Indicators 8.14, 8.15 and 8.16 under Target 8.F provide a measure of penetration of new technology in developing countries, but they do not allow monitoring of global efforts to improve availability of information and communications technology (ICT), including the contribution of the private sector. While Target 8.F makes explicit reference to information and communications technology, it contains a more general reference to the availability of “new technology”. It has been recognized that it is also imperative that the international community come together to better provide other key technologies to developing countries, such as those for coping with the adverse effects of climate change.
The lack of numerical targets restricts the possibility of monitoring the MDG commitment on technology. However, defining a numerical target on information and communications technology is difficult given the fast pace of technological innovation in this sector and the number of supplementary goods and services, mainly software applications, required to gain proper access. Consequently, the issue is how to define a numerical target that captures the specific characteristics of the sector and helps to answer the following question: are countries on track to meet the target of improving access to information and communications technology?
||Target & indicators
|Millennium Summit, New York, 6-8 September 2000—MDG-8
||Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
8.14. Fixed telephone lines per 100 population
8.15. Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 population
8.16. Internet users per 100 population
Lack of numerical targets and indicators prevents monitoring of global commitments.
Lack of indicators to monitor the contribution of the private sector.
Despite rapid diffusion of ICT in the developing world, developing countries, and LDCs especially, still lag behind developed countries in fixed telephony, mobile cellular telephony and internet access and use.
|World Summit on the Information Society, December 2003
WSIS indicative targets, to be achieved by 2015:
- to connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points
- to connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs
- to connect scientific and research centres with ICTs
- to connect public libraries, cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs
- to connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs
- to connect all local and central government departments and establish websites and email addresses
- to adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the Information Society, taking into account national circumstances
- to ensure that all of the world's population have access to television and radio services
- to encourage the development of content and to put in place technical conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet
- to ensure that more than half the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach
Lack of numerical targets and ambiguity in wording prevent proper monitoring.
While the WSIS Plan of Action does not attach precise quantitative indicators to the targets, the World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010: Monitoring the WSIS Targets provides a mid-term review of each WSIS target, based on a set of proposed quantitative indicators.
|Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, launched in June 2004, indicators adopted in 2005 and revised in 2008
A1 Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants
A2 Mobile cellular subscribers per 100 inhabitants
A3 Fixed Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants
A4 Fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants
A5 Mobile broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants
A6 International Internet bandwidth per inhabitant
A7 Percentage of population covered by mobile cellular telephony
A8 Fixed broadband Internet access tariffs (per month), in US$, and as a percentage of monthly per capita income
A9 Mobile cellular prepaid, in US dollars and as a percentage of monthly per capita income
A10 Percentage of localities with public Internet access centres (PIACs) by number of inhabitants (rural/urban)
Cost of ICT services, and especially internet access in low-income countries is unaffordable. Access to internet services is further hampered by lack of electricity in many poor (mainly rural) areas.
Access to fixed broadband services in developing countries is often geographically limited and very expensive. Users in developing countries pay on average 7 times as much than those in developed countries, while in Africa it costs 15 times as much.
|Copenhagen Accord, Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 7-19 December 2009
||Developed countries agreed to scaled-up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding and to the provision of improved access to developing countries to enable and support enhanced action on mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer. Developed countries committed to approximately $30 billion in new and additional resources for the period 2010-2012 and to mobilizing $100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries.
||Current information on financing needs for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in developing countries is limited. UNFCCC estimates that an additional $105-$402 billion per year will be needed in developing countries for mitigation technologies.
1 These indicators are part of the core list of ICT indicators developed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development and endorsed by the UN Statistical Commission in 2007. Please see the latest revisions at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/material/CoreICTIndicators_e_rev2.pdf