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National Implementation of Agenda 21

REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

COUNTRY PROFILE

IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992

Information Provided by the Government of Republic of Armenia to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York

United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit

REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

This country profile has been provided by:

Name of Ministry/Office: Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Date: 5 February 1997

Submitted by: Department of International Organizations, MFA

Mailing address: Government House 2, Republic Square, Yerevan, Armenia, 357010

Telephone: (3742) 526802

Telefax: AT & T 151042

E-mail:

Note from the Secretariat: Parts of the original Country Profiles were provided in the Russian language. This text is an official English translation. An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper. Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.

All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Protecting and promoting human health
7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development
8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought
13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development
14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology
17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources
18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products
20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal international traffic in hazardous wastes
21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues
22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes
23-32. Major groups
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Promoting education, public awareness and training
37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments and mechanisms
40. Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ELCI Environmental Liaison Centre International
EMINWA environmentally sound management of inland water
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme
GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)
GIS Geographical Information System
GLOBE Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment
GOS Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)
GRID Global Resource Information Database
GSP generalized system of preferences
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAP-WASAD International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
IBSRAM International Board of Soil Resources and Management
ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
ICPIC International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House
ICSC International Civil Service Commission
ICSU International Council of Scientific Unions
IEEA Integrated environmental and economic accounting
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGADD Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development
IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)
IGBP/START International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organization
INFOTERRA International Environment Information system (UNEP)
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety
IPM integrated pest management
IRPTC International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
ITC International Tin Council
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PGRFA plant genetic resources for agriculture
PIC prior informed consent procedure
SADCC South African Development Co-ordination Conference
SARD sustainable agriculture and rural development
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNDRO Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNU United Nations University
WCP World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)
WFC World Food Council
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)
WWW World Weather Watch (WMO)

UNCSD - NATIONAL LEVEL COORDINATION STRUCTURE OF AGENDA 21 ACTIONS

(Fact Sheet)

ARMENIA

1. Key National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism(s)/Council(s).

Ministry of the Environment and Underground

Contact point (Name, Title, Office): Mr. Boris Ghazaryan, Head, International Cooperation Division

Telephone: 7 3742 530741/533629

Fax: 7 3742 534902

e-mail:

Mailing address: 35 Moskovian Street, Yerevan 375002, Armenia

2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson

2a. List of ministries and agencies involved: An official agency is in the course of being set up. In addition to the Ministry of the Environment and Underground, the Ministry of Education and Science, and the Ministry of Information are involved in popularizing Agenda 21.

2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participation of academic and private sectors:

Yerevan State University

State Broadcasting and Television Committee

2c. Names of non-governmental organizations:

"For Human Sustainable Development" Association
"Sustainable Development" Organization

3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:

Coordination of actions in the field of Human Sustainable Development; dissemination of information on the main principles of the ethics of universality and provisions of Agenda 21.

4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries: N/A

Submitted by

(Name): Souren Avetissian

Title: Minister

Date: 3 April 1996

Ministry/Office: Ministry of Environment and Underground

Telephone: 7 3742 530741/533629

Fax: 7 3742 534902

e-mail:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES (with special emphasis on TRADE)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The progress in the implementation of the economic reforms is considerably determined by the support provided by the international community, including the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, United Nations, European Bank, as well as other financial institutions and foreign countries. The assistance provided by donor countries and organizations to the Republic of Armenia is implemented in five main directions:

1. provision of macroeconomic stabilization;

2. public investment programs;

3. private sector development;

4. techncial assistance for institutional building and economic reforms;

5. humanitarian assistance.

The Government strategy supposes the gradual decreasing of the humanitarian assistance and targeting the financing on the development programs. Armenia pursues a trade liberalization strategy. Import tariffs at the rates of 0-10% are applied. There are no export taxes. The EU Partnership and Cooperation Agreement was signed in 1995. Armenia has free trade agreements with CIS countries. Armenia is in the process of accession to the World Trade Organization.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of the Republic of Armenia

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Institution Building, Structural Adjustment, Irrigation Rehabilitation

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: Credits of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, EBRD, Bilateral assistance, as well as financing from the Government budget

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Multilateral donors including IMF, World Bank, EBRD, UN.

Bilateral donors including USA, France, etc.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Focus of national strategy

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the attainment of independence in 1991, Armenia inherited an economy in a state of collapse. Economic and social problems were further aggravated following the 1988 earthquake and the economic blockade which began as a consequence of the conflict in Nagorny Karabakh. As a result of this, output declined sharply - by more than 60 per cent during the period 1992-1994. The same period also saw a sharp rise in the inflation of the dram (900 per cent during the last two months of 1993 and 1500 per cent in 1994). Subsidies for electric power, produce and transport for the population were also reduced. The fall in State budget revenue led to a sharp decline in vitally important social expenditures and services, and the standard of living of the population declined and poverty became significantly more widespread. The principal way to remedy this situation in conditions where there is a slump in production and an increase in poverty is to provide a stimulus to the mechanisms which will lead to rapid economic growth. This is a national priority for Armenia.

Highlight activities aimed at the poor and linkages to the environment.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of the Republic of Armenia, Ministry of the Economy and Social Security of the Republic of Armenia.

2. Major Groups: The disabled, orphans, families of single pensioners and single pensioners themselves, persons who have been living in temporary shelters in the disaster zone.

3. Finance: State budget, Pension and Employment Fund of the Republic of Armenia, Social Security Fund of the Republic of Armenia.

4. International coooperation: IMF, World Bank, USAID, UNDP, World Food Programme and a number of other public donor organizations.

NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Unemployment - (9.8 per cent)
Absolute poverty - Approximately 30 per cent of the population is living at or below the poverty line.
Other data - Pensioners - 625,000; disabled - 110,000; unemployed - 158,000; orphans - 42,000; refugees - 300,000; persons living in temporary shelters in the disaster zone - 42,000; single mothers - 17,000.

Strategy for the elimination of poverty in the short, medium and long term

Area
Issues
Short term
Medium/Long term
Primary importance of investing in human resources capital - People deprived of access to satisfactory education and medical services are in danger of long-term poverty. Human resources capital serves as a basis for long-term economic development - To prepare and implement an appropriate stragegy to strengthen primary health care.


- To improve the health care financing system, after ensuring a minimum standard of living.

- To establish mechanisms to give the neediest access to medical services.

- To establish mechanisms to give the neediest students access to basic educ-ation, including books and other school materials.

- To increase State expenditure on education and health.

- To establish, manage and make mandatory basic norms and standards of universal education.

Area
Problems
Short term
Medium/Long term
Assistance to neediest groups The extent of benefits to be granted is very wide and the level of poverty prevention is very low - To improve assessment of family poverty by the "Paros" system.

- To explore the possibility of minimum tariffs in the energy sector.

- To place the periodic study of poverty on a structural basis.

- To increase invest-ment in the improvement of water supply and sanitation, which are a major problem for the needy.

- To preserve a certain level of investment in restoration work on housing in the disaster zone and other areas which are experiencing widespread poverty.
- To create private markets for housing construction and develop a system to finance it; this would ensure a more rational and effective distribution of economic resources for housing construc-tion and urban development.

- To apply a revised pension system for a transition to the payment of minimum pensions which would meet minimum subsistence needs, with a parallel transition to a programme of private pensions based on taxes.

- To improve the procedure for tax collection and the declaration of income, to make it more reliable.

- To retrain social workers and create a State organ for the actual allocation of benefits on the basis of income.

Issues
Problems
Short term
Medium/Long term
Ensuring access to employment and the means of production While agriculture is still in transition from "subsistence" farming to a modern system of production there is a danger that the situation of the neediest will deteriorate still further.


- Improved access to markets and to new work places is most essential for the neediest.

- To complete the process of designating and registering agricultural land.

- To preserve the minimum wage to encourage enterprises to hire workers.

- To replace food assistance distributed to the able-bodied in need by food provided under work programmes.

- To implement some State programmes with financing from foreign donors in areas where there is highly centralized unemployment.
- To provide assistance to the agricultural cooperative credit system.

- To redesign the agricultural transport system to make it accessible to small farmers.

- To improve communications to markets and work places, particularly in rural areas.

- To invest in road maintenance.

- To reduce taxes on wages while increasing wages and redesigning the pension system.

- To preserve the minimum wage to encourage enterprises to hire workers.

- To encourage retraining in the private sector by non-governmental organizations and specialized agencies.

- To redesign technical education and the retraining of the unemployed to improve new production needs.

- To create a financial structure which would encourage official employment and the establishment of small enterprises.

- To simplify the administrative procedures for registration of entrepreneurship, decentralizing the registration system.

- To encourage programmes of privately administered technical support for small business.

Areas
Problems
Short term
Medium/Long term
The strengthening of enterprises engaged in poverty elimination policies and programmes - Organizations in the public sector need more effective cooperation, with the encouragement and development of initiatives in the private sector and small groups - To improve the structure of the Ministry of Social Security to stimulate the formulation of its policies and administrative functions.

- To encourage local non-governmental organizations by supporting programmes they are carrying out for the needy and in border zones and by cooperating with the local and central authorities.

- To publicize the distribution of humanitarian aid through reports and the dissemination of information.

- To retrain and provide equipment to the local authorities with a view to the implementation of programmes of assistance to the neediest groups. These programmes may be financed within the limits of the regional budget.
- Non-governmental organizations and donor agencies should expand retraining programmes and provide technical support to local groups and individuals by carrying out small-scale programmes to assist the needy.

- To establish a financial system which will promote the financing of poverty reduction programmes by non-governmental organizations and funds.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

National policy objectives/focus

The main objectives of the Government's macroeconomic program for the period 1996-1998 are to consolidate and deepen the stabilization of the economy, and to further accelerate structural reforms for the provision of the sustained and significant growth. The systematic reforms in 1996-1998 will take place in the financial sector, through the privatization in the energy sector, and in the budgetary sphere.

National targets

The targets for 1997 social-economic development program include:

1. further GDP growth;

2. reduction of average monthly inflation;

3. increasing the real average wages;

4. reduction of the consolidated deficit of state budget against GDP;

5. improving the system of target social protection;

6. export growth.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of the Republic of Armenia

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: ESAF, SAC, Health and Education Sectors Development, Social Investment Fund, etc.

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: ESAF (Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility), credits, budget financing

5. Regional/International Cooperation: International Monetary Fund, World Bank, UN

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
1992
Latest 1995
GDP per capita (current US$) - - 19,242 r. $288.77
Real GDP growth (%) - -7.4 -52.6 6.9
Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil equivalent per capita) 1980 - 246: 1993 - 57
Motor vehicles in use per 1,000 inhabitants
Other data

GDP per capita in 1995 - 117,355 drams or 288.77 (currency $1=406.40 drams)

GDP growth in January-September 1996 has made up 4.5%

Government policies affecting consumption and production.

1. Goals and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with a (X) those agents which your Governments policies are meant most to influence.

Agents

Goals

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
Households
Civil society
Material efficiency X
Energy efficiency: X X X X
Transport X
Housing X
Other
Waste:
Reduce
Reuse
Recycle

Comments:

2. Means & Measures and Agents (Stakeholders)

Indicate with an (R) those agents who assume primary responsibility for any of the policy measures indicated; indicate with an (I) the agents for which the impact is expected to be especially significant.

Agents

Means & Measures

Producers
Local
authorities
Central
Government
House-
holds
Civil
Society
Improving understanding and analysis
Information and education (e.g., radio/TV/press) R
Research
Evaluating environmental claims R
Form partnerships R
Applying tools for modifying behaviour
Community based strategies R R
Social incentives/disincentives (e.g., ecolabelling) R
Regulatory instruments R
Economic incentives/disincentives R
Voluntary agreements of producer responsibility for

aspects of product life cycle

R
Provision of enabling facilities and infrastructure

(e.g., transportation alternatives, recycling)

R R
Procurement policy R
Monitoring, evaluating and reviewing performance
Action campaign R
Other (specify)

Comments:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: As of December 1996 the population of RA was 3,780,800. It is important to note that this number may not accurately reflect the 700,000 citizens who have emigrated over the last 5 years due to adverse socio-economic conditions. The urban population consists of 2,539,600 people, and the rural population is 1,241,100. The number of births for 1996 has consisted of 47,200 and the number of deaths: 26,200

Annual rate of increase of population in absolute number has made 21,000.

The migration of population for 1996 made up 6,560 people.

Average life expectancy for 1996 is 72.5 years.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of Armenia, Ministry of Social Security

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Institution Building Loan Social Component, financed by WB Paros System

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: Social Investment Fund, financed by the WB, USAID and the Government of Netherlands

5. Regional/International Cooperation: TACIS, WB, USAID and other international organizations

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1993
Latest 1996
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates 3,575 3,740 3,780
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993) - 2.0% -
Surface area (Km2) 29.0 29.0 29.0
Population density (people/Km2) 123.3 129.0 130.4
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Government is introducing a comprehensive reform program, intended to secure stable financing of health care system more efficient and cost effective, and to protect access to basic services for all the population. Key elements of the reform program include:

- Diversification of health financing by formalizing some user cost-sharing and rationalising subsidization, combined with the introduction of performance based, comprehensive provider-payment mechanisms and the decentralization of management.

- Reorientation of the health system away from hospital based curative care towards preventive, primary heatlh-care through consolidation of hospital capacity and integration of internationally supported programs into national health programs.

- Ensuring equity by introduction of a basic benefits package and protecting vulnerable groups.

- Redefinition of medical education to reflect primary care orientation and to correct imbalances in human resource supply.

- Ensuring minimum standards through introduction of a licensing and accreditation process.

- Promoting private sector activity in the health sector through appropriate legislation and privatization of some facilities.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of Armenia, Ministry of Health

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Health Development Program to be financed by the World Bank (preparation is financed by the Government of Japan).

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: Health Care is predominantly financed by the state budget and credits of the WB Japanese Grant.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: TACIS Health Reform Program, WB Health and Education Development Program

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1995
Life expectancy at birth (years)

Male

Female

as of 1985

69.8 75.7

67.9 74.8 67.9 74.4
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) 26.2 18.5 14.4
Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) - 52.6 38.5
Access to safe drinking water (% of urban and rural housing fund) - - 96.4
Access to sanitation services (% of urban and rural housing fund) - - 79.2
Other data Main causes of death Cardiovascular diseases, disorder of respiratory system, cancer

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
1995
Urban population in % of total population
Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Armenian National Commission on Sustainable Development is in the process of formation and after being established will coordinate the implementation of sustainable development in accordance with the decisions in Rio.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments


Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 19--
London Amendment (1990) signed in 19--
Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed in 19--
The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 19--

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFCCC was signed in 199-.
The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

1. In accordance with the rules of procedure, Armenia may raise the question of its inclusion among the countries defined in article 5 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987), whereby it would receive the appropriate benefits; however, it can be included in the list of such countries only after it has acceded to the Protocol. This means that the Republic of Armenia would be burdened with excessive financial obligations under the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol. Until it receives the status of a country covered by article 5, it cannot receive financial aid to meet its obligations.

2. In accordance with the provisions of the Protocol (and the amendments thereto), a party acceding to the Protocol, even if it is covered by article 5, cannot increase its consumption of substances that deplete the ozone layer above its annual level of consumption at the time of its accession. At the present time, because of the serious economic crisis, Armenia's consumption of such substances is almost nil and naturally, in the event of ratification, the industry and economy of the Republic of Armenia as a whole would be placed in an unfavourable position (an almost total ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other substances that deplete the ozone layer).

The above comments are the reason why Armenia has not so far acceded to the Montreal Protocol.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure:

- Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Armenia.

- Act on ambient air protection, 1994.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: As part of the GEF programme "Armenia: Study of climate change in the country", it is proposed that the following work should be carried out:

(a) Preparation of the first national report in accordance with article 12 of the United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change (FCCC);

(b) Development of general competence and knowledge related to climate change problems;

(c) Development of a dialogue, exchange of information and cooperation between governmental and non-governmental organizations in order to strengthen the organizational mechanisms;

(d) Cooperation in projects relating to climate change and the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases.

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: So that the Republic of Armenia could meet the obligations it had undertaken under FCCC, in January 1995 the Government of Armenia requested UNDP to obtain funding from GEF.

GEF earmarked $350,000 for the purpose.

5. Regional/international cooperation: In May 1996, the Republic of Armenia also ratified the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture and Production and the Ministry of Construction, with input from other parties interested in the planning and management of land resources, are preparing appropriate decisions and submitting them to the Government for adoption. In the adoption of decisions, the provisions of the Act on assessing environmental exposure (1995) and the Land Code, as well as public opinion and the views of non-governmental organizations are taken into account.

The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for general State monitoring of the utilization of land by all land users irrespective of the form of ownership of the land.

In addition, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for preparing Government decisions relating to geological and other natural processes (landslides, subsidence, avalanches, mudslides, etc.) leading to loss, erosion and irrational use of land and the recultivation of degraded land.

Some top urgent measures should be initiated in 1997 in view of ensuring planning and management of land resources. The priority measures drafted for this purpose are set below:


1. Provide land reforms establishing land mapping, administrative-regional land balances, regional land construction schemes as well as continue improving the legal framework for land ownership.

2. Produce a model for the development of an unified and property cadastre for the Republic of Armenia regarding the pecularities of the current agricultural industry.

3. Improve a rental and sales process by defined regulations in view of effective use of lands under official reserve fund.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Department for the Protection of Land Resources of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources bears the main responsibility for an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: International experience is being studied, primarily in the area of the processing of municipal waste, "tailings" resulting from enrichment in non-ferrous metallurgy and the utilization of waste from the construction materials industry, the establishment of toxic waste sites, the use of biological and other environmentally safe fertilizers and the means of controlling plant and animal diseases.

3. Major groups: The Department for the Protection of Land Resources, regional inspections and the monitoring service of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources.

4. Finance: The extremely limited State budget, payments for the use of land, investment by international funds, public organizations and sponsors.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Armenia has introduced a number of proposals to combat soil erosion and to deal with desertification problems and, in this connection is cooperating with Turkey, Iran, Georgia and Azerbaijan (tentatively).

World experience will be used to the maximum in the field of mapping and cartography on the basis of the only existing atlas (for countries of the former Soviet Union) atlas of Armenia's land resources.

As a member of the Inter-State Environmental Council (of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)) and in cooperation with UNEP, UNDP, the Economic Commission for Europe, OECD and others, Armenia is participating both in the utilization of the experience already gained and in the development of new programmes and projects.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION

NATIONAL PRIORITY: High
STATUS REPORT: "Armenia underwent intense deforestation overtime: historical records show that at the beginning of the 9th century 25% of Armenian land was covered with forests. The percentage had reached 7% in the fifties, although since then the forest cover has been increased to 11.2%. The primary forested areas are in the north-east (which contains about 80% of the forest industry), the north, and the south, whilst the cental part of the country is almost woodless.

All forests are owned by the Republic and managed by an agency called Hayantar, on the basis of ten year plans with annual tasking breakdowns. Hayantar retains income from its operations and is provided with an operational budget allcoation from the national government. It manages 26 vertically integrated regional forestry enterprises, two protected reservations, a nursery, a machine factory, an amelioration station, a forest protection station, a research station and a maintenance shop.

Before the blockade, approximately 60,000 m3 of timber were harvested in Armenia each year, of which about 8,000 were considered commercial cuttings, as harvest which satisfies only 10-14% of Armenian internal needs. Since the country produces a very high quality of beech and oak hardwood, foreign exchange could be earned through forest related products - in spite of the low self sufficiency rate - if internal needs were satisfied with lower quality lumber leaving the possibility to use higher quality wood for production of export goods.

Hayantar has undertaken major forestation in several areas, mostly with the objetive of increasing erosion control."

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Armenian State Forest Service "Hayantar" within the Ministry of Environmnent and Underground Resources.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: "Hayantar" is affected by problems of both inappropriate structure and weak capacity. In the Soviet era, various core functions of a national forest service were carried out centrally in Moscow through subsidiary branch offices in each of the Caucasian republics.

With the advent of independence, the same system is now carried out on a national basis in Armenia. "Hayantar" does not yet have its own capacity to carry out all these fuctions; for example, policy development, coordination, planning and budgeting, forest management and forest resource assessment.

In regard to the structure of "Hayantar", it remains vertically integrated with the forest enterprises according to the soviet model. Proposals for institutional capacity building need to be made in the context of institutional weaknesses and possible reforms.

Cross-Sectoral Issues (continued)

3. Major Groups: High level training in forestry is the responsibility of the Forestry Chair of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Armenian Agricultural Academy which was founded in the year 1992. There is no institution where the forest technicians can be trained. Research in forestry is carried out in the Forest Department of the Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences and in the Forestry Research Station of "Hayantar". The Research Station lacks the minimum technical equipment, financing and transport to implement its work programme.

4. Finance: Many aspects of "Hayantar" operations involve uncosted internal transfers which the present accounting system fails to record. For example, seedlings are supplied from nursery to forest free of charge, and workers receive the major part of their income in kind, as fuelwood and grazing rights, etc. The extremely low levels of official wages provide insufficient incentives to motivate performance, and the use of uncosted internal transfers subverts the role of prices as efficiency signals.

The lack of any transparent system of financial management obscures those parts of "Hayantar" operations which are relatively profitable and may justify investments. If "Hayantar" is to become self-reliant financially, it must charge full economic prices for its products and ensure efficient revenue collection. There is, therefore, an urgent need to increase its capacity to provide a more modern management information and control system, capable of providing cost analysis at a decentralized level, and also supporting a monitoring and evaluation function.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: FAO jointly with the Ministries of Agriculture and of Nature Protection and Subsoil Wealth is currently implementing Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) in Armenia that has already yielded results in terms of providing, inter alia, an overall framework for programme development and indicating specific areas where donor assistance is required.

In May 1995, Armenian Forest Sector Development Issues were discussed and Forest Policty Declaration was adopted at a Workshop organized by FAO/TCP Project and HAYANTAR. Four development priorities were identified: (i) The integration of Armenian Forests into the national economy, (ii) Afforestation, reforestation, regeneration and rural forestry, (iii) Improvement of the effectiveness of the management of the forests, and (iv) Conservation and projection of the environment.

Based on the TCP Project outputs (including the Strategy for the Development of the Armenian Forest Sector, adopted by the Government of Armenia), UNDP and GEF in cooperation and consultation with FAO and all other actors involved are initiating the developmoent of a large scale comprehensive sector investment programme for Armenia. The main components of the programme are Capacity Building, Forest Inventory, Forest Education and Research, Farmforestry, Reforestation and Wildland Management.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:

3. Major Groups:

4. Finance:

5. Regional/International Cooperation:

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1993
Forest Area (Km2) 2,850 2,920 3,350
Protected forest area 900 900 900
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in mill m3) 0,06 0,01 0,01
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum) - - 100
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum) 30 30 20

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification

Particularly in Africa

Convention : No information

The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The problem of desertification and the organization of measures to combat it are extremely urgent in Armenia, which is located in an arid area. One half of the territory of the Republic is subject to mudslides, which aggravate the processes of desertification. The processes of defluction and landslides are also developed. The anthropogenic impact on the landscape causes intensified soil erosion and salination. While the Republic has a limited amount of land, a solid outflow from rivers outside its frontiers removes more than 4 million tons of fine soil

and solutes. As a result of all this, every year thousands of hectares of arable land become unusable and forest and grazing areas are reduced. The energy crisis of the past four years has aggravated the situation, provoking intensive unregulated clearance of forests which served to protect the soil and other functions, since Armenia's forests are concentrated mainly on steep slopes. The energy crisis also had an adverse effect on the high mountain freshwater Lake Sevan, from which large volumes of water have been withdrawn for power needs. The water level in Lake Sevan has fallen catastrophically and, unless urgent measures are taken, the unique nature of the landscape, which plays such a significant climate forcing role in the region and which supplies the many springs located in a very dry part of the Republic, may be destroyed.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure:

- Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources

- The environmental protection legislation of the Republic of Armenia

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: The Republic has sufficient scientific potential to establish a national programme of action and to implement urgent and long-term plans and programmes to prevent desertification.

3. Major groups: No information

4. Finance: The economic situation of the Republic does not allow the Government to allocate resources for the implementation of measures to combat desertification. A number of projects have been proposed to international organizations to attract resources to combat desertification.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Cooperation with neighbouring countries is essential in order to devise joint complex approaches to the solution of problems of desertification on a regional scale.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Armenia is a typical mountain country with the characteristics of an arid mountain ecosystem. Over 90 per cent of Armenia's territory is over 1000 metres above sea level. Because of their diverse geological structure, mountain systems are very jagged and present a diverse landscape. Extreme environmental landscape indicators and an intensive anthropogenic impact have led to the serious degradation of the natural biodiversity of mountain systems. In certain regions, changes which have taken place are irreversible. On account of the dominant geo-ecological significance of the Republic's mountain systems in the region for the conservation of their landscapes and biodiversity, the participation of the countries of the Kur-Araks basin of the Caucasus region is required. Consequently, complex mechanisms must be developed to protect the Caucasus region and establish new transboundary protected regions. The priority areas for action must be the following:

1. The study, forecasting and implementation of measures to provide protection against exogenous geological processes (landslides, mudslides, avalanches and other natural disasters);

2. The prevention of soil erosion;

3. The protection of the grazing ecosystems;

4. The protection of the mountain forest ecosystems;

5. The setting of limits to anthropogenic impact from the various uses of the natural environment (agricultural, mining, recreational, industrial, etc.).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Armenia, the Ministry of Agriculture.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: There is no separate Government programme in the Republic of Armenia for the protection of mountain ecosystems. This area, however, forms an integral part of various thematic programmes on the following questions: landscape diversity and biodiversity, climate change, the development of the forestry sector, the organization of agriculture, etc.

3. Major groups: Until recently, the protection and utilization of mountain ecosystems was a State monopoly, but since the privatization of land resources the private sector can also be expected to participate in this area.

4. Finance: There is no financing allocated solely to the protection of mountain ecosystems. There is a small volume of resources allocated to individual programmes, but these resources are quite inadequate to resolve the problem.

5. Regional/international cooperation: No information

The Convention was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1993. No report on the Convention has been submitted. CITES Convention. Armenia is not a party to the Convention.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The relatively small territory of the Republic of Armenia (29,965 sq.km.) is characterized by rich biological diversity. Seventy-six species of mammals, 304 species of birds, 44 species of reptiles, 6 species of amphibians and 24 species of fish inhabit Armenia. There is also a rich and distinctive flora replete with species (approximately 3,200), which results from the complexity of the terrain and climate of Armenia and from its location at the juncture of completely diverse provinces of flora. The forestry resources cover 459,900 hectares. The average density of the forests is 0.54. Armenia's Red Book includes 99 species of animals and 387 species of plants, of which approximately 200 are endemic or relicts. The data cited, however, do not reflect the current real picture since Armenia's flora has suffered an irreplaceable loss on account of the severe energy crisis and the massive deforestation, and this has affected the quantity and quality of the fauna. Migration routes and the ecological balance of animal habitats have been destroyed. The protection of animal and plant life in Armenia is in a critical situation. Because of the lack of financial resources, no work is being done on the establishment of an inventory of animal and plant life. The protection of biological resources has become particularly difficult on account of the privatization of land resources in the Republic, the unauthorized harvesting of medicinal and food crops and the relentless extermination of ornamental plant species. In the opinion of botanical experts, approximately 50 species of plants not included in Armenia's Red Book are now on the verge of extinction.

Five State nature reserves in the Republic, as well as a National Park, the Sevan nature reserve complex and 22 reserves for particular species, have the status of specially protected territories. The total area of the nature reserves is 65,000 hectares (2.2 per cent of the territory of the Republic) and the total area of the reserves for particular species is 94,000 hectares (3.1 per cent of the territory of the Republic).

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Armenia's agriculture has severely suffered from the known events which occurred recently. Therefore, a sustainable reform program has been developed and is being implemented in Armenia to cover all due problems in this sector.

The following are the measures that could promote the development of the sector:

- continuation and completion of privatisation, to include service and storage organisations;

- raising the efficiency and effectiveness of the infrastructure, including the rehabilitation and improvement of the irrigation system, introduction of banking services, and the implementation of an insurance system;

- completing the implementation of the tax system and improvements in taxation mechanisms, as well as the establishment of an insurance system;

- provision of the necessary legislative framework for the implementation of pricing policy;

- organisation of the effective seed varieties and animal breeds.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: Government of the Republic of Armenia

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Agricultural Reform Support Program, Irrigation Rehabilitation Credit, Agricultural Wholesale Market Project, Rural Rehabilitation, Cooperative Agricultural Bank, Individual and Private Cooperative Farms Property Insurance, Development Cadastral Program

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: The abovementioned projects are partly financed by appropriate WB, EBRD, JAPAN, US Government credits and state budget of the RA

5. Regional/International Cooperation: WB, EBRD, USAID, TACIS

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
1990
Latest 1996
Agricultural land (Km2) 13,866 13.914
Agricultural land as % of total land area 46
Agricultural land per capita 0,004 0,007
1989/90
1992/93
Latest 1996
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of 1990 8,300 2,500 2,900
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1993. No report on the Convention has been submitted. CITES Convention. Armenia is not a party to the Convention.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

The relatively small territory of the Republic of Armenia (29,965 sq.km.) is characterized by rich biological diversity. Seventy-six species of mammals, 304 species of birds, 44 species of reptiles, 6 species of amphibians and 24 species of fish inhabit Armenia. There is also a rich and distinctive flora replete with species (approximately 3,200), which results from the complexity of the terrain and climate of Armenia and from its location at the juncture of completely diverse provinces of flora. The forestry resources cover 459,900 hectares. The average density of the forests is 0.54. Armenia's Red Book includes 99 species of animals and 387 species of plants, of which approximately 200 are endemic or relicts. The data cited, however, do not reflect the current real picture since Armenia's flora has suffered an irreplaceable loss on account of the severe energy crisis and the massive deforestation, and this has affected the quantity and quality of the fauna. Migration routes and the ecological balance of animal habitats have been destroyed. The protection of animal and plant life in Armenia is in a critical situation. Because of the lack of financial resources, no work is being done on the establishment of an inventory of animal and plant life. The protection of biological resources has become particularly difficult on account of the privatization of land resources in the Republic, the unauthorized harvesting of medicinal and food crops and the relentless extermination of ornamental plant species. In the opinion of botanical experts, approximately 50 species of plants not included in Armenia's Red Book are now on the verge of extinction.

Five State nature reserves in the Republic, as well as a National Park, the Sevan nature reserve complex and 22 reserves for particular species, have the status of specially protected territories. The total area of the nature reserves is 65,000 hectares (2.2 per cent of the territory of the Republic) and the total area of the reserves for particular species is 94,000 hectares (3.1 per cent of the territory of the Republic).

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Armenia.

Questions relating to biological diversity are regulated by the following environmental legislation: 1. Fundamentals of legislation on environmental protection of the Republic of Armenia. 2. Act on particular sites. 3. Forest Code of the Republic of Armenia. Further legislation is being prepared.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources has established working groups to develop new environmental legislation. A working group forms part of the national programme on environmental safety. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, conferences are being held with the participation of various experts.

3. Major groups: No information

4. Finance: In order to implement the biological diversity programmes in Armenia, 10-15 million United States dollars are required. A number of projects have been proposed to international funds to obtain financing.

5. Regional/international cooperation: The Republic is participating in international meetings in the context of the Convention and is cooperating within the Inter-State Environmental Council (CIS).

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Protected area as % of total land area - 10%
Number of threatened species: Out of 447 animal species, 99 are rare and endangered, i.e. 20%
Other data: Out of 3,200 plant species, 387 are rare and endangered, i.e. 12%
These data should be reviewed.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Catches of marine species (metric tons)
Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's

total population)

Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: 75% of the population was served by public waterworks in 1991. The water supply facilities are not available to the majority of the Armenian population and are well lower basic level. About 76% of the population were served by public sewer systems in 1991. The wastewater treatment in urban areas consists mainly of biological treatment.

Water supply systems are operated mainly by pumps. Due to current energy crisis their operation is essentially inadequate. Individual projects are prepared to turn the systems into gravitation supply. Urban sewage is basically treated at biological plants. Due to inadequate power supply a number of crucial units at the plants became obsolete, i.e. pumping plants, aeration systems.

The water code of the Republic is approved as the main law for water use and water protection.

The annual national social and economic development programme includes a chapter for water resources rational use and protection.

One of the Armenian priorities concerning freshwater resources is to cover all activities in society, in particular land use, agriculture, forestry, industry and energy generation, in such a manner as to introduce overall sustainable use of water resources.

Integrated water resources management plans are drawn up for all the areas where water quality problems or conflicts between use and protection occur. Given water scarcity in the country, therefore, water resource use issues are closely connected to water protection and are solved in a complex manner.

Industry generated close on 800 min cubic meters of process and sanitary waste-water in 1994. Almost 50% is treated biologically but due to improper operation of the plants waste waters are treated mainly mechanically. 20% of all the waste water is treated biologically.

In addition, the environmental approaches for the countryside and for forestry, research projects concerning i.e. water conservation in agriculture and forestry have an impact on the quality of water resources. The state of water is under continuous monitoring so that the effects of water protection mesasures can be assessed.

One of the urgent problems related to protection of the quality and supply of freshwater as well as their effective use is the support of the Biological Balance of Lake Sevan. In this regard, a Program for Restoring the Biological Balance of Lake Sevan, funded by the World Bank, has been identified as a priority issue.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of the Environment and Underground Resources maintains national monitoring networks which cover all main components of the hydrological cycle and several chemicals analyses of water quality. Municipalities take care, by large, of the water supply and wastewater treatment of communities.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Education for the sustainable use of water resources has been increased as part of implementing the environmental programme for agriculture and rural areas. The main areas of environmental expertise of Armenian industry lie in waste-water treatment and measuring techniques. Demand for environmental technology on export markets will increase.

3. Major Groups: No information. (see also 2 and 4)

4. Finance: The municipal wastewater and water supply investment costs are financed mainly by municipalities themelves, and operation and maintenance costs including capital costs covered by the users in compliance with the Water Code.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: The World Bank is allocating a grant to prepare Lake Sevan Ecological Action Plan

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 1996
Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3) 10,788
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water 1991-1995

4,649 mil. m3

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: With a view to protecting nature and human health, there are plans in the Republic to establish systematic monitoring of the use of chemical substances in industry and agriculture. The monitoring will be carried out by a designated national organ of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Armenia.

The Ministry, with the participation of a designated correspondent approved by UNDP and on the basis of the data bank of the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC), has devised a project entitled "Provisions relating to the utilization, import and export, and the transboundary movement of chemical and toxic chemical substances". The project has been submitted to the Government of the Republic of Armenia for approval.

1. Decision-making structure

The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources of the Republic of Armenia.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES
INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC
IN HAZARDOUS WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

Basel Convention: No information

The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 19--.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter

Armenia is not yet joined to the Basel Convention, but the text of the Convention is studied now by our parliamentary experts for the purpose of its adoption.

In December 1995 the Government of the Republic of Armenia approved a resolution, adjusting import, export and transboundary movement of hazardous and other wastes over the territory of Armenia. The resolution establihsed the order of the Supervision over transboundary movements.

After adoption of the Basel Convention Armenian party will regularly inform the Secretariat of Basel Convenion about issues, essential to parties, concerning generation, disposal and transportation of hazardous wastes.

The major aim of our Government in this field is to develop and ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes in Armenia.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: The Government of the Republic of Armenia, Ministry of Environment and Underground and the Ministry of Health are the competent authorities, making state decisions on wastes issues.

Ministry of Environment and Underground adjusts import, export and transit movement of hazardous wastes, ensures supervision over these operations, and processing and disposal as well.

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Armenian side needs up-to-date equipment for sound management of hazardous wastes.

3. Major Groups: No specific information.

4. Finance: Lack of financing.

5. Regional/International Cooperation: Armenia is very interested in international cooperation and after adoption of Basel Convention Armenian side will take steps for effective cooperation.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1990
Latest 199-
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Government of Armenia is responsible for the overall management of radioactive wastes.

For the adoption of political and administrative decisions by the Ministry of Energy, projects in this area are being prepared with the agreement of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Health and the local administrative authorities.

The Atomic Inspectorate of the Government of the Republic deals directly with matters relating to radioactive wastes.

Low-level radioactive wastes are stored at a special site and high-level radioactive wastes generated at the atomic power station are removed in accordance with the contract for the supply of radioactive fuel to Russia.

The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources and the Ministry of Health are responsible for the joint supervision and monitoring of background figures of radiation pollution and emissions into the air, water and soil.

At the present time, the population is periodically informed of the results of the monitoring of radioactive pollution and the background figures.

Cross-Sectoral Issues

1. Decision-making structure: Decisions relating to the protection of the population and the environment from radiation are being prepared. The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources and the Ministry of Health, on the basis of the monitoring of the atmosphere and the health of the population and with the agreement of the Atomic Inspectorate and the Ministry of Energy, are proposing such decisions to the Government.

2. Capacity-building/technology issues: No inormation

3. Major groups: The Atomic Inspectorate, the Ministry of Industry, the Ministry of Energy and Fuel, scientific and medical institutions.

4. Finance: The State budget.

5. Regional/international cooperation: Questions relating to regional radiation safety are a matter of concern to all the neighbouring States - Turkey, Iran, Georgia and Azerbaijan and, in that connection, the organizations authorized to do so enlist the services, as experts, of representatives of IAEA, Francelectrique, the Scientific Research Institute of Russia and others.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS

The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda 21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or obstacles.

PARTICIPATION OF MAJOR GROUPS IN DESCRIBING THE
SITUATION AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GOAL-DIRECTED GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.

Adoption of legislation directed towards ending discrimination against women's rights.

Signed in 1989. Ratified in 1993.

24.b. Increase in the proportion of women decision makers.

Percentage of women

Government % 2(1992) 4.6 (1996)

National Assembly % 3.6 (1992) 6.3 (1996)

Local self-government organs % 10 (1992) - (1996)

24.e. Assessment, review, revision and implementation of curricula and other educational material to promote gender-relevant knowledge.

Already being implemented

24.f and 24.c. Formulation and implementation of policies, strategies, programmes and recommendations for the achievement of equality in all aspects of society, including strategies for the elimination of obstacles to women's full participation in sustainable development by the year 2000.

Policies/strategies, etc. are in the process of formulation.

24.2.d. Establishment by 1995 of mechanisms to promote the implementation and assess the impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Mechanisms are being established

The equality of rights of men and women is genuinely established by law in Armenia. It has been still further strengthened by the ratification of international agreements.

No specialized institutions have been established with a view to the development and protection of women.

A wide range of questions relating to women and maternity are dealt with by the Ministries of Health and Social Security. Within the latter Ministry, there is a department dealing with family problems.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

PARTICIPATION OF MAJOR GROUPS IN DESCRIBING THE

SITUATION AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 27: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs): PARTNERS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 Development of mechanisms to allow NGOs to play their partnership role more responsibly and effectively.

27.6 Description of Government measures and mechanisms for the involvement of NGOs in decision-making and implementation.

Before being submitted to the National Assembly, draft decisions are submitted to NGOs for consideration.

27.7 Establishment of a mutually productive dialogue between the Government and NGOs by 1995.

A dialogue is being promoted between philanthropic organizations and women's organization.

27.8 Granting of permission for and promotion of the participation of NGOs in the consideration, formulation and evaluation of major questions relating to the establishment of State mechanisms under Agenda 21.

It is understood that NGOs will be involved

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS.

29.2 The full participation of workers in the implementation and evaluation of Agenda 21. The trade unions are involved in established governmental and non-governmental commissions with a view to the preparation of national reports.

29.3 By the year 2000: (a) the promotion of the ratification of conventions of the International Labour Organisation (ILO); (b) the establishment of bipartite and tripartite mechanisms on social security, health and sustainable development; (c) an increase in the number of collective agreements; (d) a reduction in the number of occupational accidents and injuries; (e) the promotion of efforts to provide workers' education and training.

ILO Conventions will be ratified by the year 2000.

Workers participate to some extent in the discussion/implementation of the national Agenda 21.

Six ILO Conventions have already been ratified. Others are being reviewed. The main difficulties result from the problem of financing translations.

Since 1993, bipartite mechanisms have been in operation. Work is being done with a view to involving a third party, representing labour.

In accordance with its legislation, the Republic of Armenia is required to sign collective agreements.

Legislation and regulations are being prepared to reduce occupational accidents and injuries. Work is continuing on the Labour Code.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

PARTICIPATION OF MAJOR GROUPS IN DESCRIBING THE
SITUATION AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.

30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

There are governmental policies encouraging the above objective

30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources by entrepreneurs.

List any actions taken in this area:

30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies.

Several big enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Several Small and Medium sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

PARTICIPATION OF MAJOR GROUPS IN DESCRIBING THE
SITUATION AT THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.

31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the general public.

Sientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development.

31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development.

Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

Establishment of foundations, grant-giving agencies, organization of international forums dedicated to the formulation of priority directions for the development of science. Allocation of funds for supporting research on reconciling and ameliorating environment, public health, welfare and development of the society. Decisions for research programs launching are made from the viewpoint of their expediency for the relevant spheres.

Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.

32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.

The Government supports and promotes sustainable farming practices and technology.

32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers for sustainable and efficient farming practices.

The basic policy for the present stage is to support programs that yield profit.

32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of sustainable development policies.

Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):

There is a current active process of participation of farmers in design and implementation of development policies. A tendency is displayed by local donors to invest in scientific research on a long-term basis with a perspective of multiple effect. The Presidential Decree of 1996 has set up a profit tax holiday for organizations which have payed debts for 1996 and invested in science.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS

NATIONAL PRIORITY: Socio-economic reforms and the stabilization of the situation
STATUS REPORT:

The reforms carried out recently have led mainly to the macroeconomic stabilization of the Republic. Over the past year the gross national product increased 6 per cent over that for the same period the previous year.

REFORM AIMED AT STABILIZING DEVELOPMENT IN THE NATIONAL BUDGET:

In 1996 reforms continued in the energy sector. As a result, progress has now been made not only in the supply of electricity but also in improving the regularity of payments for electricity. Budget planning takes social considerations into account.

NEW ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES:

The introduction of a State treasury system had led to improved budget discipline in the Republic and to greater expediency and effectiveness in the use of State budget resources.

ACTIVITIES AT THE LOCAL AND NATIONAL LEVELS WHICH WILL PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY AND ENHANCE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY. THESE MAY INCLUDE:

The training of personnel, the adoption of preferential financial agreements, the dissemination of information and structural legal changes.

PROGRAMMES FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY ARE AIMED AT:

The acquisition of new markets for production, enhanced efficiency in the activities of industrial enterprises, the resolution of the investment crisis, increased exports, finding substitutes for imported raw materials, and so on.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to chapter 34.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON LINKS BETWEEN NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS/SYSTEMS: No information

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: No information

Describe any work being undertaken at the national or local level regarding efforts to promote clean production processes and/or the concepts of eco-efficiency. These processes may include training, preferential financial arrangements, information dissemination and changes in legal or regulatory frameworks.

No information

Provide information on the adoption of environmental management systems. National reaction to environmental management system standards such as the ISO 14000 Series and others. Please note efforts made at the national level to promote their adoption and the creation of certification infrastructure in order to facilitate access to these standards to local industry.

No information

List and describe programs or work under way to facilitate the transfer of ESTs to small and medium sized enterprises. Please note efforts to facilitate access to financial resources and other transfer strategies.

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES:

A number of ecological and environmental research projects are being carried out, including projects relating to specific aspects of sustainable development. These research projects are being carried out with the participation of leading scientific centres of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, higher educational establishments, specialized administrative scientific organizations and scientific-production enterprises. Among the priorities for scientific research in the area of sustainable development and environmental protection, mention should be made of the restoration and conservation of the sustainability of the ecosystem of Lake Sevan, the improvement of the legal basis for the utilization and administration of natural resources, the development of economic mechanisms for the utilization of natural resources, the introduction of a system of continuing environmental education, and so on.

STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG-TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:

Ecological research relating to environmental protection and sustainable development must be carried out in accordance with priorities and in stages which will ensure the establishment of mechanisms for sustainable development.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36: PROMOTING EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:

(a) Reorienting education towards sustainable development

The educational system and the legislative and normative basis for the provision of access to education are being reformed. A Government decree is being prepared on the introduction of a system of continuing environmental education in the Republic of Armenia. In 10 State higher educational establishments and 40 higher educational establishments in the private sector, new programmes on questions relating to development and environmental protection are being developed and organized. Education is being reoriented with the inclusion of the principles of the concept of sustainable development. An experimental textbook has been published for senior secondary school classes entitled "Principles governing the utilization of nature and environmental protection", which is fully oriented towards Agenda 21 and the principles of sustainable development. In several faculties at Erevan State University (ESU), courses are being taught on the global programme for sustainable development. Through the efforts of UNDP, ESU and the Association for the sustainable development of human society, a textbook has been published for higher educational establishments entitled "The Concept of Sustainable Development: Theory and Practice".

(b) Increasing public awareness

The competent departments of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, scientific centres, NGOs and the mass information media are involved in the process of environmental education. A national report on Armenia, environmental journals and materials on educational methods are published. Regional centres of environmental education have been opened in the districts of Gegarkunik and Armavir.

Erevan State University and the Association for the sustainable development of human society, with the cooperation of the Ministry of the Economy of the Republic of Armenia and UNDP, organized the first National Conference in the context of Rio + 5, on "The sustainable development of society and Armenia", in which Government organs, higher educational establishments, scientific research institutes and non-governmental organizations participated.

(c) Promoting training

Government departments and scientific and public organizations are active in promoting the implementation of continuing environmental education and the establishment of sustainable development mechanisms. These departments and organizations include: the Department of Science of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, Erevan State University, the Engineering University of Armenia, the Armenian Division of the International Environmental Academy, the non-governmental organizations "Byurakn" and "Sustainable Development", the Association "For the sustainable development of society", the Botanical Society, the Green Union and others.

FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF LABOUR ACTIVITIES: Environmental and sustainable development research are funded by Government organizations, national and international funds (for example, UNDP financed research on the transformation of the human development index (HDI) into the sustainable human development index (SHDI), research which was carried out by an interdepartmental group of experts). The evaluation of the cost of labour and the allocation of activities is being carried out in accordance with the priorities in that sphere.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.

Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA policies in this area.

Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this country/state:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND MECHANISMS

Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered) entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:

No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters
Very
good
Good
Some good
data but
many gaps
Poor
Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
6. Human health
7. Human settlements
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development
36. Education, public awareness and training
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Additional Comments

No information

STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
1993
Latest 199-
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

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Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org
1 November 1997