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National Implementation of Agenda 21

DENMARK

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Denmark to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

DENMARK

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Environment and Energy

Date: 2 December 1996

Submitted by: Mr. Ole Plougmann

Mailing address: Miljo-og Energiministeriet, Departementet, Hojbro Plads 4, DK 1200 Copenhagen K, Denmark

Telephone: 45 33 92 76 00

Telefax: 45 33 32 22 27

E-mail: (Internat): mem@mem.dk

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6.Protecting and promoting human health
7.Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

(You may wish to use pages v and vi to briefly present your national position five years after UNCED)

FACT SHEET

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(Fact Sheet)

DENMARK

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

National: Ministry for Environment and Energy

International: Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Ambassador Erik Fiil, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Telephone: 45 33 92 16 73

Fax: 45 33 92 16 78

e-mail:

Mailing address: Asiatisk Plads 2, DK-1448, Copenhagen, Denmark

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

N.A.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

N.A.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

N.A.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

N.A.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

N.A.

Submitted by

(Name):

Signature:

Title:

Date: 1995

Ministry/Office:

Telephone:

Fax:

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Denmark's development assistance is based on the policy guidelines contained in Danida's (Danish International Development Agency) Plan of Action of 1988. A "Strategy for Development Aid towards year 2000" was presented to Parliament in 1994. Danish development assistance reached the level of one per cent of GNP in 1992, and it is the intention of the Government to maintain it at that level for the foreseeable future. This high level of development assistance enjoys wide support among the Danish population.

Alleviation of poverty through the promotion of economic growth and social development is the basic objective of Danish development assistance. The assistance is concentrated on a limited number of developing countries. The aim is to further increase the aid quality through the establishment of longer-term programme cooperation, strengthening of field presence and of the ongoing dialogue with development partners. To support ongoing reforms in countries receiving Danish aid, emphasis has also been placed on the development and promotion of the private sector.

As a result of the Rio Conference, Parliament decided to establish a special assistance programme for environmental and emergency purposes. As of 1994, the financial allocations for the programme were scheduled to reach 0.5 per cent of GDP by the year 2002 and are in addition to the development assistance budget.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Minister for Development Cooperation manages official development assistance.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Funds channelled through NGOs have grown continually so that they now constitute 13 percent of Danida's total aid.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark gives high prioirty to multilateral development activities, including the UN system, international financial institutions and the EU development programme. As a general rule, approximately

50 per cent of Danish multilateral development aid is channelled through these organizations. UNDP continues to be the largest single recipient of Danish aid funds. From the Danish point of view, it is, however, time to carefully evaluate

how each of the relevant multilateral organizations and institutions measure up in efficiency and attaining their stated goals. In deciding the level of Danish voluntary contributions to those organizations and institutions, Denmark will also compare their activities to the priorities of the country's development assistance programme.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: given to the issues under Chapter 3 of Agenda 21.
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

Poverty is not an issue of major concern in Denmark. There is no national definition of "poverty".

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No specific information available.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No specific information available.

3. Major Groups: No specific information available.

4. Finance: No specific information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No specific information available.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1993
Latest 199
Unemployment (%)
9.1
9.7
12.4
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

Since 1990, a major campaign has been launched as part of the national follow-up to the World Commission's Report on Sustainable Development. It has financed a wide variety of popular activities to promote sustainable consumption patterns, including local experiments, awareness raising activities and environmental education. As of 1994, EU-wide environmental labelling was implemented and a large number of manufacturing companies have been entering into Environmental Quality-Assurance Schemes and introducing ECO-Audits. There is also an ongoing policy discussion on consumption and production patterns in Denmark which has resulted in numerous amendments to national legislation. In terms of "material efficiency" producers and households are targeted by Danish policies; in terms of "energy efficiency" and "waste reduction, reuse and recycling" producers, households and civil society are targeted. Today, 5% of the Danish consumption of energy is provided by means of wind, sun and biomass. Danish consumption of electricity is rising continually and is expected to do so during the next decade. In recent years, campaigns have been launched to make consumers replace ineffective electrical equipment. Currently, a new system is being introduced to charge real consumption of electricity, gas and water. By adding tax to current charges on municipal water services, the average price of water will be doubled over the next five years. In order to reduce the discharge of sewage, a tax on waste water will be introduced in 1997. To support a change in consumption patterns, the central government assumes primary responsibility for the policy measures "improving understanding and analysis", "applying tools for modifying behaviour" and "monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance"; local authorities assume primary responsibility for the policy measures "improving understanding and analysis" and "applying tools for modifying behaviour". For producers and households, the impact of all measures is expected to be especially significant; for local authorities, central government and civil society, the impact of "applying tools for modifying behaviour" is expected to be significant.

National targets

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government ministries and departments, the parliament, academia and local authorities are involved in discussions on consumption and production patterns. A law on the energy efficiency of electrical equipment will be passed in the near future, and existing regulations on consumption of energy in buildings will be revised. More widespread use of renewable sources of energy has been enhanced by legislative, as well as, financial measures.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No specific information available.

3. Major Groups: Industries, consumer groups, NGOs at large and the media are involved in discussions on consumption and production. Consumer goods are gradually becoming "greener" as consumer organizations have been lobbying to improve their impact on the environment. NGOs have been extremely important in including the concept of "sustainability" in consumption. This is especially important in Denmark, where the public sector accounts for almost one-third of total consumption.

A great majority of the population supports well-founded environmental initiatives when they are convinced that they contribute to solving problems and most people are willing to finance collective efforts to that effect, to pay more for environmentally benign products, and even to contribute in terms of spending their time. Public procurement is gradually being reoriented to account for environmental concerns.

4. Finance: Loans for measures to conserve energy have been provided.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark is striving to reach an international agreement on actions to be taken at the highest possible level, i.e., tightening environmental law and employing economic incentives and disincentives to alleviate problems related to the environment and sustainable development.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 199_
GDP per capita (current US$) 11,333 25,242 27,626
Real GDP growth (%) 4.3 2.0 1.2
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita) 3,173a 3,250 3,258
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants 348.8 371.5 377.7b
a 1989 b 1993

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: N/A
STATUS REPORT:

Government Ministries are not engaged in integrated policy coordination in the field of population, environment and development policies.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Health is the institution that is most directly concerned with demographic issues in Denmark.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No specific information available.

3. Major Groups: No specific information available.

4. Finance: No specific information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No specific information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 199_
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 5,140 5,189
5,251
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993) 0.3
Surface area (Km2) 43,077
Population density (people/Km2) 120
120
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In Denmark, health care is considered a public responsibility. Any resident of Denmark has the right to free hospital treatment, including specialized treatment. The health care system is highly decentralized and primary health care services, comprising general practitioners and specialists, dentists and home nurses, are available throughout the country. Both the urban and rural population have access to conveniently located health care. The responsibilities of the health care system cover a wide range of tasks in various sectors, such as, securing access to safe drinking water, safe sanitation, the quality of food, sound housing and working conditions, and traffic safety. The health requirements for clean water and sanitation have been met. Environmental pollution is slightly more serious in urban than in rural areas; however, urban pollution is not associated with excess morbidity and mortality or any other serious pollution-oriented problems. Among communicable diseases, measles, mumps, rubella, tuberculosis and AIDS exist in Denmark.

The health care sector is highly dynamic and continuous updating and adjustment, (according to economic possibilities and to technological development), is undertaken in order to meet the changing needs of the population. Technological development within the health care sector has made it possible to introduce a number of new treatments and to operate successfully on a larger part of the population, including the elderly.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The political and administrative responsibilities for the operation of the Danish health care system are highly decentralized. Health care policy in Denmark is based on cooperation between a wide range of authorities. Under the guidance provided by law and by the administrative rulings of the national health authorities, the country councils are in charge of hospitals and specialized medical services, while municipal councils are responsible for primary health care.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Almost all health care services are financed, planned and operated by public authorities, and the financing is derived mainly from general taxation. During the last two decades, total expenditure for health care has remained at 6 to 7% of GNP.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
1994
Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

71.3

77.3

71.8

77.8

75 (M+F)

72.53

77.70
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
9
8
6
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
6
4
4
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
100
100
100
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
100
100
100
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: One of the top priorities of Danish national policies is to provide the whole population with sound and adequate housing. The objective has been pursued through a combination of economic incentives to stimulate the building of privately owned homes, and provision of public subsidies for rental housing by non-profit organizations. A public subsidy has been provided for cooperatives, slum clearance and upgrading old buildings. The Ministry of Housing has created an ecological plan of action for housing. Recently a cross-sectoral advisory Committee on City-Ecology published its recommendations on how to enhance ecological behaviour in an urban environment. The overall objective is to clarify and coordinate a broad array of initiatives related to city ecology. The Report on Denmark's Nature and Environment Policy 1995, and the draft National Planning Report from the Ministry of the Environment and Energy deal with sustainable human settlement and development.

Due to changes in family patterns and growth in the number of elderly people, more single persons are now demanding accommodation, thus emphasis has been placed on building specifically for young and elderly people. During the last decade, in order to preserve the historical sections of Danish cities, emphasis has been placed on upgrading worn out structures.

Half the number of Danish dwellings are occupied by their owners. The average floor space available is 50m2 per person. 95% of all dwellings have central heating and 59% have bathrooms. A plan of action for obtaining compulsory measurements of individual household consumption of power, gas, heat, hot and cold water, is being implemented.

One of the major problems in relation to sustainable development has been the priority given by a large part of the population to single family housing, leading to additional demand for energy and transportation. Also, differences in housing costs for similar quality housing between privately owned homes, private housing for rent and non-profit housing has tended to reduce the mobility of the population, making it difficult to obtain a sound functional distribution of housing, as related to family size and age.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Management of housing areas is the responsibility of municipalities which, in turn are in charge of almost all services in terms of infrastructure and maintenance. Service delivery is provided by the municipality through collective enterprises and by private or semiprivate companies. The decisions on construction of directly subsidized housing are entirely the responsibility of local governments. The non-profit housing sector is organized by law with administrative and economic responsibilities left to locally elected boards under the supervision of the municipality. The cooperative sector, in which the inhabitants exert their collective influence, is in some respect organized in a similar way, while homeowners' associations are common in the private housing sector. The overall planning is provided by the municipality under the Planning Act, which since 1991 has stressed sustainability as a prime objective for regional and municipal planning. The present building regulations were revised in 1994 in order to improve the energy efficiency of buildings.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: According to legislation, the general public is involved in planning and housing activities.

4. Finance: The provision of housing for special groups, including the homeless, persons with mental diseases, the elderly and handicapped, persons with senile dementia, as well as refugees, is being subsidised by the State under an experimental scheme for the years 1994-97. Activities related to spatial planning are financed by the involved ministries, regional and local authorities as well as by the EU.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark participates in the Urban Environment Expert Group established by the European Commission in 1991, as a follow up to the Commission's Green Paper on the Urban Environment. Further work on an European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) within UN/ECE, UNCHS/HABITAT, the Councl of European OECD and the Nordic Council of ministers is being undertaken.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population 84.8 85.2
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) 0.2 0.3
Largest city population (in % of total population) 26.2 25.6
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: given to the issues under Chapter 8 of Agenda 21.
STATUS REPORT: Impact assessments are usually used for policies, programmes and projects. There are no major constraints to implementing legal instruments related to sustainable development.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet):

A number of international agreements have called for national strategies, plans and programmes in cross-sectoral and sectoral areas; attempts to review and coordinate the totality of these requests, and their interrelationships with regard to sustainable development are undertaken by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Environment and Energy.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No specific information available.

3. Major Groups: No specific information available.

4. Finance: No specific information available.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: In signing and ratifying international agreements, there is an established administrative mechanism or consultative process that considers the relationship and overlaps between such agreements.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: given to the issues under Chapter 9 of Agenda 21.
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments

Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 1987

London Amendment (1990) signed 20 December 1991.

Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed 21 December 1993.

The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 1996

Acceded to the Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and Protocols.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was ratified 23 December 1993.

The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 1994.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The Danish Government promotes policies and programmes in the areas of energy efficiency, environmentally sound and efficient transportation, industrial pollution control, sound land-use practices, sound management of marine resources and management of toxic and other hazardous waste. Studies on health effects resulting from air pollution have been undertaken by the government but are not yet finished. Methodologies to identify threshold levels of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have not been developed. In the area of environment and transport, there are comprehensive and systematic, and selective and limited (limited to areas and time periods) observations. In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control, the government has facilitated the exchange of data and the exchange of information at the national and international levels.

High priority is given to issues related to energy, transport and industry.

Denmark has undertaken a review of current energy supply mixes (Energy 2000-Action Plan: 1990; Follow-up: 1993; Revised action plan: 1996). There are also energy-, CO2- and SO2-related taxes in Denmark. Compared with other countries in the region, Denmark would rate its current transportation system superior in terms of environmental quality and equal in terms of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, transportation technologies, establishment of mass transit systems and safety. As only marginal impact is expected, the government is not involved in the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and land-use practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations. The government also supports the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as Denmark intends to double the forest area within 100 years.

National goals concerning the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances are: cfc: 1.1.95; halon: 1.2.92; tetrachloromethane: 1.2.92; 1,1,1-trichloroethane: 1.1.96; HCFC: 1.1.2002 and methylbromide: 1.1.98. Denmark has not established early warning systems and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Danish Environmental Protection Agency is primarily responsible for the "protection of the atmosphere" but there is no national coordinating mechanism for sustainable development and there are no plans to review national legislation in the light of Agenda 21.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The national early detection system, the national level of capacity building and training to perform systematic observations and assessment are rated good, while national capacity to predict changes and fluctuations is rated excellent by the Danish Government. The government encourages industry to develop safe technologies in accordance with EU-directives.

3. Major Groups: The private sector has participated in efforts to prevent stratospheric ozone depletion and reduce transboundary atmospheric pollution.

4. Finance: On 28 July 1995, Denmark contributed US$28,051,00 to the Vienna/Montreal trust funds and the interim multilateral ozone fund. It pays its contribution to the MLF and is a member of the ExCom. Denmark contributes towards ongoing efforts under the Montreal Protocol through multilateral channels (DANIDA) - US$1,134,000 (1994). Also in 1994, the Danish EPA supported the Eastern European Countries with US$2,000,000.

Since the ratification of the climate change convention, Denmark has contributed 846,000 US$ to the operation of the climate convention secretariat as well as contributed each year to ensure developing country participation in the negotiations. In 1995, this contribution was equivalent to US$500,000.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1993/4
CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
63
58
59/58
SOx "
0.5
0.2
0.2/0.2
NOx "
0.3
0.3
0.3/0.3
CH4 "
0.4
0.4
0.4/0.4
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)

Consumption of ozone depleting products (Tons)

-

-
-

-
2,752 *

1,601 **

Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
-
-
-
Other data: The Danish Government participates in strengthening the Global Observing System at the national level: it established 164 observation stations in 1990 and 144 in 1995; observing frequency increased substantially. It also participates in the Global Ozone Observing System: it established two observation stations in 1990 and one in 1995. In 1994, the relative contribution of anthropogenic gases to the greenhouse effect was: CO2 82%; HFC 1%; CH4 13%; NO2 5%.

* 2,364 tons (1994).

** 589 tons (1994).

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The following issues related to the planning and management of land resources have been fully covered by the Government: development of policies, policy instruments, planning systems and management systems, awareness raising, promotion of public participation, strengthening information systems, international and regional cooperation, scientific understanding of land resources systems, pilot projects for testing research findings, education and training in the integrated approach, and the strengthening of technological capacity and of institutions.

In this context, further reference should be made to the Danish National Report to HABITAT II.

In the EU context, a European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) is being elaborated. Together with EU-Commission DG XVI and the other EU-Member states, Denmark participates in the informal work of creating a spatial development "vision" for the European territory. The vision will describe three main themes : 1) Towns and Urban Networks; 2) Transeuropean Networks and; 3) Nature and Cultural Heritage. The first draft will be ready for debate at an informal meeting for ministers in June 1997 in the Netherlands.

Denmark participates in related work with the Council of Europe, OECD, and the Nordic Council of Ministers.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The ministries and departments primarily responsible for an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources are the Spatial Planning Department as well as the National Forests and Nature Agency of the Ministry of the Environment and Energy, and the Ministry of Agriculture. Relevant national legislation consists of legislation on nature protection, physical planning, forest management, and agriculture. All legislation is revised periodically.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Sectoral research in undertaken at central and decentralized levels, as well as in universities, research institutions, and by local and regional authorities. The Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute and the National Building Research Institute should be mentioned in particular.

3. Major Groups: In accordance with national legislation, the general public is involved in spatial planning.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark participates in work on spatial planning and sustainable development through the following fora: UN - ECE, UN - UNCHS/HABITAT, European Union, Council of Europe, and the OECD.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The forest area of Denmark covers 417,000 ha, or approximately 10% of the total land area. Approximately 90 % of this area is committed to forest in accordance with the Danish Forest Act of 1989. The Danish forest area is managed as production forest. The Strategy for Sustainable Forest Management is based on the Forest Declaration of the Rio Conference and on the Helsinki Resolutions and promotes a wide range of policy measures and incentives. The Strategy for the Conservation of Genetic Resources of Trees and Bushes of 1994 is intended to ensure the genetic variation of the trees and bushes that are used as cultivated plants in Danish forests and landscapes. The Strategy for Natural Forests and Other Forest Types of High Conservation Value covers a period of 50 years, is a continuation of nature conservation efforts undertaken during the past few decades and a follow-up to the revision of the 1989 Forest Act.

In 1994, the Danish Government decided to transfer the administration of privatley owned forests from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Environment and Energy in order to secure consistency in the national forest policies and programmes in relation to all Danish forests. In 1997, a revised forest act will enter into force, with increased emphasis and support for multiple use forestry.

The project "Green Forest Management" is being implemented on State-owned areas by the Forest and Nature Agency to ensure nature conservation. Through the Ministry of Agriculture a scheme was launched in 1994 for the development of wood and wood-based products intended to make use of substantial unutilized potential in the forest sector. An important objective in Danish forest policy is to double the woodland within one tree generation (80-100 years). Very intensive efforts in these areas will be made within the next years. There is, however, a financing problem as falling world market prices for wood and cellulose make afforestation less attractive today. Other immediate measures to be taken in the forestry sector are:

- protection of all natural State-owned forests;

- protection of oak coppices, pastoral forest, coppice forest and virgin-like forests in all state forests.

Nearly 100 per cent of the deciduous forests have been protected for years. Approximately one quarter of natural forest will be especially protected, because it will either be left untouched or developed according to traditional environmentally adapted management systems, such as grazing or pollarding.

Soil acidification and damage from insects are problems that will be addressed through a wide range of measures. Danish forests have been subject to rather intensive management regimes, of which the following issues may raise some concern in terms of ecological consequences: intensive use of non-indigenous species; large homogeneous stands, harvested by clear-cutting and subsequently replanted in a single operation; application of pesticides, fertilizers and intensive ploughing; burning, removal and/or concentration of organic matter after logging; utilization of heavy machinery; and drainage of wetlands before planting.

New and additional funds have been allocated through the Danish DANCED for projects in designated countries related to the conservation and sustainable use of forests.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Forest and Nature Agency at the Ministry of Environment and Energy is the body primarily responsible for the forestry sector. It manages areas covering almost one-third of the forest area of Denmark.

For the State forests, a procedure for inclusion of the public in management and planning is now being developed. Local advisory boards for the state forest districts will be formed, representing local NGOs, non-organized users et. al. The general regulations of the Forest Act of 1989 ensure that forest areas remain under forest cover and are managed in accordance with the rules of good and multiple-use forest management. The forest care scheme under the Forest Act is, inter alia, intended to contribute to the implementation of the Strategy for Natural Forests on privately owned land. The structural Development Act of 1993 is including provisions for subsidies for forest improvements. The Forest Advisory Act of 1990 is being implemented through professional advice, in order to enhance good and multiple-use utilization of privately owned forests. Other important Acts concerning forestry are: the Nature Conservation Act of 1992, the Windbreak Act of 1988, the Planning Act of 1991, the Agriculture Act of 1989, The Hunting and Game Management Act of 1993, and the Product Development Act of 1994.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A training programme aiming at enhancing ecological awareness in forest management was initiated in 1994 for the staff of state forests. In general, in-service training programmes for forestry practitioners and information campaigns aimed at the public at large will be initiated in order to increase the comprehension and appreciation of sustainable forest management. A forest ranger scheme has been established, where rangers provide information on forest and nature to the public.

3. Major Groups: Children comprise an important target group for awarness-raising on forest and nature.

4. Finance: In 1992, export from the wood manufacturing industry amounted to US$ 2.4 billion, making this a very important industry for the Danish economy. During the last few years, however, it has suffered from price fluctuations, in particular for softwood, which has adversely affected employment.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and the Danish Fund for International Disaster Relief, Environment and Development (a Danish follow-up to UNCED that also includes forestry) are providing considerable funding for forestry activities in developing countries and countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Danida's forestry-related activities in developing countries - both multilateral and bilateral - amount to almost US$10 million, annually. In addition, Denmark is providing financial resources for the CGIAR, and is participating in several regional research networks within the framework of the EU or the Nordic countries.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1994
Forest Area (Km2)
4,170a
Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
2.3
2.3
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
a Denmark's report to the CSD 1995

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: N/A
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

Convention

signed

ratified 22 December 1995

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: N/A
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very High.
STATUS REPORT: The scope of efforts in Denmark in the areas of agriculture and the environment have hitherto included a number of initiatives aimed at reducing the leaching of nitrates and phosphates, reduction of the loading due to pesticides, together with the protection of nature and the recreational value of the open landscape. In 1991, the action plan for the sustainable development of agriculture introduced a tightening of the requirements governing the use of farmland manure. In 1995, the Government proposed a 10-point programme for the protection of the water table and drinking water.

Data on fertilizer indicate a decrease in the utilization of nutrients in livestock manure has improved. Environmental policy measures and instruments are reviewed and strengthened, as appropriate on a regular basis.

In recent years, Danish agricultural policy has been expressed in initiatives that, based on the expectation of continued market orientation and strict requirements, e.g. on the environment, nature and animal welfare, had the purpose of establishing the foundation for high quality industries.

Danish environmental policy gives consideration to a broad spectrum of matters relating to nature and the environment. At present, efforts in agricultural policy should give highest priority to finding a solution to the pollution problems of agriculture that are due to the leaching of nutrients and the loading due to pesticides. Such initiatives should also endeavor to exert a beneficial influence on nature, the countryside and outdoor leisure activities. The significance of these matters is expected to increase in the long term.

Since the adoption of Agenda 21, the priority has been to complete reviews and, as appropriate, establish policies and programmes with respect to the following: integration of environmental and sustainable development in policy analysis; to improve farm productivity; increase diversification while ensuring that risks to the ecosystem are minimized; to facilitate the transfer and adoption of environmentally sound technologies for integrated production and farming systems; to create farm and non-farm employment opportunities, particularly among those living in marginal areas; establish mechanisms to encourage efficient and environmentally sound use of resources; implement policies and programmes to conserve areas in risk of degradation; strengthen programmes for in-situ and ex-situ conservation and sustainable use of plan genetic resources; to strengthen programmes to identify breeds at risk and to take appropriate preservation measures including breeding programmes; to strengthen mechanisms to control and reduce the use of pesticides; to improve programmes of integrated pest management, to encourage the sustainable development of renewable energy sources and improved energy efficiency, and to undertake research on the effects of UV radiation on agriculture.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries is the body primarily responsible for the agricultural sector. The Ministry is part of the National Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development. Relevant national legislation covering agriculture and rural development consists of the Act on Agricultural Holdings and the Act on Support for Structural Development in Agriculture and for Organic Farming, both from 1994. The Acts are revised as required and have met the requirements for sustainable development. These amendments fully address a coherent national policy framework for sustainable agriculture and rural development.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: A sustainable agricultural sector must be able to survive without financial support. Within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU, efficient farms must provide working conditions and income earning possibilities comparable to other sectors, as well as the possibility of consolidating the productive capacity of farms. A long- term effect of the reform of the CAP in 1992 and the GATT agreement reached in 1993, will be the reduction in price and market support for agriculture.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark, in the EU and other international fora, actively promotes common regulations for application of environmentally and ethically responsible methods of agricultural production. Denmark also has extensive cooperation with the other Nordic countries in the agricultural sector, supports a number of agricultural and rural programmes in developing countries, including soil and water conservation projects, rural forestry projects, major restructuring projects in the dairy sector, women oriented agricultural extension, and training projects.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2) 28,340 27,880
22,261
Agricultural land as % of total land area 65.8 64.7
63
Agricultural land (m2 per capita) 5,542 5,424
5,209
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 1995
Consumption of fertilizers per (kg/Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990) 23,336 19,078
11,592
Other data:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention

ratified in 1994

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Convention signed in 1977.

Latest report submitted in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

In compliance with Article 6 of the Convention, the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy prepared a strategy entitled "Biological Diversity in Denmark - Status and Strategy"in 1995. The strategy was prepared in close cooperation with a wide range of authorities and NGO's, including ministries responsible for sectoral integration, e.g. the Ministry of Agriculture. The strategy is primarily based on existing strategies, legisltation and generally approved guidelines for environment and nature protection in Denmark. It covers biodiversity in general, describing the status and problems related to biodiversity, and indicates future target areas. The strategy has been made an integral part of the more comprehensive "strategic environmemtal planning process launched by the Danish Government in 1993.

Strategies for Sustainable Forestry, for Natural Forests and Other Forest Types of High Conservation Value and for the Conservation of Genetic Resources in Trees and Bushes (covering both in situ and ex situ conservation) were adopted in 1994, to protect ecosystems and for the conservation of biological and genetic resources. A national strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is under preparation. Several private companies are using advanced biotechnology techniques in their production, especially companies producing medical products as well as genetically modified crops. The loss of fauna results primarily from habitat destruction and, to a lesser extent, over-harvesting and pollution. Flora are also endangered by habitat destruction as well as by pollution.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment and Energy and the National Forest and Nature Agency are the bodies primarily responsible for biodiversity and genetic resources. These bodies are fully involved in national level decision-making concerning natural resources use and development. The County Councils administer nature conservation legislation at the local level and manage a large number of protected areas. The Municipalities are fully involved in all planning processes. The regulatory system related to biodiversity is based on rather broad framework laws such as the Nature Protection Act of 1992. Present legislation concerning conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity goes beyond the provisions of the Convention of Biological Diversity.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: It is not possible to enumarate the scientists working in this field, but Denmark has traditionally had a strong capacity in this area. The scientists work mainly for the National Environmental Research Institute and for universities.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark has access to biotechnology through international cooperation. The establishment of the European Environmental Agency by the European Union is one of the key activities undertaken in this field. In 1993, the Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED) was established. DANCED funds will be directed to projects concerning environmental protection in developing countries, including conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Funds from DANIDA are also being directed towards similar projects.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 199_
Protected area as % of total land area 9.5
1990
Latest 199_
Number of threatened species 24
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: There are no specific plans to promote the use of traditional and modern biotechnologies. The exchange of information at national and community levels with regard to procedural requirements for safe handling, risk management, and conditions of release of the products of biotechnology is organized through the law on biotechnology and environment which translates EU directives into Danish law.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Danish Environmental Protection Agency is one of the bodies responsible in the area of biotechnology.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: The private sector invests significant amounts in biotechnology. In 1991, the total amount spent on R&D in the private sector was US$91 million.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Denmark participates in the work of the Nordic Council of Ministers in the field of biotechnology.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Signed

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

The national policy on oceans is part of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. A programme for the integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including the EEZ exists. All activities under this programme area are rated "important" or "very important". Denmark also has access to a multitude of technologies that serve to identify the major types of pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources. All sewage-related issues are rated "very important" or "important". 94 per cent of sewage discharges are subject to secondary treatment and 67% to tertiary treatment. The Danish Government participates in systematic observation systems but not in a mussel watch programme. A database (PLAN-GIS DENMARK) is in place for integrated coastal management with the aim of monitoring the coastal regulations of the Planning Act of 1994. This database contains information on protected areas, habitats and uses of coastal zones. In Denmark, tourism is an important economic sector.

The Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Communication and Tourism are cooperating to strengthen the planning restrictions that regulate development in tourist areas. Considering the importance of tourism at the national level, vacation centres and hotels with floor space above 50,000 m2 are subject to mandatory EIAs; there is also the "green key", a certificate granted upon efficient use of resources to hotels, vacation centres and camping areas. Regarding the harmonization of standards for tourism nationally and regionally, small businesses are encouraged to create commercial and marketing networks at regional levels. To protect cultural integrity, a special planning department has initiated local demonstration projects on how to strengthen the relationship between local culture and tourism. Regarding construction planning in coastal regions, structures must not exceed 8.5m in the coastal zone of 3km. For structures taller than 8.5m, justification for visual effects is required.

In 1994, an Act on Coastal Planning was adopted. Under this Act, special planning and function justifications are required for permitting building projects in the coastal zone. If such justifications exist, the main rule is to locate behind already existing settlements. At the same time, legislation covering already built-up areas (urban zones) was eased, so that the main emphasis was placed on a quality based incorporation of new constructions in the city viewed in relation to the surrounding coastal landscape. The Act further stipulates that a coastal projection zone in cities be reduced and in some cases removed completely. In summer cottage areas, the protection zone is set at 100 metres, but may be reduced. The protection zone is increased to 300 metres in rural zones.

Through the Act on Coastal Planning, Danish coasts are preserved as an important landscape resource, while in the areas where the population is actually living, planning requirements are only imposed when absolutely necessary.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including EEZ. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency of the Ministry of the Environment, together with the Ministry of Defence, are responsible for the combatting of oil and chemical pollution.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Regarding spatial planning of coastal areas, see chapters 7, 10 and 39. In 1994, Denmark adopted the Act on Coastal Planning.

3. Major Groups: In accordance with national legislation, the general public is involved in coastal planning.

4. Finance: Denmark invested US$4 billion, 2.4% of GNP in the tourism sector.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The fourth conference of ministers reponsible for Spatial Planning and Development in the Baltic Sea Region was held on the 22 October 1996. The Ministers adopted common recommendations for spatial planning of the coastal zone in the Baltic Sea Regions. The Common recommendations are divided into 3 chapters : 1) objectives, 2) recommendations and 3) planning procedures. Furthermore, the Ministers recommend that the Committee for Spatial Development in the Baltic Sea Region monitors the implementation and the results of the recommendations through demonstration projects and reports to the next Ministerial Conference.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

-
87
90
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
8,140
6,670
3,630
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
122,000
112,000
108,000
Other data: 107,000 people, 4% of the total workforce, are directly employed in the tourism sector.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The drinking water in Denmark is of a very high quality. 99 per cent of the drinking water supplied to consumers comes from groundwater reservoirs. The basic principle for the drinking water policy is to prevent pollution of the groundwater rather than having to clean polluted water. A planning system has been established on a regional scale to ensure the integrated management of freshwater resources. The counties carry out detailed mapping of water resources and balance the different interests against each other. Monitoring of the groundwater takes place at the waterworks. In addition, there is a nation-wide monitoring programme. An Action Plan on the Environment was launched in 1987 with the objective of reducing the nitrogen and phosphorus content of the aquatic environment by 50% and 80%, respectively. A comprehensive nation-wide monitoring programme was designed to quantify the effectiveness of the Action Plan. As a result of the Action Plan, the emissions of nitrate and phosphorous from agricultural activities have been reduced, but it has proven more difficult than expected to reach the goal of the Action Plan.

The Danish Government has taken several steps to protect and improve the quality of fresh water based on the principle that substances likely to pollute must not be discharged into watercourses, lakes or the sea, or stored in a manner which may lead to pollution of the water. In order to ensure stability in the supply of drinking water, information campaigns have been launched suggesting different ways in which the consumer can save or reuse water and in 1994, an environment tax on drinking water for household use was introduced in order to encourage conservation. The Watercourse Act of 1992, and the Nature Management Act of 1989 encourage actions to improve the condition of streams and lakes. An urgent problem concerning groundwater is toxic leaching from waste dumps and old industrial sites. The regional authorities are actively searching for the location of these sites before serious damage is done.

In 1996, the Danish Parliament adopted a tax on wastewater for discharges of nitrogen, phosphorous and organic substances. This tax will enter into force 1 January 1997.

A programme of action for improving wastewater treatment in the countryside has been prepared in order to improve the conditions of small streams and lakes. The programme stipulates that municipalities may offer improved treatment to settlements in the countryside through local wastewater treatment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Water supply in Denmark is regulated through the Water Supply Act of 1978, and subsequent amendments thereto.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: In accordance with the Action Plan, US$1.2 million have been invested for municipal treatment plants. Additional investments, not included in the Plan, are estimated to total US$48 million. In order to improve waste-water treatment to meet the requirements of the Action Plan, the 19 largest companies are expected to invest US$162 million. Denmark invested US$4 billion and 2.4% of GNP in the tourism sector.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: In Denmark, highest priority is generally given to the handling of high volume substances which also have the greatest toxicological significance, such as heavy metals, persistent organic products, pollutants and pesticides. Approximately 110,000 tonnes of hazardous waste out of 160,000 tonnes are delivered to a central treatment facility; the rest is treated mainly in approved treatment plants where the waste is recycled. National assessment of chemical substances takes place continuously in projects conducted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency of the Ministry of the Environment, in expert fora with the participation of environmental and health authorities to ensure consensus and quality. The Ministry of the Environment and Energy and other relevent Ministries and Agencies conduct a great number of inventories and research projects in order to establish background data for regulation, e.g., to use multidisciplinary approaches to chemical safety problems. National guidelines containing principles of environmental standards for selected chemicals have been published and preparatory work for updating and revising these guidelines has been initiated. Creation of a database on chemicals and an emission inventory programme was initiated in 1993. One problem has been the present incomplete knowledge on the effects of chemicals on health and the environment. The main problem in obtaining significant results has been the extenstive time and effort needed to evaluate the many chemical substances in use. A national profile for the management of chemicals will be published in 1997.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Principles for assessment of chemical risk and the setting of limit values in/on drinking water, groundwater, air and polluted soil, have been laid down in national guidelines based on the Act on Environmental Protection. The municipalities are responsible for collecting hazardous waste originating from industries and households. In order to ensure environmentally sound handling of hazardous waste and its safe delivery at a destruction facility, each firm that generates hazardous waste must report to the municipality which is obliged to collect the waste at site. Each municipality is expected to establish its own collection scheme. The Danish Environmental Protection Act enforces substitution of harmful substances with less harmful substances, the principle of best available technology and the use of cleaner technologies and porducts based on life-cycle analysis. The Chemical Act regulates notification, classification and labelling of substances and preparations according to EU directives. The Act also regulates safe handling, producer and manufacturer responsibility and includes restrictions on certain dangerous substances and products.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: In the near future, training will begin for operators in waste treatment plants and for persons handling hazardous waste. By combining environmental, health and safety aspects, operators will be trained to optimize environmental interests in connection with plant operation, while at the same time, taking health and safety aspects into account.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: As a member of the European Union (EU), Denmark uses the harmonized systems of classification and labelling of chemicals established within the European Community (EC). Denmark has implemented the EC Directive on the control of major accident hazards involving dangerous substances. Denmark aso participates actively in international cooperation within the United Nations system, OECD, the Nordic Council, et. al. Denmark has approved the London Guidelines for the exchange of information on chemicals in international trade including the PIC procedures. Danish legislation on export of chemicals follows the guidelines for implementing the PIC procedure. The Danish principles of chemical risk assessment and regulation as described in the Environmental Protection Act and the Chemicals Act, as well as in a number of guidelines, have been successfully used in connection with export of environmental know-how and technology to countries in Eastern Europe and to developing countries. Denmark has ratified the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal and seeks actively to have the provisions of the Convention tightened.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention

ratified on 6 February 1993

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 1996, October.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The collection of problem waste from households and companies is well organized. There is at least one collection point in every municipality in the country. Private citizens can also deliver oil and chemical waste. Pharmaceutical waste is delivered to dispensing chemists. From these collection points, the waste is sent to one of the municipally-owned receiver stations, where a final sorting is made before shipment to Kommunekemi, which is under the common ownership of the municipalities, to be destroyed by incineration, neutralization or depositing. Denmark shares its knowledge of the collection and treatment of hazardous waste through consultancy activity with a number of industrial companies, as well as private and public organizations nationally and abroad.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The ruling principle for the Danish waste policy is that prevention is better than cure. The aim is to make optimal use of the resources of waste - first of all, of materials, then of the energy resources. Environmental protection measures are directed at the entire cycle of polluting materials and products circulating in society. The total amount of waste in Denmark is expected to increase to 9.8 million tons, or almost two tons per capita per annum in 1997. However, preventive cleaner technology actions are expected to stabilize waste quantities in the last 1990s, with the result that total waste quantities by the year 2000 will be equal to the 1997 figures. The collected waste is disposed of in four different ways: a part is incinerated in waste heating plants; some ends up on landfills; some is recycled; and by far the smallest quantity consists of "problem" waste. Recycling has been given the highest priority. Primary efforts are directed towards increasing the recyclability of materials and products. Presently, some 30 per cent of the waste is recycled, but according to the Recycling Action Plan 1990-2002, recycling must be increased to 50 per cent, by almost 2 million tons/year, by the end of the decade. Waste quantities for incineration will not change significantly, and the capacity of incineration in the country as a whole need not be extended. Landfilling has been given the lowest priority and waste has been redirected from landfills in the central parts of Denmark to large controlled sites in coastal areas. The need for waste landfilling has thus been reduced by 50%, significantly reducing the need for land-fill sites. For decades, Denmark has employed an extensive deposit scheme, ensuring that the return of beer and soft drink bottles remains at the rate of 99.5 per cent. The same bottle can be in circulation scores of times until it is removed and recycled as raw material in the production of new bottles. Jobs gained in the waste and recycling sector resulting from implementation of the Action Plan are assessed at approximately 2,500/year. The investments assumed in the Action Plan, which includes the establishment of new plants, will result in additional jobs representing about 6.55 person/year.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The responsibilities of the municipalities are: to provide disposal facilities for household waste. Consumers covered by such arrangements are obliged to use them exclusively to:

- collect newspapers, magazines and glass from private households in areas with more than 2,000 households;

- collect paper and cardboard from trading companies;

- collect food waste from large-scale kitchen catering for use as animal feed;

- collect paper from all public institutions.

Danish legislation concerning waste and recycling consists of highly detailed laws.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Apart from such traditional control measures as legislation and regulations, since 1994, Denmark has made use of a number of economic instruments within the field of waste prevention, including a general waste tax of US$26 per ton of waste for incineration and US$32 per ton of waste for disposal on landfills. In addition, there is a levy on certain forms of packaging. All waste removal is fully paid for by the consumer. Total annual expenses for operation and investments in the waste collection sector amount to US$323-646 million, one third of which is paid by the local authorities. In connection with the implementation of the Action Plan, the need for investments by both local authorities and private companies will increase. Costs of operation will not be affected to any significant extent, because changed systems of collection of both household and industrial waste may open up possibilities for rationalization.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed (Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was

signed on 17 July 1980

ratified on 21 April 1983

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers. No information

Percentage of women:

in government %

in parliament %

at local government level %

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material

No information

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc. have been

No information

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): Gender equality in Denmark is advanced, especially when viewed within an international context. Therefore, the Government has decided not to consider women as a particular population group in Local Agenda 21 campaigns.

Women particpate in Local Agenda 21 activities on equal terms with men.

Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important): No information

1.

2.

3.

4.

Describe their role in

the national process:

25.6 reducing youth unemployment: No information

Youth unemployment 1992:______________ 1996:________

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21:

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments:

No information

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies

No information

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

No information

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): NO information

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review A21 implementation.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Denmark has no National Sustainable Development Coordinating Mechanism, however, NGOs participate regularly in local environmental impact assessment projects and occasionally in national environmental impact assessment projects. NGOs also occasionally participate in the design of national sustainable development policies. Danish representatives from major groups have been included in the National Delegation to the CSD, FCCC negotiations and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Denmark is also planning to include major groups in the delegation to the CSD in 1997, FCCC COP and Biodiversity CDPs. It also provides financial and technical assisstance to support individuals, groups and institutions contributing to sustainable development nationally as well as internationally. The government also collaborates with international NGOs and other organizations of major groups in national and regional sustainable development programmes. The overall contribution of local and national major groups is rated "essential", the contribution of international NGOs and major groups is rated "quite helpful"; regional major groups have not participated.

Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

There are at least 100 local agenda 21s. -----% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve ----% of population

Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives:

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area: No information

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: given to the issues under Chapter 33 of Agenda 21.
STATUS REPORT: Danish ODA continues to equal 1% of GNP, thus totalling more than 1.7 billion USD in 1995. Environment and sustainable development being one of several cross cutting objectives of Danish official overseas assistance, a sizable part of the 1% goes to implementing specific environmental and sustainable development goals as an integral part of development assistance goals.

Supplementary to the above-mentioned programmes, the Environment and Disaster Relief Facility was established as a response to UNCED. The Facility is gradually due to reach its target of 0.5% of GNP by the year 2002. Half of its funds are allocated to environmental projects in certain developing countries and countries in economic transition.

The administration of the facility is shared by the Ministry of Environment and Energy (DANCED) and by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DANIDA). The latter is wholly responsible for the administration of the 1% of GNP going to ODA.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:

In accordance with the Danish legislation on international development cooperation, the Danish Investment Guarantee Scheme was introduced in 1996; presently the Minister for Development Assistance may, within a limit of US$414 million, guarantee Danish companies against losses incurred in connection with direct investment in developing countries. The estimated total revenue from taxes, levies and charges, will be US$9 billion in 1996.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No specific information available.

ODA policy issues: No information

Donor country

Recipient

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: Transfer of technology, including support for research, training and institutional capacity-building are integral parts of Danish Overseas Development Assistance. Danish technical cooperation is aimed at supporting the sustainability of aid programmes by means of local capacity building on an institutional as well as an individual level. As a result, training and transfer of knowledge are increasingly important elements in Danish development cooperation. In 1990, the Center for Technology Transfer to Developing Countries was established by the Danish Technological Institute to ensure an appropriate transfer of technology and corresponding know-how. In addition, the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, the Danish Government Seed Pathology Institute, the Danida Forest Seed Centre and the Centre for Development Research undertakes training programmes for researchers and technicians from developing countries. Denmark also supports the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); other international insitutions dealing with environmental issues and receiving Danish funds are the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology and the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. Denmark has no single information system of information on environmentally sound technologies that exist at the national level. Denmark provides special funds to assist in integrating the economies in transition into the system of global technology cooperation and partnership. They are allocated in a competitive application procedure by the Multi-Science Council for Development Research.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: An important part of the Danish effort to assist in the establishment of collaborative networks of research centers has been the financing of four specialized Danish institutions dealing with issues of concern to developing countries. The Danish Fellowship Programme sponsors supplementary training of personnel from recipient countries either in Denmark or regionally. ENRECA, a programme for enhancing research capacity in developing countries has been launched by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Recently Danida has become a donor of the Economy and Environment Programme for South East Asia (EEPSEA), which will support research and training programmes in this field by the region's researchers.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

Since 1987, the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy has given high priority to the development and dissemination of clean technologies. From 1987 to today, the Ministry supported clean technology projects, at an expense of approximately $US90 million. The current action plan for clean technology (1993-1997) aims to integrate the consumption of natural resources and direct pollution from the manufacture, and the disposal of products with waste management schemes, in general.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

In addition to the action plan for cleaner technology, the Ministry has actively supported the dissemination of environmental management systems, such as the future ISO 14000, through a new dissemination programme.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

The Ministries responsible for natural and social sciences, legislation and policies related to this chapter are the Ministry of Research, Ministry of Education (as well as universities), Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Ministry of Agriculture. There is no single legislative act covering natural and social sciences. Increasing research and teaching at the university level by women is part of a government policy to enhance the role of women. Funding for education amounted to 8% of GNP. As part of the Danish Environmental Research Programme, DANIDA is financing a sub-programme concerning "Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Developing Countries". A total amount of US$8.3 million during the years 1994-1998 has been allocated for three cross-disciplinary research projects under this sub-programme. In addition, Denmark has contributed US$7 million to CGIAR programmes addressing science for sustainable development.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

The launching of the Strategic Environment Research Programme and the National Strategy for Polar Research have been the most important post-Rio activities in the natural, social and engineering sciences. In 1991, the total number of steady teaching staff (who do research 40% of the time) dealing with environment and development at universities, was 251 men and 27 women. The total number of externally financed full time researchers/scientists/engineers in the natural and social sciences dealing with environment and development was 195. These figures include independent research institutions. The total number of full time researchers in environment and development in the public sector is 818. There is no target set to increase these numbers.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development
25,756
1991
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $81,000,000
1993
Other data

The Ministries responsible for natural and social sciences and legislation and policies related thereto are the Ministry of Research, Ministry of Education (as well as universities), Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Agriculture. There is no single legislative act covering natural and social sciences.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development

The Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Environment and Energy are primarily responsible for activities falling under Chapter 36 of Agenda 21. As environmental education is integrated in overall educational programmes, the above-mentioned Ministries have no consultative body on environmental education. School curricula have been reviewed and revised to address environment and development as a cross cutting issue at all school levels, in vocational schools and at university level. Denmark has no single national curriculum; curricula are determined at local levels. To address environmental education, printed material is often used at all school levels, in vocational schools and at university level; audio visual tools and special classes, workshops and seminars are occasionally used at university, in vocational schools and at all school levels.

b) Increasing public awareness

No specific information available.

c) Promoting training

In-service training programmes are available for teachers, concerning the nature and methods of environment and development education. Environment and development concerns are part of teacher educational programmes.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: No information

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES:

No specific information available.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS*
1980
1990
Latest 1993
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
100
100
100
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
100
100
100
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
100
100
100
Mean number of years of schooling
13.4
14.6
15.2
% of GNP spent on education
8.0
7.2
7.8
Females per 100 males in secondary school
87
96
101
Women per 100 men in the labour force
79
86
87

Enrolment of Students:

First or Primary Secondary school Vocational College

school level level schools University level

Male Female Male female Male Female Male Female

1980 (%) 48 47 11 15 23 15 9 6

1990 (%) 48 47 14 19 24 18 9 7

1993 (%) 48 47 16 21 24 19 10 8

* all statistical information from Denmark's National Report to the CSD 1996

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

UN/ Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

Committee on Human Settlements

WP on Sustainable Human Settlements Planning

WP on Housing

Committee on the Environment

UN/ Commission on Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT)

UN/ Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

The HABITAT Agenda

The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements

UN/ECE, the Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a transboundary context. (This convention is signed by Denmark and is expected to be ratified in 1997).

Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment.

In July 1996, the EU-Commission DG XVI published the INTERREG II C- programme. The programme has a budget of 420 MECU which is divided between 3 main themes : 1) transnational cooperation to prevent drought, 2) transnational cooperation to prevent flooding and 3) transnational cooperation and spatial planning.

The EU-Commission has allocated 120 MECU to this theme. The participating member-states are expected to co-finance on a 50/50% basis. Cooperation must take place between at least 2 member states. Within the European territory, 7 cooperation areas have been agreed on and all are cooperating between 4-7 member states. In some areas a number of neighboring 3rd countries participate in the programme.

Denmark participates in two areas: the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) and the North Sea Region (NSR). Denmark has been allocated 4 MECU which will be split between the 2 areas with 2.5 MECU to BSR and 1.5 MECU to NSR.

The main themes for the NSR are : 1) urban networks, 2) transport and communication and 3) nature and cultural heritage. The main themes for the BSR are : 1) urban network and settlement structure, 2) transport, communication and energy networks and links, 3) tourism, island and coastal zones and 4) explorative projects.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very

good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
X
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
X
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
X
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
X
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
X
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
X
27. Non-governmental organizations
X
28. Local authorities
X
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
X
31. Scientific and technological community
X
32. Farmers
X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
X
38. International institutional arrangements
X
39. International legal instruments
X
40. Information for decision-making
X
Additional Comments

The Ministry of the Environment and Energy and Statistics Denmark continuously publish environmental data and statistics. Statistics Denmark is, to a large extent, fed with data provided by the Ministry of the Environment. Danish data collection related to sustainable development is a full fledged system which is continually being expanded and revised to account for any shift in needs and circumstances and it covers virtually every aspect of life in a complex, industrial society. Denmark also has access to international information systems. A comprehensive inventory of databases, relevant to sustainable development, was carried out in 1994. The Danish Government established a programme to develop or use indicators of sustainable development at the national level. The Ministry of Environment and Energy is involved in the work on indicators of sustainable development and is further developing its internal information system. The main sources of information on sustainable development are data provided by industry and local authorities. Computer networks, providing access to international information systems are available for the public and private sectors. The main users of sustainable development information are decision-makers at all levels and in all sectors.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1989
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
55.5
58.9
Other data

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Last updated 1 November 1997