled for completion in the year 2000.

The Commission is currently collaborating with the recently established Environmental Protection Agency to implement and maintain strict environmental management and monitoring programmes of the forest resources of Guyana. To this end the GFC established an Environmental Unit in 1995 to perform these functions. The Inter-American Development Bank is involved in supporting this activity.

Through the Natural Resources and Environmental Advisory Committee the GFC is working with other natural resources agencies to better co-ordinate all planning functions and strategies at a national level.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2)
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was ratified on 26 June 1997.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

No additional information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Agricultural activities in Guyana are concentrated on the coastal plain, which represents less than 10% of the country's total land area.

Agriculture is the single most important sector of Guyana's economy both in terms of foreign exchange generation and the number of people employed. In 1995, agriculture and fisheries contributed about 38% of GDP and 43% of foreign exchange earning.

Another important role of the agricultural sector can also be seen for the fact that approximately 70% percent of Guyana's population lives in rural household and is primarily dependent on the income from agriculture and related activities.

Under the Agricultural sector loan, sponsored by the Inter American Development Bank (IDB), Government has taken actions on key agricultural policies, in order to meet basic objectives of consolidation of commodity trade liberalization and extending the benefits of the adjustment process to key agricultural markets. This programme focused on:

(I) adjusting the legal-institutional framework and trade regime for the rice industry;

(II) centralizing policy and decentralizing/divesting operations in agricultural water resources; and

(III) developing agricultural land markets.

In December 1994 the Ministry of Agriculture signed an agreement with IICA whereby the latter would administer G $17 million and provide technical assistance for the management of an integrated rural development project with three basic sub-components:

(a) the development of a sustainable community agro-forestry project at Tapakuma;

(b) the partial rehabilitation of four government plant nurseries, and

(c) the strengthening of community capabilities to manage and maintain drainage and irrigation facilities at Mocha/Arcadia, Region 4.

At Tapakuma, 50 acres of cleared forest land are being developed into sustainable agro-forestry enterprises. Research and development work are executed under community control.

In the case of Mocha/Arcadia, efforts have gone into strengthening a small association of vegetable and food crops farmers, developing their managerial skills and providing guidance in their accessing of D & I services from public and private sectors.

Government has clearly placed top priority on the rehabilitation of rural infrastructures - drainage and irrigation, sea defence, roads. In addition to other social infrastructure, water rural schools, health clinics, etc., all of which serve to improve the attractiveness of agriculture and rural life in general.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture remains at the centre of the institutional make up of the agricultural sector. Many local, national and international institutions and agencies are directly or indirectly involved in the agricultural sector.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See status report

3. Major Groups: See status report

4. Finance: See status report

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See status report

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
Agricultural land as % of total land area
Agricultural land per capita
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified on 29 August 1994.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was ratified on 25 May 1977.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Guyana has developed a National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Guyana's Biological Diversity through the process of a series of national consultations. The Strategy identifies some key actions under the various subheadings, and will lead to the development of an Action Plan. Plans have already been initiated for the development of the latter. A National Biodiversity Advisory Committee meets under the aegis of the Environmental Protection Agency, to which it reports. This Committee works through a number of ad-hoc Groups and Working Groups.

The national forest policy is being redrafted and incorporates the conservation of forest biological diversity as a major element. This policy will lead to new legislation that will aim to achieve sustainable forest resources management in Guyana. Included in this policy are mangrove forest resources.

A new fisheries' policy is being drafted which seeks in part, to promote the conservation of fisheries resources. A draft fisheries management plan has been completed with assistance from CIDA. Work on Data Collection and analysis has begun through the CFRAMP regime fisheries project.

The Draft National Development Strategy has been completed. This strategy seeks to promote the sustainable use of the natural resources of the country, including the biological resources of various sectors. In addition a Public Education and Awareness Programme based on a satellite network is targeting various audiences in various parts of the country. Its emphasis is on the environment, sustainable development and biodiversity.

Biological impact assessments are required as part of Environmental Impact Assessments for all projects that are likely to have an impact on the environment. These impact assessments are required, by law, to address the impact of planned activities on biological diversity. Guyana continues the process of identification of the components of biological diversity, particularly at the species level, as part of the activities of the Centre for the Study of Biological Diversity in collaboration with the University of Guyana.

Among the activities in the area of ex situ conservation has been work on the establishment of a National Biodiversity Park. This park seeks, among other things, to promote the ex situ conservation of biological diversity. A national working committee has been established to work on this project. Assistance is being provided through a working arrangement with associates of the San Diego Zoo,

USA.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The institutional arrangements relating to the coordination of all activities in the management of biological diversity have been assigned to the Environmental Protection Agency under the Environmental Protection Act of 1996. Imminent legislation will require the equitable sharing of benefits derived from the use and knowledge of biological diversity as well as safeguard the interests of local and indigenous people and ensuring their participation in the study and use of biodiversity.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development was legally established in 1996. Among the objectives of the Centre are the development of technologies for sustainable management of tropical rain forest biodiversity and resources, the preservation and application of the knowledge and innovations of local indigenous communities while providing for the equitable sharing of benefits from these to the communities. The Centre will also identify the components of biological diversity at the site and provide for the in situ conservation of biological diversity. To date, there has been the installation of a permanent Board of Trustees and the centre is a legally recognized entity. Also, communication links have been established and strengthened where necessary, among neighbouring indigenous communities.

3. Major Groups: See status report

4. Finance: See Regional/International Cooperation

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Guyana has received a commitment for Global Environmental Policy (GEF) funding towards the establishing of a National Protected Areas System. A strategy is now being prepared for implementation. Government is presently in the process of planning for the establishment of a National System of Protected Areas. This system, when established, will provide for the in situ conservation of the various components of the national biodiversity patrimony, education, public awareness and training, research, and the involvement of local communities in the management of biodiversity.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1993.

Although the Government, in 1993, ratified the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, Guyana has not capitalized on its rights and privileges under the Convention as the country lacks the institutional capability to provide the monitoring, control, and surveillance necessary and the resource assessment capability. These are necessary to protect diligently its marine resources from over exploitation through proper conservation and management measures.

The Fishery sector is of critical importance to the economy and to the social well being in Guyana. The economic contribution of the fisheries sector has grown over the years. In 1996 the government drafted a new Fisheries policy which seeks to promote the conservation of fishery resources. A draft Fisheries Management Plan has been developed in which action for fisheries development has been identified.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Maritime Boundaries Act (Turtle Excluder Device) was signed on 25th April 1994 which enacted to deal with the problem of accidental turtle catching.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See status report

3. Major Groups: See status report

4. Finance: See status report

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Guyana has been working on the Wider Caribbean Initiative for Ship Generated Waste project. In 1994 a national task team was established to look at the legal, technical and institutional arrangement needed for the ratification of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution (MARPOL 73/78) from ships. Local legislation has been drafted to incorporate provisions for the accommodation of this convention.

In the area of Coastal Zone Management the Government of Guyana requested the IDB to finance a loan for the establishment of a Shorezone Management Programme (SMP) which has been scheduled for approval early 1998. Two major background studies have been completed. One dealt with a feasibility and design study to formulate the overall programme needs and priorities to maximize the usefulness and sustainability of the SMP for Guyana.The second study was an institutional assessment of the agencies and their strengths and weaknesses with regard to sustainably managing the coastal zone. A study is currently under way to the design a coastal management training programme in support of a wider coastal zone management programme.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Ninety percent (90%) of the population is living in the Northern Coastal belt, which is only about four percent (4%) of the land. The annual rainfall averages 2,300mm. A substantial proportion of Guyana's water run off is deposited into the three major rivers - Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

Most of the freshwater requirement in the "land of many waters" are met through seasonal rainfall, conservancies or aquifers. However, there is a question of the quality of this water. There is also need for improved and continued water quality monitoring. Since the surface flows are through the plains and sedimentary zones, the water is turbid attracting high treatment cost. Therefore most of the country's demand for domestic water use is being met from groundwater. As the recharging conditions are favourable and the demand is not much, the possibility of sea water intrusion into the aquifers may not be there. However, this needs to be investigated.

The Guyana Water Authority with the aid of IDA, ODA, CDB etc. has embarked on "The Water Supply Technical Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme." 117 new pumps are programmed to be installed by mid 1998 and 48 are already done so far. These minor systems when fully rehabilitated assure sufficient quantity of water supply in the country. There are considerable leaks in the distribution system which are also being replaced with the new pipe laying to utilize the water extracted by the new pumps optionally to the community.

Thus it is envisaged by year 2000 GUYWA would have a designed, initiated and targeted national action programme at an advanced stage with appropriate institutional structures and legal instruments.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Guyana Water Authority (GUYWA) is the organization in charge of the water systems in the entire country other than Georgetown, Linmine and SILWFC. The latter two systems arc also under a proposal to be tagged onto GUYWA.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: See status report

3. Major Groups: GUYWA is developing public participatory techniques by involving the Citizens' Water Committees into the system. It is creating a public awareness for the conjunctive use of the water extracted and delivered at a certain cost. These are being done through the newspapers, television and meetings with the community.

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: See status report

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: To date the Basel Convention has not been signed or ratified. However it has been recognized as a significant issue in the Caribbean Basin of which Guyana forms the southernmost boundary. This transboundary movement also includes the movement of hazardous waste from which member states are at risk because of poor storage and transportation techniques. A regional integrated approach is perceived as the only way by which measures may be adopted to implement the convention. It is recognized that without the resources for minimisation of production of hazardous waste and for management and enforcement of the measures in the Convention among all territories within the region, safe movement of such wastes will be a difficult task.

To this end, states of the Caribbean Basin have developed a proposal which is expected to become the Work Plan by which the measures in the convention are implemented. Foremost in the proposal which was submitted to the CARICOM Heads of Government was the request for member states to speedily ratify the Basel Convention.

At present there is no data on the generation of hazardous waste and Guyana does not have the capacity to dispose of hazardous waste. There is the need for inventorising hazardous waste production, distribution, management and use. However, provisions under the Environmental Protection Act shall help to regulate hazardous waste issues in order to meet the requirements of Agenda 21 .

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Solid Waste disposal practices in Guyana have not kept pace with the demands posed by increases in population and waste generation. Municipal solid waste management in Georgetown, more than elsewhere, suffers from years of under-funding and public neglect.

Presently Solid Waste disposal activities are undertaken without a full appreciation of the impact of these activities on human health and the environment. Disposal of collected waste is of tremendous concern in the city. Most available land adjacent to the city is either privately owned or earmarked for housing. The master plan for the city does not make provisions for sanitary landfill activities.

The Ministry of Local Government which has the responsibility for Local Town Councils has a proposal to develop a Solid Waste Management Plan. This plan will focus on:

- solid waste collection in an environmentally sound manner;

- solid waste disposal into a secure landfill and;

- management of the secure landfill.

At present work is-being done to establish a new landfill site.

In the rural areas solid waste is collected by the household and is burnt. Septic tanks and pit latrines are commonly used for sewage disposal. The septic tank and pit latrines are approved by the regional Environmental Health Officer.

Our only City, Georgetown, is the only area in Guyana served by a communal sewage system which discharges to the Dimerara River. Currently however, there is no treatment of sewage before discharge.

Guyana recognizes the need to concentrate on more efficient and environmentally sound ways of disposing solid waste. The Environmental Protection Act will helpo to ensure that requirements of chapter 21 of Agenda 21 are carried out.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Currently Guyana is working on regulations which shall govern the use, possession and importation of radioactive substances. These substances, at the moment are used in the Health-care services, particularly for the treatment of cancer of the cervix, and in the mining industry. It is believed that various radioactive substances have been imported into Guyana for other purposes, but these have not yet been properly accounted for.

A project is being drafted to regulate the use of ionizing radiation in Guyana with the additional aim of making employers, employees and other users aware of the risks associated with ionizing radiation. This second draft should ideally be done prior to the development of regulations, but unfortunately, the urgency to develop these regulations is as a result of the mining industry. However, a background radiation survey needs to be done.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 17 July 1980.

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in

the national process: Full participants; Advisory; Adhoc.

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

Youth unemployment 1992:______________ 1996:________

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21:

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Please refer to chapter 27.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Both the NGO and private sector can be said to be in their embryonic state in Guyana. The recent resurgence and increase in NGO activities in Guyana has been encouraged mainly by the economic policy reforms adumbrated by the government. However, government has recognized that there is a need to incorporate these groups to within the natural resources management and environmental conservation framework. Additionally, it aims to cater for the provision of"extension services" to the NGO sector, as well as their systematic involvement in resource management issues. This is understandable, as the informal, under-institutionalized and highly variable character of many local rural communities make their involvement particularly desirable. However, it is important that the parameters be established for NGO involvement. To bring these plans to fruition the government is in the process of establishing policies that give NGOs a clearly defined legal status, to facilitate the formation of a national umbrella organization in the various areas of NGOs involvement and to encourage NGOs to participate at all stages of the development process.

At the moment most of the natural resource development activities are situated in the interior where Amerindians live. Amerindians, NGOs, captains and others have participated in the process of national decision making and also in the implementation of economic development projects that may impact on their environment.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): It should be noted that many of the environmental problems and their solutions have their roots in local activities and the participation of the local inhabitants thus the cooperation of local government becomes crucial in the entire process.

The principal objectives of the establishment of local government in Guyana are to decentralize the decision and implementation process and to create a framework within which communities can participate in the planning and execution of development projects and programmes in their areas.

The Local Democratic Act (1980) of Guyana has allowed for the country to be divided into ten regions and for these regions to be further divided into subregions, districts, communities and neighborhoods respectively.

To date, the local government ministry has been able to establish links with the CROYDEN BOROUGH in London, which is a network of local authorities in developing countries. It is envisaged that through such an established link, there shall be opportunities for technical cooperation that could facilitate an exchange of ideas, provision of equipment, training and financial resources, among other things.

At the local level, there has been some amount of capacity building in the area of environmental education and training. Specifically, modules on the root causes of environmental degradation and actions necessary to address the emerging concerns have been prepared for neighbourhood democratic council members. In addition, there have been on going training programmes on good governance.

In the specific natural resource sectors, a direct effort is made to involve women, youth and citizens in general to be involved in environmental management activities.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

No information

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Some private sector organizations have taken the initiative and have incorporated the sustainable development concepts with environmental management systems. Currently, two (2) expatriate companies operating in the natural resources have developed management plans to ensure sustainable exploitation of Guyana's natural resources. This has helped them to maintain environmental standards and compliance with our Environmental Protection laws.

Additionally, through technical assistance from the Guyana National Bureau of Standards, a number of private sector organizations have been encouraging their membership to move in the direction of implementing the principles contained within the ISO-9000 document. Also the ISO-14000 principles are currently being perused with the aim of possible adoption in their near future.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with

sustainable development.

There is some effort in this direction brief description:

Not much has changed in this area.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information

ODA policy issues

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: No information

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: No information

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

Through technical assistance from the Guyana National Bureau of Standards, a number of private sector organizations have been encouraging their membership to move in the direction of implementing the principles contained within the ISO-9000 document. Also the ISO-14000 principles are currently being perused with the aim of possible adoption in their near future.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: No information

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

b) Increasing public awareness

c) Promoting training

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labour force
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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1 November 1997