Search Parliamentary services Development issues

National Implementation of Agenda 21

BANGLADESH

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Bangladesh to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

BANGLADESH

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Environment and Forest

Date: 26 December 1996

Submitted by: Md. Abdul Malek, Assistant Chief

Mailing address: Ministry of Environment and Forest, Bangladesh Secretariat,

Dhaka-1000

Telephone: 880-2-867472

Telefax: 880-2-869210

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW

1. Bangladesh recognizes the vital importance of participating in the global attempts to halt the process of environmental deterioration. Bangladesh was actively involved in the proceedings of the UNCED, signed the Rio Declaration and endorsed Agenda 21. This reflects the strong commitment of Bangladesh towards promoting environmental management and sustainable development.

2. The priority areas of concern in Bangladesh are (1) Disaster Management; (2) Deforestation, including mangroves; (3) Biodiveristy losses; (4) Water Pollution; (5) Land Degradation; and (6) Air Pollution.

3. A National Conservation Strategy (NCS) has been prepared in line with the World Conservation Strategy. The NCS has identified problems in eighteen different sectors and made recommendations for addressing these problems. In December 1996, the NCS is in its final draft stage and expected to be approved soon.

4. A National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) has been prepared identifying the key environmental issues and actions required to halt or reduce the rate of environmental degradation, to improve the natural and man-made environment, to conserve habitats and biodiversity, to promote sustainable development, and to improve qualitative indicators of human life. The NEMAP can be considered to be the first initiative towards the preparation of a National Agenda 21. The NEMAP has outlined an action plan to address the environmental issues of Bangladesh.

5. A National Environment Committee with the Head of the Government as its Chairperson has been set up to ensure an effective top-level management of the environment and to integrate development and environment at the national level.

6. Bangladesh has developed Draft Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for (1) water pollution; (2) air pollution; (3) noise pollution; (4) sewage pollution; and (5) industrial pollution. By approving the EQS, the Government will ensure compliance through monitoring. The development of indicators is also needed in this respect.

7. A country study on climate change has just been completed under the United States Country Study Programme (USCMT). Another project on Asia Least Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) is in progress with the support of the ADB. Under these studies, an inventory of GHG emissions and an analysis of vulnerability impacts have been completed and both are in their refinement and updating stages.

8. Bangladesh has prepared a National Phase Out Plan of Ozone Depleting Substances, which is currently being implemented with assistance from the Montreal Multilateral Fund.

9. Bangladesh has adopted an Environment Protection Act in 1995 for the preservation of the environment.

10. Bangladesh has carried out inventories of its forest resources and biological diversity in both dryland and wetlands. Reliable and high-quality data is expected to become available after the completion of these inventories. After this, Bangladesh will be able to develop indicators for sustainable management of these resources in light of the indicators developed by the DPCSD. In order to be able to develop and test indicators for sustainable development, Bangladesh needs financial and technical support for other inventories, and data and information collection.

11. Major international conventions/ protocols signed and ratified by Bangladesh are as follows:

(1) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1981.

(2) Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 1989.

(3) Plant Protection Agreement for the South East Asia and Pacific Region, 1974.

(4) Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, 1985.

(5) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1973.

(6) Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985.

(7) Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987.

(8) The London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, 1990.

(9) Convention on Wetlands of International Improtance Specially Waterfowl Habitats (the Ramsar Convention).

(10) International Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992.

(11) Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992.

(12) Convention to Combat Desertification.

12. Major constraints in the implementation of Agenda 21:

(1) Lack of domestic financial resources and appropriate technology.

(2) Poor inflow of financial and technical assistance againt commitments made under different conventions.

(3) Legal and institutional weakness and lack of trained human resources.

(4) Lack of high-quality data.

(5) Coordination among so many different actors.

FACT SHEET

NAME OF COUNTRY: BANGLADESH

1. Name of Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

National Environment Committee

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Mr. Ahbab Ahmad, Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Bangladesh Secretariat, Dhaka

Telephone: 860481 Fax: 880-2-869210 e-mail:

Mailing address: Ministry of Environment and Forest, Building No. 6, 13th floor, Bangladesh Secretariat, Dhaka-1000

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: The Prime Minister is the Chairperson of the Committee and several Ministries are also included as members. Members are also drawn from different Ministries, Departments, Institutions and NGOs.

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved:

The Ministries of Agriculture, Water Resources, Finance, Industry, Power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Education, Environment and Forest, Planning, Local Government and Rural Development and Planning Commission.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of academic and private sector bodies:

All Universities, Forest Department, Department of Environment, NGO Affairs Bureau, Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO), Commission of Enatomy, Department of Weather.

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:

Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh (ADAB), Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce and Industries, Federation of Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce and Industries, Federation of Union of Journalists, Environment Reporters Forum, Medical Association, Engineers Institution of Bangladesh, Economic Association, Bangladesh Botanical Society, Zoological Society, Chemist Association.

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

(1) Review of progress of implementation of the National Environmental Policy and Environment related activities;

(2) Consider and provide guidelines for fulfilment of Government of Bangladesh obligations under Agenda 21;

(3) Identify problems impeding implementation of the National Environment Policy and provide guidelines for solving those problems.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

In Bangladesh, poverty and unemployment are at critical stage, and poverty alleviation occupies a central theme in the national development policies and actions. Lack of income and employment opportunities aggravated by population and labour force increase, on the one hand, and environmental degradation, lack of health care and sanitation, on the other, has made poverty problems more acute.

However, the present economic growth (below 5%) and the low rate of savings and investment can both break the poverty cycle. The strategy of the Government is thus to accelerate economic growth and increase investments in the priority sectors like agriculture, including subsidies in agriculture; industries and infrastructure, rural infrastructure, in particular; and education; health; human resources development, especially women and youth development which would help poverty alleviation. Free primary education, special financial benefits for girl students, large scale training and credit provisions for employing women and the unemployed youth which are being provided for, are contributing towards poverty alleviation. Both the Government and NGOs have to collaborate closely in combating poverty.

Sustainable development is highly linked to economic, social and ecological factors. Poverty greatly affects the environment. The present development strategy for combating poverty, expanded health and sanitation facilities, population control, increased afforestation and social forestry involving the people would go a long way toward environmental improvement and poverty alleviation.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment

At present, different Ministries and Agencies like the Ministry of Agriculture; Environment and Forest; Women's and Children's Affairs; Fisheries and Livestock; Youth and Sports; Social Welfare; BRDB,; BSCIC; LGED and NGOs have their own programmes which help to increase employment opportunities and income and the development of disadvantaged groups. In addition to food for works, VDG, RMP and the safety net programmes create employment and support the vulnerable groups.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decision-making structure for poverty alleviation and environmental improvements includes political commitments and decisions and within this framework, decisions at the level of Ministries concerned and local governmental bodies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The capacities of the governmental organizations, local governmental bodies and NGOs have to be developed, and people should be involved in the process of poverty alleviation programmes and environmental improvements. Public awareness raising through mass media will also be helpful in this respect.

3. Major Groups: Major groups participating in the decision-making under this chapter include the landless and marginal farmers, urban poor, women, unemployed young people and other vulnerable groups.

4. Finance: The Government finances poverty alleviation through revenue and development budgets, and NGOs have their own resources.

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990

1991
1992
Latest 1995-96
Unemployment (%)
18.5
Population living in absolute poverty
47.8% Rural

46.7% Urban
Public spending on social sector %
DGP per capita (current US$)
208
213
265
Real GDP growth (%)
6.6
4.2
4.7
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

No information.

National targets

No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest
1995-96
GDP per capita (current US$)
208
213
265
Real GDP growth (%)
6.6
4.2
4.7
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita)
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Bangladesh, though a small country in the South Asian green belt, is the 9th most densely populated country (except for some island countries) in the world today. The country's population was about 42 million in 1951 which increased to 111.5 million in 1991. It is estimated that the current population size (119.7 million in 1995) will reach about 146.3 million by the year 2010. The young age structure, a basic characteristic of Bangladesh's population, will continue to contribute to the increasing absolute size. The 0-14 -year old group constitutes more than 46% of the total population. The broad base of the age pyramid reflects the fact that more and more children are born each year. Even if the average number of children per woman falls substantially lower than what it is today, the young age structure will generate continued growth for decades to come as successively larger numbers of the Bangladeshi will enter their child bearing years.

The crude death rate has gradually decreased over the past years. It dropped below 10 per 1,000 in 1995. In spite of the high Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) till today, a significant change has taken place in this respect during the past two decades: it dropped from 1500 per 1,000 live births in 1975 to 78 per 1,000 live births in 1995. A change is also noticed in Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) over the past decades: it has dropped from 6.2 per 1,000 live births in 1982 to 4.5 per 1,000 live births in 1995.

An increase in life expectancy at birth has also taken place in the country. It rose from 48 years in 1973 to 58 years in 1995. The contraceptive prevalence rate which was only 7.7% in 1975 increased to 48.7% in 1995. Over the past few years, the total fertility rate has shown, though with fluctuations, a basically decreasing trend. It has declined from the level of 6.3 in 1975 to less than 4 in 1995. The desired number of children has also declined from 4.1 in 1975 to 2.5 in 1993-94. This is a positive trend towards fertility decline.

The percentage of single women among the age groups 15-19 and 20-24 has also increased over the past few years. The increase of age at marriage has an important bearing on fertility decline. The current trend of delaying marriage, if continued, will cause fertility decline and simultaneously increse the acceptance of contraceptives.

The Government views population growth and the fertility level as too high and tries to bring them to a lower level through policy interventions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: A National Population Council, headed by the Prime Minister of the Republic, has been set up for providing policy guidelines and programme direction. In addition, decisions are taken by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in consultation with different Ministries/Divisions/Departments.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A number of modern methods are being provided by the Family Planning Programme of Bangladesh: male and female sterilization; injections; condoms and oral contraceptive pills. In addition, traditional methods are being promoted in the programme. Necessary steps have aleready been taken to promote Norplant in the country. There is a priority need for the local production of contraceptives for which both local and external investments are required.

3. Major Groups: In Bangladesh, NGOs play a major role in addition to the public sector in the Family Planning Programme both in advocacy and service delivery efforts. There are many NGOs working in this field, the major ones being the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB); the Bangladesh Association of Voluntary Sterilization (BAVS), and Pathfinder International.

4. Finance: Despite resource constraints, the Government of Bangladesh has gradually increased financial allocation both in the revenue and in the development sectors. Other international agencies and development partners providing financial support for the implemenation of the National Family Planning and MCH Programme are the World Bank, USAID, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, ADB and the Government of Germany.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Bangladesh is receiving support form regional and international agencies to implement the national FP-MCH Programme. In addition, the Governments of the Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA, Japan, the EEC, IDA, UNFPA and other developed countries are also extending cooperation in this area by providing financial support. See also (4) above.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 1995
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates
108,500
113,900
121,800
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
2.10
1.90
1.84
Surface area (Km2)
147,570
147,570
147.570
Population density (people/Km2)
735
772
825
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest

199_

Life expectancy at birth

Male

Female

Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)
Access to safe drinking water (% of population)
Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (1972), vide Articles 15 to 20, provide that the people are the utmost concern for the State. They are entitled to enjoy the benefits of human settlements for a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature and in harmony with shared spiritual and moral values and ethical considerations. Inadequate income, poor shelter and homelessness threaten the health and security of life, particularly of the helpless children, women and men.

The Bangladesh National Housing Policy (1993) recognizes human settlements in the urban and rural areas as an integral part of culture and planning and economic development. Pursuant to the United Nations Global Strategy to Shelter (GSS), adopted by the United Nations in November 1988, and the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the Government has proposed to adopt an enabling approach and environmental and disaster mitigation for achieving the goals of the strategy in the field of human settlements.

In 1990, the interim Government established 26 Task Forces to prepare reports on all sectors of development planning. The Report on Social Implications of Urbanization is a comprehensive document in this context. With the formulation of a National Housing Policy in 1993, support for its implementation was provided by the ADB and UNDP/UNICEF through projects on "Strengthening of Shelter Sector Institutions". In addition, in follow-up to the "Urban and Shelter Sector Review", UNDP assisted the Government of Bangladesh to formulate an Urban Sector Programme Document (NPD). There was an extensive consultative process with concerned governmental agencies, the private sector and NGOs. The NPD identified some priority issues after analysing urban population growth, urban economy and poverty situation, shelter, land and services, transport amd urban environment.

Priority issues:

The priority issues conform to the initiatives of the Government's Development Plans, particularly in relation to Physical Planning, Water Supply and Housing Sector. The issues are as follows:

(1) Preparation of a national human settlements policy;

(2) Infrastructure and environmental protection;

(3) Urban basic services provision in the poor communities with special consideration for poor women and poverty alleviation with income generation;

(4) Improvement of access to land, finance and shelter, giving special preferance for the poor including female-headed households.

(5) Improvement of urban social services keeping in consideration women's requirements such as public toilets for women in business and commercial and industrial areas and parks;

(6) Income generation and economic development with special opportunities for women;

(7) Development of urban research and training capacity;

(8) Urban management and strengthening local government; and

(9) Improvement of access to transport.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken by the Cabinet, the Ministry of Housing and Public Works in consultation with different Ministries/Divisions/Departments.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Urban Development Directorate has been preparing Land-use Plans/Master Plans for all District Towns and Upazilas. Flood Action Plans (FAP) have since been adopted by the Government for all cities. Under these circumstances, the Urban Development Directorate would therefore prepare and use plans for the areas within the FPAs.

3. Major Groups: Various Ministries and Departments using urban land would form the major groups.

4. Finance: Donors and partly GOB would be necessary.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Donors have been providing support for this purpose.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
20.14% (22.45 million)
23.18% (29.04 million)
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
5.43%
5%
Largest city population (in % of total population)
28.68% (6.44 million)
30.78% (9.05 million)
Other data

Projected population of megacity Dhaka by the year 2015 is 15.68 million (22.41% of the national urban population).

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT: The National Environment Committee headed by the Prime Minister provides policy guidelines and directives for ensuring environmentally friendly development activities in the country. The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC), also headed by the Prime Minister, takes into account the environmental impacts of a particular project before approving it. In addition, environmental screening of all development projects is done by the Ministry of Environment and Forest.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): The National Environment Committee, the Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) and the Ministry of Environment and Forest are responsible for decision-making.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: EIA cells need to be established and developed in all the major development Ministries, Divisions, and Departments.

3. Major Groups: All development Ministries, Divisions, Departments as well as NGOs.

4. Finance: Financial assistance is necessary for the establishment and development of EIA cells in all the development Ministries, Divisions, Departments as well as NGOs.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Mitigation of the impacts of climate change and phasing out the use of ozone depleting substances.
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol was signed by Bangladesh in 1990. The London Amendment was ratified in 1994, and the Copenhagen Amendment was signed in 1996.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed by Bangladesh in 1992.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

A project aimed at establishing an Ozone Cell in the Department of Environment of the Ministry of Environment and Forest to phase out ozone depleting substances has been in progress with the support of the Montreal Multilateral Fund.

A country study on climate change has just been completed under the United States Country Study Programme. Another project on Asia Least Coast Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy is in progress with the support of the Asian Development Bank. Under these studies, inventory on GHG emissions and an analysis of vulnerability impacts have been completed and both are in their refining and updating stages. Work on preparing a strategy for mitigatory measures is in progress on the basis of which a National Plan on the implementation of the UNFCCC will be formulated and thereafter submitted to the third Conference of Parties scheduled to be held in Kyoto in 1997.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The decisions are taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in consultation with the Ministry of Defence (Bangladesh Meteorological Department and Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization), the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Industries and the Department of Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Training programmes are undertaken for capacity-building in GHG Inventory and for the application of new technology. More assistance is needed in this field, including transfer of appropriate technology.

3. Major Groups: The Department of Environment; Bangladesh Meteorological Department; Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization; Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council; Advanced Chemical Industries.

4. Finance: Assistance from international development financing agencies, development partners are utilized to implement projects in this field. Further assistance is required to Bangladesh's obligations under Chapter 9 of Agenda 21.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation in the related field exists between Bangladesh and SAARC, SACEP, UNEP, UNFCCC Secretariat, Secretariat of the Montreal Protocol and the GEF.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest

199-

CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
12.47-15.4
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
3.2-6.4
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Very high.
STATUS REPORT: Every year, the Forest Department (FD) takes up afforestation programmes covering the whole country and all forest types through participatory mechanisms. Between 1974 and 1995, Bangladesh raised a total of 321,254 ha of plantations of various types. Among these, 165,954 ha of hill forests, 28,208 ha of plain land Sal Forests, and 127,092 ha of littoral plantations have been raised. By using a social forestry approach, the Forest Department is mobilizing a movement to plant trees involving people from wll walks of life. In this context, a large number of trees have been planted in the community and private land, e.g. in roadsides, embankments, school/institution premises and canal banks. Presently, the afforestation rate per year is about 18,000 ha.

The Forest Department is carrying out an inventory of the Sundarban and Coastal plantations by using the Resource Information Management System (RIMS) facilities. This information will be used to implement the strategies identified under the Integrated Resource Management of Sundarban. RIMS will also be used in the subsequent inventory programmes of the hill forest and plain land Sal Forests. RIMS being a computer-based facility will also enable the monitoring of changes in the forest resources of the country.

The Forest Department is putting a special emphasis on genetic research to meet the growing demand of forest products as quickly as possible. To this end, Bangladesh is trying to develop indigenous vegetative propagation technologies, and the Forest Research Institute has already developed clonal propagation techniques of Bamboo. In collaboration with universities, the Forest Department has developed vegetative propagation of some other fast growing species.

Institutional strengthening in the forestry sector is a major issue, and the modalities for institutional restructuring are under consideration in the Government in accordance with the guidelines provided by the 20-year Forestry Sector Master Plan.

The Government of Bangladesh imposed a moratorium on tree felling in 1989 and declared that it would increase the protected area from 5% of total forest area to 10%. Bangladesh envisages to raise forest area to 20% within the next 15 years. Further policy and legal measures are under consideration in the Government in order to arrest the deforestation trend in the country.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Managerial and technical decisions needed for effective forest management are drafted and initiated by the Forest Department. After the approval of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Forest Department executes the decisions. Major financial and administrative decisions are taken by the concerned Ministries of the Government (the Ministry of Finance/Establishment/Planning/ERD)

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The Forest Department is presently pursuing the identified issues of human resource development through recruitment and training, infrastructure and logistics development, genetic improvement of trees through tissue culture and clonal propagation, computerized database development, appropriate technology for in-situ and ex-situ conservation, etc.,.

3. Major Groups: Governmental agencies like the Environment Directorate, LGED, NGOs and major international development organizations. Local populace including indigenous people are also stakeholders of the afforestation programmes of the Government as well as the NGOs.

4. Finance: Finance is provided by international donor agencies like the World Bank, ADB, NORAD, UNDP, and locally through the Government of Bangladesh.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: FAO/UNDP, World Bank, ADB, JICA, RWEDP, Regional Participatory Watershed Management Programme etc.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199-
Forest Area (Km2) (Land area)
25,000
25,000
25,000
Protected forest area (Km2)
1,167
1,167
2,234
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3)
.49
.196
.0654
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
80
NA
NA
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
205
180
150
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT:

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994 and ratified in 1995 by Bangladesh.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in consultation with the Ministry of Defense, Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization and the Department of Environment.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Programmes for human resource development and transfer of appropriate technologies are required for managing fragile eco-systems. Cooperation with international development financing agencies and development partners is needed.

3. Major Groups: The Department of Environment, Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Space research and Remote Sensing Organization.

4. Finance: Financial and technical assistance is required from international development agencies and development partners.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation in this field exists between Bangladesh and SAARC countries and the Desertification Secretariat.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199_
Land affected by desertification (Km2)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT: No information.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: No information.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 199_
Agricultural land (Km2)
Agricultural land as % of total land area
Agricultural land per capita
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT:

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994 by Bangladesh.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed by Bangladesh in 1973.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The wildlife, forests, fisheries, and the environment in Bangladesh are managed, conserved and preserved respectively under the provisions of the following Acts:

(1) The Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Act, 1974;

(2) The Forest Act, 1927 (amended in 1989);

(3) The Fish Act, 1950;

(4) The Environment Protection Act, 1995.

Under the provision of the Wildlife, there is no Wildlife Advisory Board taking decisions on wildlife matters.

Bangladesh is also a party to the Ramsar Convention and the World Heritage Convention.

Conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity are under active consideration for the following areas: terrestrial biological diversity (including forests), agricultural biological diversity, freshwater biological diversity and coastal and marine biological diversity (including mangrove ecosystem).

The following development projects are among those under implementation for the conservation and preservation of wildlife and biodiversity in the Ministry of Environment and Forest:

(1) The Forest Resources Management Project;

(2) Development of Wildlife Conservation and Management;

(3) The National Conservation Strategy Implementation Project, Phase-I;

(4) The National Environmental Management Action Programme.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Council of Ministers (Cabinet); the Ministry of the Environment anf Forests (MOEF); and the Directorates are responsible for decision-making in this field.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Development projects for resource management; training information generation and technology development; appropriate technology for in-situ and ex-situ conservation are also urgent issues.

3. Major Groups: Agencies of the Government of Bangladesh like the Directorate of Environment, Forest, Agri-extension, NGOs amd local people including ethnic groups.

4. Finance: GOB, IDA (WB and ADB) and other donor agencies (CIDA, USAID, NORAD, JICA, ODA etc.)

5. Regional/International Cooperation: 24 staff persons and officials received training on the implementation of CITES in 1995. This training programme was sponsored jointly by GOB and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Latest 1996
Protected area as % of total land area
0.80
1.56
1990
Latest
1996
Number of threatened species
98
Other data

1994 IUCN Red List contains 65 wildlife (reptiles, birds and mammals, no amphibian in the list) species, and Bangladesh National Herbarium has listed 33 threatened flowering plants for the country.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT: Research on biotechnology was initiated in Bangladesh in 1977 as tissue culture. However, at a later stage, other parameters necessary for increasing agricultural production were considered under biotechnology. Most of the institutes under the National Agricultural Research System have tissue culture facilities now. These include the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute; Bangladesh Rice Research Institute; Bangladesh Institute for Nuclear Agriculture; Bangladesh Forest Research Institute; Bangladesh Jute Research Institute; and Bangladesh Tea Research Institute. Balda Gardens under Botanical Garden has also been doing research on tissue culture on orchids. In addition to NARS, tissue culture facilities have been developed in many educational institutes like Dhaka University, Chittagong University, Rajshahi University, Khulna University, Bangladesh Agricultural University, and the Institute of Post Graduate Studies in Agriculture. The protocols of plant regeneration are available for five fruit species, 15 forest species, three vegetables and spices, nine species of ornamental and medicinal plants and 15 field crops. The species include Aegle mermelos, Anona reticulata, Artocarpus lacucha, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Citrus grandis, Fawonia limonia, Musa spp. Litchi chinensis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumuni, Zizyphus mauritiana, Albizia procera, Anthocephallus chinensis, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa longispiculata, Bambusa tulda, Dendrocalamaus bandisii, Daemonorops jenkinsianus, Dalbergia sissoo, Deloniz regia, Dendrocalamus giganteus, Dendrocalamus longispathus, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Elaeocarpus robustus, Eucalyptus spp, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Leucaena leucoeephala, Melocanna baccifera, Morus spp., Samanea saman, Tectona grandis, Abelmoschus esculentus, Allium cepa, A. satiza, Citrallus lanatus, Cucumis sativus, Solanum spp., Solanum melongens, Solanum nigra, S. sisymbrifolium, Datura spp, etc.

Research on plant biotechnology has focused on increasing yield, and nutritional status and reducing crop loss due to diseases and natural hazards. The development of submergence tolerance in rice, salt tolerance coastal rice, salt tolreant coastal rice varieties, yellow mosaic virus resistant mungbean, improved varieties of jute and improved varietes of lentil in terms of nutrition are some examples. Other aspects of biotechnology include: (i) biofertilizers where most effective rhizobial strains are screened from local sources that are capable of increasing pulse production; (ii) mushroom culture; (iii) propagation of bamboo and hydrid tree species such as Acacia and Eucalyptus; (iv) biopesticides such as neem extract (neem oil), datura (Datura metal sims) mixture of powdered jute, neem cake and neem oil for controlling hopper populations, ladybird beetle and spiders.

Livestock biotechnology produced 11 types of veterinary biologics for the treatment of major infectious diseases of livestock and poultry. Biotechnology has been successfully applied in the production of vaccines for foot and mouth disease and rinderpest. Biotechnology in fisheries induces spawning in carps, padba (Ompak pabda), gulsha (Mystus vittatus), Catfish, Mahaseer Koi (Ananus testudineus) and others. With this technology, 46,000 kg of different fish species can now be produced annually against only 5,000 kg through natural spawning.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken through inter-ministerial consultations involving the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of health and Family Welfare.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There is a programme in ARMP for capacity-building in the field of biotechnology by the NARS institutes.

3. Major Groups: NARS institutes carry out research in four subsectors of agriculture such as crops, forestry, fisheries and livestocks. The biotechnology activities are therefore grouped into the above mentioned four groups.

4. Finance: ARMP provides necessary funds for biotechnological research in all the four sectors.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Regional and international cooperation in any research and development activities is essential for exchanging ideas and upgrading knowledge in the relevant subjects.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Bangladesh signed the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982.

See also the attached tables on the next pages.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken by the cabinet and also by the Ministry of Shipping in consultation with other concerned Ministries, Divisions, Agencies.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Monitoring environment and testing of environmental quality; monitoring and control of pollution from ships; and development of organized system assessments.

3. Major Groups: No information.

4. Finance: Finance is provided by International development financing institutions and development partners.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Land-based activities: (i) alternatives for pesticides and insecticides for agriculture; (ii) industries to be provided with waste recycling equipment; (iii) new industrial machineries to be designed for producing minimum wastes; (iv) facilities for storage, recycling and treatment of harmful wastes are to be built.

Sea-based activites: (i) waste reception facilities to be built in ports; (ii) Coast Guard ships to be equipped with pollution detection and fighting equipment; (iii) training of personnel for functions indicated in items (i) and (ii) above.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:

Check the boxes in the column below left: Check the boxes in the column below right:
For level of importance use: For level of implementation use:
*** = very important *** = fully covered
** = important ** = well covered- gaps being addressed
* = not important * = poorly covered
N = not relevant O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies.
*
***
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels.
*
**
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management.
*
**
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
*
***
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters.
**
**
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents.
*
**
g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and marine environment are met.
*
**
h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats.
*
***
I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
*
**
J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment.
*
***
K. Human resource development and training.
*
***
L. Public education, awareness and information programmes.
*
***
M. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices.
*
***
N. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.
*

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
*
***
B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may have significant adverse impacts upon the marine environment.
*
***
C. Integrate protection of the marine environment into relevant general environmental, social and economic development policies.
*
***
D. Develop economic incentives, where appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other means consistent with the internalization of environmental costs, such as the polluter pays principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment.
*
***
E. Improve the living standards of coastal populations, particularly in developing countries, so as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the coastal and marine environment.
*
***
F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting and transportation of toxic and other hazardous materials.
*

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Sewage related problems are considered when formulating or reviewing coastal development plans, including human development plans.
*
***
B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in accordance with national policies.
*
***
C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain acceptable level of environmental quality and to avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and bathing areas to pathogens.
0
***
D. The Government promotes primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to specific sites.
*
***
E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water quality criteria are in use.
*

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE GOVERNMENT HAS:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
**
A. Established or improved upon, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control emissions, including recycling technologies.
0
**
B. Promoted risk and environmental impact assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of environmental quality.
0
**
C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the regional level, where appropriate, with respect to the input of point source pollutants from the marine environment.
*
**
D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges of organohalogen compounds from the marine environment.
0
**
E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or discharges or other synthetic organic compounds from the marine environment.
0
**
F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters where such problems as eutrophication threaten the marine environment or its resources.
0
**
G. Taken steps to develop and implement environmentally sound land-use techniques and practices to reduce run-off to water courses and estuaries which would cause pollution or degradation of the marine environment.
0
***
H. Promoted the use of environmentally less harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative methods for pest control, and considered the prohibition of those found to be environmentally unsound.
*
***
I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the input of non-point source pollutants which require broad changes in sewage and waste management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation.
*
***
J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to, inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and practices.
*

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:

LEVEL OF
IMPORTANCE
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION
***
A. Coordinating national and regional observation programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change and for research parameters essential for marine and coastal management in all regions.
*
***
B. Providing improved forecasts of marine conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.
**
***
C. Adopting special measures to cope with and adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.
*
***
D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment, modelling and response strategies particularly for priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying and critical coastal areas.
*
***
E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of systematic observation of the marine environment, with a view to integrating activities and establishing priorities to address critical uncertainties for oceans and all seas.
*
***
F. Research to determine the marine biological effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.
*
***
G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and systematic observation of the role of oceans as a carbon sink.
0

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS)

AIR TRANSPORT
RATING
MARITIME TRANSPORT
RATING
1. Frequency (external flights)
poor
1. Frequency (external shipping)
good
2. Frequency (in-country flights)
poor
2. Frequency (in-country shipping)
very good
3. Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation
poor
3. Cooperation at regional level in shipping
good
4. Cooperation at international level
good
4. Cooperation at international level
good
5. Economic viability of national air line
poor
5. Economic viability of national shipping line(s)
poor
6. Economic viability of regional air line
poor
6. Economic viability of regional shipping line (s)
poor
7. national level training in skills for air transport sector
good
7. National level training in skills for maritime transport sector
very good
8. Access to training in skills for air transport sector within the region
poor
8. Regional level training in skills for maritime transport sector
good
9. Access to international training for air transport sector
good
9. Access to international training for maritime transport sector
very good
10. Supportive of ICAO
No information
No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High.
STATUS REPORT: The National Water Plan, started in 1983, focused on the assessment of water resources and demand by different users. It assembled a substantial amount of information, developed a range of planning models and analytical tools and recommended strategies and programmes, many of which were adopted by the Government. The Plan also produced a water policy and other proposals to institutionalize the process of water planning and long-term water resources management.

Despite these achievements the Plan fell short of a comprehensive national water plan. It was inadequate for evaluating large-scale programmes, impacts and requirements; failed to evaluate properly and integrate a number of major projects and programmes within the sector: inadequately addressed requirements in other Ministries, viz. fisheries, navigation, public health, industries, municipalities, etc.

Following the severe floods of 1987 and 1988, a number of studies were undertaken under the Flood Action Plan (FAP) to get a better understanding of the flood problem. Under the FAP, a number of projects were evaluated at the prefeasibility level, and possible flood mitigation projects have been identified within a regional context. Implementation of a few priority projects are either under way or ready to commence. Amongst the considerable achievements have been the formulation of standard guidelines for project assessment, participatory planning and environmental impact assessment.

On the basis of the FAP studies, a strategy for the development of water resources and the management of water and floods was approved by the Government of Bangladesh in 1995. The recommended study includes the following three major components:

(1) Formulation of a National Water Policy for the utilization and conservation of water resources;

(2) Development of a National Water Management Plan which will cover many more aspects than just the issue of flooding. It will examine the supply of water in the context of international rivers and flooding and the demand from irrigation; fisheries; navigation; drinking and municipal needs and other important areas. Drought mitigation and water quality regulations will also be important aspects of this plan.

(3) Organizational structuring of a National Water Resources Planning Organization to provide multi-disciplinary capability needed for undertaking: (i) national programmes including technical and socio-economic planning; (ii) environmental management; (iii) supervision and enforcement of regulations emanating from the national water policy; (iv) acquisition and dissemination of the planning data and information; and (v) project monitoring and evaluation.

The implementation of the above components will commence in July 1997 under technical assistance provided by IDA.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The National Water Council (NWC), chaired by the Prime Minister, takes decisions and provides policy guidance on key national issues relating to water resources. Decisions are also taken in the interministerial meetings where different agencies involved in water related projects are represented.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: For capacity-building, training programmes are undertaken in terms of infrastructure development for enhancing technical skills at appropriate levels for human resources development, upgrading of inter-disciplinary planning and integrated water resources management. Water resources planning and management require the application of new technology and improved planning tools to cope with the changed circumstances.

3. Major Groups: The major water user groups are farmers (marginal, landless), fishermen, boatmen, women, indigenous people and local communities. The groups' activities are organized by the local governmental agencies and NGOs. Participatory planning helps address issues of all Project Affected People (PAP). However, significant use is required for salinity management in the costal belt, where considerable fresh upland flow is needed during the dry season.

4. Finance: Assistance from international agencies, development partners and the country's own resources are utilized to implement water resource projects.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Of the available surface water, ninety-two percent flows into Bangladesh from outside its territorial limit. Due to massive withdrawal of the Ganges water at Farraka and other upstream rivers by India, the economy of Bangladesh has been severely disrupted, producing adverse impact on all sectors. The situation is expected to improve with the recent signing of a 30-year agreement between Bangladesh and India on sharing the water of the Ganges.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
199-
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
100,478/

1.155,499
99,344/

1.142,459
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
0.81
0.80
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Banning the import of toxic materials and hazardous wastes is a priority, and a Regulatory Framework to this end is in the process of development.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken through inter-Ministerial Consultations involving the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Industry, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health and their respective agencies. Decisions are, however, taken by the cabinet when there is disagreement among the Ministries and Departments on a particular issue.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Programmes for capacity-building in classification of toxic material and hazardous wastes through training of personnel and transfer of sophisticated equipment for detection are necessary.

3. Major Groups: The Customs department, Agricultural workers, Health workers, Industrial Entrepreneurs, Environmental workers, Coast guard, Bangladesh Rifles.

4. Finance: Financial assistance from international development financing agencies and development partners is required for implementing obligations under Agenda 21 and for reduction of chemical risks.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation exists between Bangladesh and other SAARC countries and the Secretariat of the Basel Convention.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
In 1991, 6,000 tons of Zine Oxisulphate Fertilizer were imported and were contaminated by Cadmium and Lead.

Statistical data/indicators as such need to be established.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Bangladesh has signed the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal in 1989.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Banning the import of hazardous wastes is a national priority.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Decisions are taken through inter-Ministerial Consultations involving the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Industry, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health and their respective agencies. Decisions are, however, taken by the cabinet when there is disagreement among the Ministries and Departments on a particular issue.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Human resource development in the management of hazardous wastes and equipment for detection is necessary.

3. Major Groups: The Customs department, Agricultural workers, Health workers, Industrial Entrepreneurs, Environmental workers, Coast guard, Bangladesh Rifles.

4. Finance: Financial assistance from international development financing agencies and development partners is required for environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Cooperation exists between Bangladesh and other SAARC countries and the Secretariat of the Basel Convention.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
9,978.59 M. ton
8,843.086 M.ton
Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) has been engaged in various Urban Services Projects with components of solid waste disposal (construction of dustbins), health and sanitation (pit latrines and public toilet cum biogas facilities) with other services. The projects through which these services are provided, are the Secondary Towns Infrastructure Development Project (STIDP), the Secondary Towns Integrated Flood Protection Project (STIFPP), the Slum Improvement Project (SIP), the Municipal Services Project (MSP), the Urban Poor Reduction Project (UPRP) and the Urban Basic Services Project (UBSP).

Activities in solid waste and sewage related issues are briefly described below:

1. STIDP: In the first phase of the STIDP covering ten municipalities in Bangladesh, the total number of dustbins installed is 2,023 at a cost of Tk.9.75 million $US1= Tk.42. In the health and sanitation sector, over 8,500 twin pit latrines at a cost of Tk.38.188 million, and 6,500 shelters have been installed at a cost of Tk.27.367 million in the project towns. There are 27 public toilets with biogas generators installed at a cost of about Tk.13.718 million in 10 projects.

In the second phase of the STIDP covering 21 municipalities all over the country, 2,947 dustbins will be installed under solid waste disposal in the next five years (1996-2000), at a cost of Tk.22.59 million. There will be 30,000 pit latrines and 40 public toilet cum biogas generators under the project in its health and sanitation programme, costing Tk.136.9 million.

2. STIFPP: In the STIFPP covering five municipalities and Khulna City Corporation disposal, 569 dustbins have been installed at the cost of Tk.2.409 million; 569 twin pit latrines have been installed at the cost of Tk.1.963 million, 17 public toilet cum biogas plants have been installed at a cost of Tk.4.945 million; and 330 septic tanks have been installed at the cost of Tk.4.761 million.

To develop a sustained municipal service system, the Local Government Engineering Department has embarked upon an alternative approach to solid waste management and the health and sanitation programme. This involves the participation of local governmental institutes (municipalities) and non-governmental organizations with the LGED playing the role of a facilitator. The following projects are being implemented through a participatory process:

3. The Slum Improvement Project (SIP): The SIP has been designed to improve the quality of life of slum dwellers through mobilizing community resources and improving their access to government resources.

4. The Urban Poverty Reduction Project (UPRP): The UPRP will support efforts to address the problems of the urban poor without the boundaries of Dhaka City Corporation and has three components: (i) slum upgrading, (ii) pilot housing; and (iii) policy and institutional strengthening. The number of target families under the project is 450,000.

5. The Urban Basic Services Project (UBSP): The UBSP is another urban services project aimed to alleviate the conditions of the urban poor.

6. The Municipal Services Project (MSP): The primary objective of this project is to support the welfare of the urban population, particularly that of the lower income groups, by upgrading the physical, institutional and financial infrastructure.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: At the national level, the Planning Commission, the Ministry and the Division are responsible for policy-making and strategic planning. The Departments and Agencies are responsible for the execution of the projects. At the local level, the City Corporations and Paurashavas are responsible for the implementation of the project activities. NGOs and CBOs facilitate grass-root level planning and implementation. Beneficiaries: implementation at grass-root level.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Technology is needed for recycling, transportation, disposal design improvement, equipment. Capacity-building will be required at the following levels: (i) Executive agency level: technical/technological issues, support to local governmental bodies, NGOs/CBOs, beneficiaries; (ii) Local governmental bodies: technical/technological issues, equipment, linkage with governmental agencies and support to NGOs/CBOs.

3. Major Groups: Government Ministries, executing agencies, research organizations, local governmental bodies, NGOs/CBOs, beneficiaries.

4. Finance: Donor funds, GOB funds, funding from local governmental bodies, contribution from beneficiaries.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Areas of cooperation: dissemination of technology, re-cycling, sanitary land fill. Countries of cooperation: India, China, Pakistan.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
1995
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
20 T
25 T
Waste disposed(Kg/capita/day)
0.30
0.35
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
10.0/ton
Waste recycling rates (%)
30%
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita/day)
0.27
0.31
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data:

Density of waste: At source: 375 kg/m3; on board: 550 kg/m3; vehicle productivity: 70%.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The operation and maintenance of a 5 MW research reactor, the production of radio-isotopes, the use of radio-isotopes in industry, medicine and research have resulted in the generation and accumulation of radio-active wastes. The use of radio-active materials and radiation spurces may always produce radioactive wastes, warranting safe, planned and proper management so as to protect man and the environment (at present and in the future) from the undue risks of ionizing radiation.

The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is, in principle, responsible for developing and implementing a national strategy and necessary infrastructure for the collection, handling, treatment, conditioning, transportation, storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in compliance with the regulatory requirements, duly considering local and socio-economic conditions of the country.

To assure adequate protection of occupational workers and members of the public, the management of radioactive wastes has been carried out in the following way:

- release to the atmosphere under controlled conditions as per the regulations;

- discharging to sewers on evaluation of related safety aspects after delay and decay;

- treatment and conditioning;

- safe storage/disposal.

Significant quantities of solid and liquid wastes, mostly low-level, are being generated during the operation and maintenance of the TRIGA reactor facility, production of radio-isotypes, research, industry and other institutional activities in Bangladesh. Solid wastes are temporarily stored and ultimately disposed of at the municipality land fills depending on the radioactivity contents after sufficient delaying and decaying, duly considering the IAEA safety standards.The liquid wastes are mostly short-lived and are temporarily stored, diluted and released to the sewers under controlled conditions.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Wastes are temporarily stored in the respective places of origin. The proposed waste processing and storage facility will be constructed at AERE, Savar, to cater to the current national needs on approval by the competent authority.

3. Major Groups: The Ministries of Health, Industry, Science and Technology and Education.

4. Finance: The Ministry of Science and Technology, the Government of Bangladesh.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International Atomic Energy Agency.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE

NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was ratified by Bangladesh on 6 November 1984.

24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women:

in government % 0.46% (1992)

in parliament % 11.82%(1992)

at local government level % 13.879 persons (1996)

24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Curricula and educational material are being revised.

24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development. Policies/strategies etc. are being drawn up.

24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women: mechanisms are being developed.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The Government of Bangladesh ratified the CEDAW in 1984 excluding the Clause 2.13 (a), 16(1)(c) and (f), as they conflict with Shariah law.

The Government is quite aware of the need to empower women and bring them to decision-making at all levels. Articles 28(2) of the Constitution states that women shall have equal rights in all spheres of the State and public life.

Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present their views on implementing A21.

Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):

1. National Youth Federation

2. Jatiya Tarum Sangha

25.6 reducing youth unemployment

Youth unemployment 1992: 0.5% 1996: 2.33%

25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

The goal set in Agenda 21 will be reached by year 2010.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

The total population of Bangladesh is nearly 120 million and 30% of them are youth. The Department of Youth Development imparts skill development training to the unemployed youth. (The age group of 15-30-year olds is considered youth in Bangladesh.)

The breakdown of the youth population of Bangladesh is as follows:

Educated youth: 14 million

Uneducated youth: 12 million

Employed youth: 24 million

Unemployed youth: 12 million

Rural youth: 26 million

Urban youth: 10 million.

The Department of Youth Development has proposed to allocate Tk.24,650 million under the prespective plan for the period of 1994-2010. Under this plan, a total of 30,000,000 young people will be trained and at least 60% of them will be self-reliant.

Since the inception of the Department, 434,802 unemployed youths have been trained up in various trades up to June 1996, and out of them, 60% were self-employed. The ratio of the trained self-employed youth between male and female youth is 70:30.

Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.

26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments: No information.

26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies: No information.

26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively.

27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation: No information.

27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs and governments.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.

28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.

There are at least four local Agendas 21. 0.2% involve representation of women and/or youth

They involve 0.5% of population

The Government supports local Agenda 21 initiatives.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

BRDB, the Department of Social Welfare, Women's Affairs and Youth are directly involved in the implementation of the Youth Programmes. The participants of Dress-making, Block and Batic of Youth Directorate are 100% young women. Partcipants in other trades like steno-typing, computer use, secretarial science between male and female youth are 50:50. There is no Government-sponsored national youth council in Bangladesh, but the Department of Youth Development supplements and complements the activities of various youth organizations.

Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.

29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

So far, 31 ILO conventions have been ratified by the Government of Bangladesh. About 46 Labour Laws have been enacted. The Department of Inspection for Factories and Esstts. has been established in the light of ratified Convention-81. Safety and health laws like the Factories Act, Workman's Compensation Act, etc. already exist. A project called Occupational Health Analysis and Accident Prevention Training was financed by the Government, but it is going to end due to lack of additional monetary and expert assistance. A rapid industrial growth in Bangladesh is under way. Workers' education and training at this stage are greatly needed. UN assistance in this respect is highly appreciated.

30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

There are governmental policies encouraging the above objective.

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

No information.

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies: No information.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No data available.

Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public:

Not much has been changed in this area.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

An ODS phase-out programme is under operation under the Montreal protocol to protect the ozone layer.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information.

CHANGES IN NATIONAL BUDGET TO ADDRESS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: No information.

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: No information.

ELIMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY UNFRIENDLY SUBSIDIES: No information.

ODA policy issues

Donor country: No information

Recipient: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
ODA funding provided or received (Total US$million)
Average for 92-93
Average for 94-96
Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of GDP
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Creating the critical base on environmentally sound technology
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS:

Bangladesh signed the Montreal protocol to protect the ozone layer in 1987. Accordingly, Bangladesh is phasing out the production and use of ozone depleting substances (ODS). Conversion of small and medium size enterprises, i.e. refrigeration units, are being converted to use Ammonia based plants (or other appropriate CFC substitute refrigerants). 16 September each year is the International Ozone Day. In this context, Bangladesh is working in collaboration with the S & T Centre for Non-Aligned movement and other developing countries (NAMS & T).

BANSDOC has a cooperative programme of activities with many national, regional and international information networks like INSDOC (India), PASTIC (Pakistan), NACSIS (Japan), ISTIC (China), FID (the Netherlands), UNESCO, Commission of the European Communities etc.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION:

GOB funds are used. There are budgetary constraints. Support for programmes of cooperation and assistance for the establishment of a collaboration network of research centres and for building up capacity to develop and manage environmentally sound technology is necessary.

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

Two projects have been undertaken by the Government on clean production process:

(1) Industrial Pollution Control Management with financial support from the ADB was completed in 1995.

(2) Development and application of sectoral industrial guidelines and standards and the monitoring of compliance was completed in 1996.

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

A National Environmental Action Plan has been formulated with a view to promoting national environmental management system standard such as ISO 49000 series and others.

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

No institutional framework has been established to develop, apply and institute the necessary tools for sustainable development with regard to improving cooperation among scientists by improving interdisciplinary research programmes and activities.

So far no studies have been undertaken to evaluate the scientific knowledge of the people. But for sustainable development, studies relating to the knowledge should be undertaken. BCSIR is going to conduct such a study.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

(1) Imparting S & T education in the Universities and other educational institutions;

(2) Conducting R & D activities in the research organizations including universities;

(3) Organization of an Annual Science Fair in the country; and

(4) Organization of seminars, workshops and conferences on various topics of interest in S & T, etc.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and experimental development # 19--
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.) $ 19--
Other data

Achievements of the 69 R & D organizations (including universities) of Bangladesh (1993-1994):

(a) No. of processes and patents developed: 251

(b) No. of patents leased out: 46

(c) No. of processes in production: 39

(d) No. of R & D projects undertaken: 1,261

(e) No. of research publications: 2,770

(f) Others: 5,717

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY: National education for all by the year 2000.
STATUS REPORT: Enrollment in primary schools increased from 12.6 million in 1991 to almost 15.2 million in 1994 while the completion rate increased from 41% in 1991 to 60% in 1993. To improve the quality of education, a competency-based curriculum has been introduced. Free text books are provided to all students in grades I to IV, and a broad programme of in-service teacher training has been introduced.

Community participation in educational management and the delivery of services have been introduced through school management committees, local education committees and parent-teacher associations.

Number of programmes for training of teachers, teacher educators and education administrators have been undertaken.

a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development Expansion of general education is not enough to transform the population from liabilities to assets. It must be accompanied by job-oriented education in order to enable them to undertake income-generating activities. Therefore, Bangladesh's aim is to introduce a job-oriented education system.

b) Increasing public awareness To increase public awareness, different programmes are being implemented under the Ministry of Education, such as the World Teachers Day, Education Week, etc. female education awareness programme is being implemented under the IDA assisted Female Secondary Assistance Project.

c) Promoting training Double Shift Programme for B.Ed and M.Ed. has been introduced in the existing Teachers' Training Colleges (TTC's). In-service training of secondary school teachers is also in progress. The following number of teachers will be trained in phases under these programmes:

B.Ed. Programme: 10,000 trainees

M. Ed. Programme: 2,400 trainees

In-service training: 16,560 teachers.

ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: The youth and women have actively been involved in the implementation of programmes for the promotion of education, public awareness and training.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOUR ACTIVITIES: No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest
1995-96
Adult literacy rate (%) Male (Age 15 years or more)
39.7
47.1
Adult literacy rate (%) Female (Age 15 years or more)
18.0
22.0
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
42
60
Mean number of years of schooling
7
% of GNP spent on education
2.3
3
Females per 100 males in secondary school
NA
51
84
Women per 100 men in the labour force
64
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY: No information.
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state: No information.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

See overview.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
X
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
X
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
X
9. Protection of the atmosphere
X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
X
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
X
16. Biotechnology
X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
X
18. Freshwater resources
X
19. Toxic chemicals
X
20. Hazardous wastes
X
21. Solid wastes
X
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
X
25. Children and youth
X
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
X
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
X
35. Science for sustainable development
X
36. Education, public awareness and training
X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making
X

Additional Comments

No information.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

Home | Search | Parliament | Research | Governments | Regions | Issues


Copyright United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997