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Rural Development Reports


World Bank - INDIA Building Capacities for Public Private Partnerships

Both central government and the states are aiming to use public private partnerships (PPPs) more intensively to help meet gaps in the provision of basic services. India has seen real progress over the last 10 years in attracting private investment into the infrastructure sectors, first in telecommunications, and now in ports and roads, and in individual projects in other sectors. There isthe potential for PPPs to contribute more and help
meet the infrastructure gap in India. But PPPs are not a panacea. They represent a claim on public resources that needs to be understood and assessed by the government, and are often complex and longterm transactions in which mistakes in design can be costly. The Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) asked the World Bank to provide recommendations on how capacities for identifying, procuring and managing PPPs could be further developed in India. Of particular focus is the possible role of the central government in developing these capacities. We look at both organizational and individual capacities, the former including policy and legal frameworks, and institutions and processes.... from Abstract

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World Bank - The Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction An Empirical Perspective

The relative contribution of a sector to poverty reduction is shown to depend on its direct and indirect growth effects as well as its participation effect. The paper assesses how these effects compare between agriculture and non-agriculture by reviewing the literature and by analyzing cross-country national accounts and poverty data from household surveys. Special attention is given to Sub-Saharan Africa. While the direct growth effect of agriculture on poverty reduction is likely to be smaller than that of non-agriculture (though not because of inherently inferior productivity growth), the indirect growth effect of agriculture (through its linkages with nonagriculture) appears substantial and at least as large as the reverse feedback effect. The poor participate much more in growth in the agricultural sector, especially in low-income countries, resulting in much larger poverty reduction impact. Together, these findings support the overall premise that enhancing agricultural productivity is the critical entry-point in designing effective poverty reduction strategies, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... from Abstract

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FAO - Farm Investment Helps Slow Migration: Major FAO study on roles of agriculture

A major study conducted by FAO in 11 countries shows that agriculture does much more than produce food, feed and fibre for people. The farm sector impacts deeply on economies and societies at a number of unsuspected levels, according to FAO's Agricultural and Development Economics Division. The right farm policies can, for instance, help regulate rural-to-urban migration, which has seen 800 million people move from the countryside to towns in the past 50 years. By extension, such policies, coupled with the right level of investment, could help reduce illegal migration to Europe and North America.

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World Bank - Is the public sector comparator right for developing countries?

African officials have shown new interest in infrastructure projects involving private participation. But with so little experience with such projects, these officials often have limited knowledge about how best to assess their “value for money.” Some experts have suggested that developing countries use the method centering on the public sector comparator, already adopted by South Africa. But this method has come under criticism in some industrial countries. The debate about its use in the industrial world raises questions about whether it is appropriate in developing countries. ... from Summary

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FAO - The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI), 2005

As the international community reviews progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and prepares for the mid-term review of the World Food Summit (WFS), The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005 focuses on the critical importance of reducing hunger, both as the explicit target of the WFS and MDG 1 and as an essential condition for achieving the other MDGs. The first section of the report analyses long-term trends in reducing undernourishment and explores the impact of economic growth, governance and natural disasters. The second section examines each of the MDGs separately, highlighting ways that hunger holds back development and hunger reduction could accelerate progress. ...from Introduction

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FAO - Committee on World Food Security, Thirty-first Session, International Alliance Against Hunger
[May 2005]

The idea of creating an International Alliance Against Hunger (IAAH) was incorporated in the June 2002 Declaration of the World Food Summit: five years later (WFS: fyl). Entitled International Alliance Against Hunger, the Declaration of the WFS: fyl, recognized “the urgent need to reinforce efforts of all concerned partners as an international alliance against hunger, for the fulfilment of the 1996 Summit”. It called “on all parties (governments, international organizations, civil society organizations and the private sector) to reinforce their efforts so as to act as an international alliance against hunger to achieve the WFS targets no later than 2015.” This document reports on the progress that the IAAH has made since its previous report to the CFS. It focuses especially on actions taken to expand and develop national and regional alliances; to expand and develop activities at the global level; and on concrete and practical actions taken by the alliances. The IAAH Secretariat, currently housed in FAO, has prepared this document as the second annual progress report of the IAAH to the CFS. The comments and views of CFS members on this report will guide the IAAH in its future plans....from Introduction

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FAO - Review of Italy/FAO Agricultural Development Projects

Since 1982, Italy has been among the largest traditional Trust Fund donors. Starting from 1988 an annual Review of FAO/Italy Trust Fund Projects has been carried out and a related Report produced in order to provide a comprehensive and concise presentation of the extensive field of activities carried out by the FAO/Government of Italy Cooperative Programme, and to briefly assess its accomplishments. In order to prepare the Review it is necessary to collect, examine and summarize all the relevant information which is shared by different units and sections both at FAO and the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs. This edition of the Review is the result of a joint effort of the Italian Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGCS - Multilateral Desk) and the Field Programme Development Service (TCAP). ...from Introductory Webpage

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FAO - Do Sustainable Livelihoods approaches have a positive impart on the rural poor
[October 2004]

Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches (SLA) emerged as a means for more effective and more relevant poverty reduction through understanding poverty from the perspective of the poor. This publication first places the issue in this context. Then, it reviews the evidence of the impact, the issue of operationalizing the principles and the implications and lessons learned from SLAs.

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IFAD - Annual Report 2004: Enabling the rural poor to overcome poverty

IFAD is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. IFAD’s activities are guided by the Strategic Framework for IFAD 2002-2006: Enabling the Rural Poor to Overcome Their Poverty. The framework’s three strategic objectives are to: (1) strengthen the capacity of the rural poor and their organizations, (2) improve equitable access to productive natural resources and technologies, (3) increase the poor’s access to financial services and markets. Through concessional and highly concessional loans and grants, IFAD works with governments to develop and finance programmes and projects that enable the rural poor to overcome poverty themselves. Currently, there are 192 ongoing IFAD-supported rural poverty eradication projects and programmes, totaling USD 6.1 billion.

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World Bank - Review of Partnerships Victoria Provided Infrastructure
[January 2004]

As governments turn to the private sector to provide services once delivered by the public sector, they must learn new skills. An increasingly common way to provide the new capacities needed is to establish public-private partnership units—as new agencies or as special cells within a cross-sectoral ministry such as finance or planning. Making the right choices on what roles such units play, where they are located, and how conflicts of interest are managed is critical in their success. This Note reviews the experience. .... from Abstract

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FAO - Agricultural extension, rural development and the food security challenge

The World Food Summit (WFS) in June 2002 re-affirmed the commitments from the Summit of 1996, which was to reduce food insecurity by half by 2015, and further resolved to accelerate implementation of the Plan of Action to facilitate attaining the target within the remaining period. Parties to the WFS documents also agreed to promote coordinated action and to report on progress to the Committee on World Food Security (CFS).

This paper focuses on agricultural extension., rural development and food security. A number of conclusions are drawn from the paper, and three main recommendations are put forward to governments with the purpose of catalyzing new energies for advancing rural development and the advancement of food security in rural areas through newly conceived policy strategies for agricultural extension and rural development.
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FAO - A conceptual framework for national agricultural, rural development, and food security strategies and policies
[November, 2003]

The purpose of the present Conceptual Framework document, developed in the context of FAO’s “Initiative to Review and Update National Agricultural, Rural Development and Food Security Strategies and Policies”, is to propose a flexible general approach to addressing food security through agricultural and rural development and direct actions to enhance immediate access to food. The target audiences for the paper are member country stakeholders participating or interested in the strategy process, FAO country representatives, and FAO field and Headquarter staff. The paper may serve as a starting point for dialogue among these parties, to clarify the scope of the Initiative, and to propose a broad conceptual approach to the strategy process.

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FAO - Participatory Development: Guidelines on Beneficiary Participation in Agricultural and Rural Development
[September 2003]

These Guidelines are an attempt to indicate how to incorporate effectively beneficiary participation in agricultural and rural development projects in particular those supported by FAO technical assistance. They are meant as a tool for project planners and implementers, in particular for the experts involved in the identification and formulation of rural development projects. The latter can be large multi-component or smaller projects of any type: for example, those dealing with agricultural production, livestock, forestry, fishery, irrigation, land reform, inputs, extension, credit, marketing, research, training as well as those dealing with health, sanitation, nutrition, education and other social fields. ...from Introduction

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UNIDO - A Path Out of Poverty: Developing Rural and Women Entrepreneurship
People living in the rural peripheries, and especially women, shoulder the burden of the world's poverty, particularly in the Least Developed Countries and sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing urban-rural disparities and gender inequalities is a crucial element for any poverty reduction strategy. Mobilizing the potential productivity of rural people and particularly of women is indispensable to achieve the resilient economic growth that will pull people above the poverty line. The Rural and Women Entrepreneurship (RWE) Development Programme aims at promoting a conducive business environment and at building institutional and human capacities that will encourage and support the entrepreneurial initiatives of rural people and women.  ... from Abstract
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FAO - Land Tenure and Rural Development

This guide on Land tenure and rural development has been prepared to familiarize readers with key issues in land tenure, especially as they relate to food insecurity and rural development situations. Land tenure issues are frequently ignored in rural development interventions, with often long-lasting, negative results. Analysis of how land tenure works in practice - as evidenced by who has what type of access to land and under what conditions - is essential. This guide is designed to assist technical officers in governments and civil society in understanding why and how land tenure issues should be considered in rural development projects. It analyses important contexts such as environmental degradation, gender discrimination and conflicts, where land tenure is currently of critical concern. ..from the Backcover

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FAO -Promoting farm/non-farm linkages for rural development
[November 2002]

Empirical evidence highlights the importance of off-farm activities in the income-generating portfolios of rural households in developing countries. It is critical to determine how such activities can be promoted, given the importance of non-farm income as a mechanism whereby rural households can sustain and improve their livelihoods and as a possible path out of poverty. In this publication these dynamic linkages and spin-off activities are explored in a series of case studies in Africa and Latin America. The objectives are: (i) to characterize the spin-off activities in each study area and evaluate their importance to rural employment, incomes and growth; (ii) to describe, compare, analyze and synthesize experiences — successful and unsuccessful — of growth and promotion of linkages in high potential areas; and (iii) to devise policy and programme options that would interest policy-makers looking to achieve agricultural growth in potential high-growth areas and promote growth and employment opportunities in the off-farm sector in rural economies.

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FAO - Food, agriculture and rural development

THE PRESENT PUBLICATION contains four in-depth reviews on current and emerging issues in the economic analysis of food, agriculture and rural development, written by well-known scholars in the field. The selection of the issues for in-depth review was the result of a survey conducted among FAO staff involved in policy assistance activities in the main developing regions. Thus, the choice reflects their and, by extension, the policy-makers' perception as to the main research priorities in the economic analysis of agriculture, rural development, poverty and food security. A synthesis of the survey results is included as a chapter. The four in-depth reviews concern: (i) new trends in development thinking and implications for agriculture and rural development (by Simon Maxwell and Robin Heber Percy); (ii) causes, characteristics and alleviation strategies for rural poverty, with particular emphasis on Latin America (by Alberto Valdés and Johan A. Mistiaen); (iii) institutions, reform and agricultural performance (by Pranab Bardhan); and (iv) migration and poverty issues (by J. Edward Taylor).

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FAO - Human resources in agricultural and rural development
Human resources in agricultural and rural development is aimed at professionals, field practitioners and academics, in both developed and developing countries, who have an interest in the importance of human resources in agricultural and rural development.
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FAO - Primary aquatic animal health care in rural, small-scale, aquaculture development
[September 1999]

This document is the Technical Proceedings of the Asia Regional Scoping Workshop on "Primary Aquatic Animal Health Care in Rural, Small-scale, Aquaculture Development," held in Dhaka, Bangladesh from 27 - 30 September 1999. The workshop was organized by the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom (DFID), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), and hosted by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB). The objectives of the workshop were twofold: (1) to review information on socio-economic impacts, risks of disease incursions and health management strategies in rural, small-scale aquaculture and enhanced fisheries programmes; and (2) to identify potential interventions for their better health management and appropriate follow-up actions. The workshop was attended by 48 participants from 12 countries and is complementary to efforts of FAO, NACA and others to assist countries within the Asian Region to develop effective policies and improve capacities to minimize the impact of aquatic animal disease outbreaks. The workshop was preceded by several case studies in countries of the Asian Region that explored the social and economic impact of aquatic animal disease on the livelihoods of people involved in small-scale aquaculture and enhanced fisheries. The workshop largely focused on understanding the impact of aquatic animal health risks in small-scale rural, low-input aquaculture and enhanced fisheries and evaluating their impact on rural livelihoods. The workshop also attempted to derive appropriate management interventions to deal with health risks within rural livelihood programmes involving aquaculture and enhanced fisheries.  

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FAO - The First Mile of Connectivity - advancing telecommunications for rural development through a participatory approach

As development thinking has shifted towards sustainability and participation, there have been remarkable and rapid developments in computing and communication technologies which offer exciting possibilities for rural communities to move into the information age. For this to happen there needs to be a concerted, multi-sectoral approach to information technology with a focus on rural populations as communicators and contributors to information and knowledge, rather than passive consumers. There also needs to be a move from looking at technology and asking, "What can we do with this?" to looking at people's needs and asking, "Which technology might help here?" ...from Foreword

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FAO - Land quality indicators and their use in sustainable agriculture and rural development

A workshop entitled Land Quality Indicators for Sustainable Resource Management held in FAO Headquarters, Rome was attended by FAO technical staff and invited participants from the Agriculture Canada, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and private consultants. The workshop provided a technical forum to discuss issues relating to land quality indicators (LQIs) and their use by planners and policy-makers. LQIs can be used at the national and district levels to assess the qualities of land, to monitor its changing conditions, and to formulate policies and development programmes that take land quality into account.

Progress was made toward preparing a workplan for an LQI Programme including country case studies, development of a meta-database, research topics, location and funding of the Secretariat, financing, institutional contacts, membership in the Core Advisory Committee and follow-up activities. ...from Summary

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FAO - Rural development through entrepreneurship

Throughout Europe, rural development is increasingly associated with entrepreneurship. In recent years, entrepreneurship has been promoted as a key factor of rural development. It is now accepted that the economic and social vitality of rural areas greatly depends on the overall level of its entrepreneurial capacity and development potential. We trust that this publication will be of interest to many institutions and organizations, government officials, trainers and rural development consultants and to all those who are involved in structural adjustment processes of rural areas and entrepreneurship development. ...from Foreword

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FAO - Improving Rural Financial Markets for Developing Microenterprises
[June 1995]

There is a virtual consensus on the need for expanding and strengthening microenterprises (MEs) in rural areas. This is in part due to the potential they offer for employment creation, poverty alleviation and a healthier economy in general, and in part due to recognition that the capacity of the agricultural sector to absorb the increasing number of rural people in more densely-populated countries and regions is very limited. One of the few alternatives to rural-urban migration (with all its attendant problems) is the promotion of MEs. The paper attempts a review of operational experiences with special focus on what does and what could work in developing rural financial markets. This review is mainly confined to experiences of microfinance institutions in Asian countries. ...from Introduction

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FAO - What about the wild animals?

The study tries to: (1) provide a framework for community forestry professionals to consider ways to integrate wild animal species into projects they manage or are proposing; (2) document ways in which humans interact with wild animal species in tropical settings; (3) provide a review of ways in which humans have managed animal species; and (4) propose ways that wild animal species could be successfully integrated into community forestry projects in the tropics.

The text is structured in the following manner: Chapter 1 investigates the biogeographical and ecological factors that influence the use of wildlife. Chapter 2 discusses the various socio-cultural values of wild animals, including the role of gender and the role of market forces in their management and harvest. Chapter 3 considers the effect of various property regimes and ownership issues, differentiating between the use and management of wildlife and paying particular attention to the concept of sustainability. Chapter 4 is designed to provide some guidelines to help project planners decide which types of animals might be appropriate for inclusion in community forestry projects. Chapter 5 provides a series of brief cases of innovative wildlife use and management in three geographical regions - Africa, Latin America and the Southeast Asian and Pacific region. Chapter 6 contains the summary and conclusions. ...from Executive Summary

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FAO - Policy management systems and methods of analysis for sustainable agriculture and rural development (IIED)
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FAO - Rural households and resource allocation for development. An ecosystem perspective
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FAO - FAO collaboration with Asian NGOs for participatory rural development - The case of ANGOC
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FAO - Women, Agriculture and Rural Development. A Synthesis Report of the Africa Region
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FAO - Development strategies for the rural poor
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