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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

The current environmental law reform seeks to provide a legal framework for environmental management. An economic analysis of the law reform is underway to examine the impact of the environmental management law on the economy as well as the use of economic instruments.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

From the outset, the Government of Zimbabwe recognized the need to develop and promote conservation practices and to encourage development on a sustainable basis. The first step in this direction was the development of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) in 1987. The Strategy attempted to document the development and environmental pressures facing the nation and to set a course for building capacity to manage those issues. The strategy is extremely important in that it provides the first comprehensive examination of the environmental and natural resource base of Zimbabwe and pronounced the first declaration towards sustainability.

The National Conservation Strategy also helped pave the way for the Government of Zimbabwe to participate in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Zimbabwe participated fully in the process leading to the Rio summit and subscribes to the principles of AGENDA 21. Zimbabwe has therefore put into place policies to integrate environmental considerations into economic development planning.

In 1992, the Government completed a national environmental survey to identify and prioritize national environmental issues and economic, social, and environmental development objectives. The survey results were a precursor to a Conference on a National Response to the Rio Summit, held in November of 1992. The results of the National Response Conference were documented in an action-oriented report, which set out a course of action that government and non-governmental organizations should follow.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1994 was developed as a tool to ensure that development proposals are environmentally sound. The government is working on translating the policy into law under the current environmental law reform process. It is also working on sectoral guidelines for EIA, and has completed a review of environmental standards with a view to developing new standards to facilitate environmental monitoring.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body:  
2. National Sustainable Development Policy:  
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD  
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: YES
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: YES

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: YES
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: YES
3. Ecolabel Regulations:  
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs:  
5. Green Accounting Program:  
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. National World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Development or State of the Environment:  

Policies, Programmes and Legislation

1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns:  
3. Atmosphere: YES
4. Land Use Planning: YES
5. Forest and Deforestation: YES
6. Desertification and Drought: YES
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: YES
8. Sustainable Agriculture: YES
9. Biological Diversity: YES
10. Biotechnology:  
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas:  
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: YES
15. Solid Wastes: YES
16. Radioactive Wastes:  
17. Energy:  
18. Transport:  
19. Sustainable Tourism:  

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Capacity building in planning and policy coordination is in progress in order to link closely the environmental and economic planning functions. The CAMPFIRE programme aims at building capacity for the sustainable management of natural resources at the community level through a participatory approach.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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For information on the political system and Government in Zimbabwe, click here.

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The government reaffirmed its commitment to the advancement of women by signing the Rio Declaration. Agenda 21 was superseded by the Global Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration (4th World Conference on Women, Beijing, China 4-15 September 1995) which built upon and further developed the actions proposed in Agenda 21. Preparations for the Beijing Conference meant that many of the actions outlined in Agenda 21 were explored, reviewed, and discussed by a wide spectrum of women from the grassroots to the national level and their priorities were identified. Zimbabwe's signature of the Beijing Declaration also reaffirmed its commitment to the cause of women in Zimbabwe.  After Beijing, the Government of Zimbabwe set up a national mechanism in the Ministry of National Affairs and Employment Creation to spearhead the incorporation of gender issues in development. This national mechanism works through gender focal points in each ministry, trained with funding from UNICEF.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

Through the institutional framework the government has drawn up draft strategy documents which cover the following critical areas: environment; power and decision making; economy; institutional mechanisms; access to health and related services; poverty; violence; armed conflict; human rights; the media, and the girl child, as identified in the Beijing Plan of Action. These strategies were compiled into the National Gender Policy which was drafted in October 1996. The vision of the Gender Policy is to create a prosperous society that is free from gender-based inequalities with respect to power, access to, control, and use of resources. The policy seeks to provide a broad framework for the promotion of gender equality in the social, political, legal, and economic spheres at all levels of society.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

A three year project is being implemented in three districts. The objective of this project is to disseminate legal information to women. The laws are simplified and translated into the vernacular before being distributed to local communities. The provincial and district gender focal points are trained to explain these laws and they train village community workers who, in turn, explain the laws to the community.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information available.

Information

Zimbabwe's signature of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1991, though it preceded UNCED, resulted in activities to assess the status of women in all sectors. Zimbabwe's First Report on CEDAW, prepared in October 1995, examined the articles of the Convention and the country's responses to them. By committing itself to taking action for the advancement of women in various relevant conventions, Zimbabwe is obligated to monitor and evaluate progress in the advancement of women. A draft report entitled Monitoring the Status of Women has been prepared. The report identifies indicators and benchmarks for monitoring progress in each sector.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed in 1991.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

With the increasing incidence of child rape, the government has set up an inter-ministerial committee, chaired by the Ministry of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs, to develop strategies to deal with this problem. Some initiatives to address this problem have been implemented, including the following:

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Dialogue between the government and youth has been carried out mainly through the National Youth Council, which was created by the Zimbabwe Youth Act. The Council has coordinated activities of NGOs working on youth issues. The term of operation of the council has expired and the government is working on new legislation to create a more autonomous body to coordinate youth activities. Before the Council was dissolved there were a total of 25 youth organizations affiliated with it.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

There are two major programmes under implementation, one of which is the 4H youth and child development programme aimed at enhancing the leadership and economic skills of children and youth. To date, 57 school youth projects have been funded under this programme. It has also funded 170 4Hs in school youth projects countrywide. The second programme is the "Training for Enterprise Projects", which involved the upgrading of existing Youth Training Centres and shifted its emphasis from technical training to business management skills. Instead of training job seekers, the centres now train entrepreneurs. After completing their training graduates are offered loans to be able to start their own businesses. Twelve training centres have been established throughout the country.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

Unemployment in Zimbabwe is between 30 and 44 percent, and informal sector employment has been declining since independence. The majority of the unemployed are youth between the ages of 15 and 24, accounting for two thirds of the number of unemployed. One of the main objectives of ESAP is to reduce unemployment, particularly among the youth. The establishment of youth training centres is meant to equip them with the skills necessary for employment. The focus of investment promotion has been to create more jobs and reduce unemployment.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Youth, particularly school children, have been involved in conservation programmes such as gully reclamation and tree planting. Many community outreach programmes on tree growing and tree care have aimed at involving school children. Many schools have been involved in activities of the World Environment Day and the National Tree Planting Day and in various competitions on essay writing on environmental topics. The DEAP project aims to mobilize youth during the entire planning process.

Since independence, the enrollment of children into both secondary and primary schools has increased dramatically. Enrollment in secondary schools has increased from 74,000, in 1980, to 670,600 in 1989.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

No information available.

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

In both the pre- and post-Rio process the government has sought to involve NGOs as a key stakeholder in environmental planning and management. NGOs participate in various steering committees and forums which have been established to spearhead sustainable development. Although NGOs pledged to work in partnership with the government at the National Response Conference and vice-versa, the Rio+5 NGO and Private Sector Organizations Consultation meeting, held in Zimbabwe, identified the need to strengthen this partnership even further. Mechanisms to develop partnerships need to be drawn up. Examples of partnership between the government and NGOs are demonstrated in the climate change area.

NGOs have been partners of the government in producing reports on national inventories required under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), and they have assisted also in the development of methodologies for costing greenhouse gas emissions (UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies: Zimbabwe Country Study October 1993).

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Apart from strengthening the role of NGOs through partnerships, the government has developed legislation to facilitate the registration of NGOs and to remove taxation which inhibited their participation in various programmes. The government has also strengthened the role of NGOs through recognition of NGO coordinating bodies like NANGO and the Environmental Forum of Zimbabwe. The Government has also signed financial agreements with donors on behalf of NGOs.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

NGOs have participated in training programmes for government personnel. For example, a capacity building project which involves the training of government personnel in 4 countries, including Ghana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Kenya, to prepare national inventories on greenhouse gas emissions. The project is being implemented by the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

Two national NGOs, ZERO and the Southern Centre for Energy and the Environment, participated in the regional network of African experts on climate change which was coordinated by ACTS in Nairobi. The project was supported by the Swedish government through the Stockholm Environmental Institute. The project sought to define Africa's responses to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and to identify priorities for action to be taken as part of a preparatory process towards the first conference of parties to be held in Berlin. Some of the information generated by the project was used to lobby government positions on the convention.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Status

A survey was jointly conducted by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) to document the activities by local authorities around the world which had implemented Agenda 21. The results of the survey were presented at the Second UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul in June 1996. There was a very low response rate to the questionnaire with only five out of 22 urban authorities in Zimbabwe responding. Of these, 3 have a local Agenda 21 which constituted an environmental policy. None of the councils that responded to the survey had held local consultations. Only one local council, the Harare City Council, has tabled a motion before its council to adopt the concept of Agenda 21. The motion was accepted.

Harare has also formally approached the Ministry of Environment and Tourism to get technical and financial assistance to facilitate the development of a Local Agenda 21. A person has been designated by the City Council to spearhead a programme for this purpose. Since there appeared to be little understanding of what Agenda 21 should contain, there were calls from local authorities for capacity building and environmental training.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives has started a programme to train local authorities in EIAs as part of capacity building for local Agenda 21. In Zimbabwe the project will only train personnel in Harare and Bulawayo city councils.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Trade Unions have fully participated in government efforts to implement and evaluate Agenda 21. In December of 1992, these and other sector-specific groups took part in a national response conference to Rio and assisted with the development of a Country Report. Since then, representatives of industry and trade unions have participated in conferences, meetings and working teams taking steps to implement Agenda 21.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

Limited progress has been made with respect to the ratification of ILO Conventions. Zimbabwe is a party to nine of the ILO Conventions relating to labour and trade, including the following:

The Government is also considering entering into three other conventions: Forced Labour, Freedom of Association, and Discrimination. Ten tripartite formal and informal institutions have been established:

Formal

  1. Tripartite consultative committee to discuss matters relating to Convention 144
  2. Tripartite committees within NSSA - Board of Directors, Zimbabwe Occupational Health & Safety Committee and the National Occupational Health & Safety Committee
  3. NAMACO which advises the Minister on manpower development and training
  4. Wages & Salaries Advisory Board
  5. Retrenchment Committee
  6. Employment Boards recommend terms and conditions of a certain economic sector

Informal

  1. Consultation on draft labour laws and policies
  2. Informal meetings
  3. Tripartite inspections on matters of safety and occupational health
  4. Zimbabwe Industrial Relation Association which promotes the study and development of industrial relations.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

The Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP) has weakened the role of workers and trade unions and strengthened the role of the employer through the deregulation of the labour market. Although collective bargaining was introduced as part of ESAP, the deregulation of the labour market has nonetheless weakened the position of workers.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Efforts have been made to increase workers' education and training. For example, a Training and Resource Support Centre has been established to provide education and training to the industrial community in both health and safety matters. However, with the increased economic activity that Zimbabwe has experienced, efforts to reduce occupational accidents and injuries have had limited success. The Labour Advisory Board was established to address labour related issues but has limited jurisdiction over broader industrial matters relating to economic and sustainable development.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

The Government has taken a number of initiatives to strengthen the role of business in sustainable development. These initiatives include the following:

  1. The Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries has been represented in the National Sustainable Development Committee, which was created after Rio to oversee the implementation of Agenda 21.
  2. Delegations to international business meetings have included members of the business community.
  3. The Indigenization programme under ESAP helps strengthen the role of indigenous business in sustainable economic development as well as the promotion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
  4. Lines of credit and soft loans have been opened for the informal sector and SMEs so as to increase their participation in economic development.
  5. The reduction of capital gains taxes was also meant to strengthen the role of business.
  6. The thrust of ESAP has been to strengthen the role of business and reduce the role of the public sector through commercialization and privatization.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

Industry in Zimbabwe has become proactive in environmental management and is involved in a variety of initiatives such as the cleaner production centres. They are also supportive of ISO 14001 which is a management system that includes environmental policies, auditing and efficient management. An Environmental liaison forum has been created under the Chamber of Zimbabwe Industries.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

The Zimbabwe Institute of Engineers (ZIE) took the initiative to discuss such matters as environmental legislation and decisions regarding major public works of significant environmental impact, with other environmental bodies with which it can form a strong coalition to be able to influence government.. It also became an advisory body on environmental issues related to engineering by disseminating information to all concerned. Seminars, public debates and environmental committees will also be organized for the same purpose. A code of practice will be developed to encourage transparency and environmental reporting in companies.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

The Southern Center for Energy and Environment, a local NGO, has established a capacity building pilot project for decision makers in industry concerning actions which can be taken to abate or mitigate climate change impacts from industry. As part of the project, the Southern Center for Energy and Environment conducts training workshops and seminars which are attended by decision makers. The project is supported by CDG. The pilot phase of the project is being implemented at the Willowvale industrial estate.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

In late 1994 a multi-institutional Committee was established by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism and the Institute of Environmental studies (IES) at the University of Zimbabwe. This Committee comprises several government departments, the university, SIRDC, the Research Council and the NGO community. Its role is to facilitate multi-institutional, interdisciplinary and policy directed research by securing and disbursing funds. It also set up a think-tank to prepare a National Strategy for Environmental Research Projects.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

A coordination committee formed with representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism and three departments of the University of Zimbabwe has helped to improve capacity at the University as well as to link training to the needs of the government. The MET will also organize EIA training through the Institute of Environmental Studies at the University of Zimbabwe, as a way of building capacity for future training programmes and to ensure sustainability.

Information

The multi-institutional Committee also provides a forum for the exchange of information and dissemination of research results. Through this Committee six projects were funded by CIDA, an environmental seminar was conducted in late 1996 and three environmental prizes were awarded to stimulate high quality environmental research.

Research and Technologies

The Tobacco Research Board has been working with the government on the phase out of methyl bromide, while the Scientific Industrial Research and Development Centre (SIRDC) has been collaborating with the government on the issue of biotechnology.

Financing

The MET-University coordination committee provides financial support for research and purchasing reference materials.

Cooperation

The southern African Consortium for Interdisciplinary Research (SACAIR) was formed to ensure that countries in southern Africa benefit from regionally conceptualized and implemented research and training initiatives, since they share common problems in natural resources management. A survey of regional academic institutions involved in environmental work was conducted in 1996 ["Applied Interdisciplinary Research and Training on Natural Resources Management: A Situation Report For Southern Africa" (Mandondo 1996)]. This report is part of a series of initiatives to strengthen collaboration in training and research in the region and the capacity of institutions in six countries.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The government set up a commission of inquiry into appropriate agricultural land tenure systems in relation to sustainable resource management. The Report of the Commission Of Inquiry Into Appropriate Agricultural Land Tenure Systems: Main Report (October 1994), states that the effectiveness of any tenure system is measured by its ability to facilitate high and sustainable levels of production as well as enhanced social cohesion. The report makes several recommendations to the government, including that it establish a decentralized system of administration designed to allow households at the local level to be the decision makers regarding the use of their resources. The Commission also recognizes the role of traditional institutions in local level development and recommends that these, rather than the new institutions, be given authority over resource management and control at the local level.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

No information available.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

There have been several initiatives to involve farmers in extension and to empower them to direct their own research and extension agendas. One such initiative is the training programme supported by ITDG to train both farmers and extension workers in a process called Training for Transformation. Training for Transformation is a participatory methodology which empowers farmers to question the appropriateness and delivery methods.

Another methodology being developed through a project funded by the Dutch Government is using the actor-oriented approach to identify and streamline the roles of various stakeholders in extension. The actor-oriented approach examines the actions of all institutions involved with farmers and identifies desirable outcomes from these interactions on the basis of farmers' opinions and priority needs. This project is a joint effort by the two departments of the University (IES and CASS) and two departments of the Ministry of Agriculture (AGRITEX and Research and Specialist Services) .

The Government has also developed credit support schemes for farmers, particularly communal farmers to enable them to purchase inputs. Drought recovery schemes have also been put into place to enable communal farmers to survive in drought years. The Government supports research through the department of Research and Specialist Services to improve farmers' productivity. Courses are also offered on various subjects for communal and small-scale commercial farmers.

Status

No information available.

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information available.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

Kuturaya "participatory farm experimentation" is a methodology developed by the Department of Agricultural Technical Extension (AGRITEX) to involve farmers in experiments to improve their own production. In Kuturaya, farmers and researchers work together to develop appropriate technologies through experimentation. The methodology incorporates experiences from the participatory technology development experiences of the AGRITEX-GTZ conservation tillage project, implemented in the southern part of the country, the Masvingo province, and the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) food security project in the same province. The methodology empowers farmers to participate in farm experiments and develop their own capacities.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

The National Response Conference encourages research that provides policy support to the government through rigorous analysis of policy options for environmental management. It also noted the need for science to provide research data on scientific assessments of environmental phenomenon. In response to these needs, the Research Council drafted a National Science and Technology Policy following consultations with relevant agencies. The policy document has been circulated to relevant organizations for comments but is not yet finalized.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

Following the Rio Summit, the government organized a national workshop to identify research needs for the implementation of Agenda 21 and to assess the possible role of universities in the field of environment and development. The meeting also discussed the establishment of the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) at the University of Zimbabwe. The proposal for the establishment of the institute was discussed at the workshop. The role of the IES is the following:

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

The Government requires support in strengthening the scientific base to support sustainable development. Strengthening institutions such as Universities and government research centres (SIRDC and the Research Council of Zimbabwe ) will go a long way in developing a strong scientific base for sustainable development.

Information

No information available.

Research and Technologies

The institute coordinates 

research in the University and serves as an independent catalyst for action outside the university through the provision of a forum for discussion, analysis of and cooperation and advice on environmental issues. The institute maintains a register of experts on different environmental matters.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

No information available.

Decision-MakingLegislation and Regulations

No information available.

Decision-MakingStrategies, Policies and Plans

The Ministry of Environment and Tourism is coordinating efforts to compile a State of the Environment Report which will be the second report produced for Zimbabwe, following the 1992 report to UNCED. The State of the Environment Report is a requirement for the 5 year review of UNCED and the National Conservation Strategy. To plan the report, a national workshop was held in Kadoma involving all stakeholders to discuss the concept of State of the Environment Reporting and identify information requirements to compile it. Various models of reports from other countries were reviewed and themes for different chapters of the report were identified. The process is being supported by the ZNRMP.

Decision-MakingMajor Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects

No information available.

Status

The matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available information for decision making.

Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making

Agenda 21 Chapters

Very good

Good

Some good data but many gaps

Poor

Remarks

2. International cooperation and trade    

X

   
3. Combating poverty  

X

     
4. Changing consumption patterns          
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability  

X

     
6. Human health  

X

     
7. Human settlements  

X

     
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making    

X

   
9. Protection of the atmosphere    

X

   
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources    

X

   
11. Combating deforestation    

X

   
12. Combating desertification and drought      

X

 
13. Sustainable mountain development      

X

 
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development    

X

   
15. Conservation of biological diversity    

X

   
16. Biotechnology      

X

 
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources          
18. Freshwater resources    

X

   
19. Toxic chemicals    

X

   
20. Hazardous wastes    

X

   
21. Solid wastes     X    
22. Radioactive wastes      

X

 
24. Women in sustainable development          
25. Children and youth      

X

 
26. Indigenous people          
27. Non-governmental organizations  

X

     
28. Local authorities    

X

   
29. Workers and trade unions    

X

   
30. Business and industry    

X

   
31. Scientific and technological community          
32. Farmers  

X

     
33. Financial resources and mechanisms    

X

   
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building      

X

 
35. Science for sustainable development      

X

 
36. Education, public awareness and training    

X

   
37. International cooperation for capacity-building      

X

 
38. International institutional arrangements      

X

 
39. International legal instruments  

X

     
40. Information for decision-making      

X

 

Challenges

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information available.

Information

The multi-media system provides an interface of textural, pictorial and video-audio information based on a network of linked components. Zimbabwe, through the Institute of Environmental Studies, in collaboration with South Africa, through the University of Veda, has developed a sustainable management system for the management of the Limpopo valley. The management system incorporates scenario building as an essential component.

IRIS is an Integrated Resource Information System developed in the Department of Natural Resources. This information system provides information on natural resources in the form of inventories (attribute data and maps) which are freely distributed. The data is mainly used in the monitoring of the state of the environment. Much of the data is collected from other relevant ministries, though the DNR also collects raw data where gaps are identified in the existing data base. Since its establishment the information system has widened its scope to incorporate new issues and there are many government institutions and industry who regularly access it.

The MET is setting up a national sustainable development data base for Zimbabwe which will be in time series and will consist of national level indicators including economic, social and environmental development. The data base will provide a consistent set of statistics for researchers, non- governmental organizations and international organizations. The data base on economic indicators will include such issues as the gross national product, trade employment, government spending and revenue. The social indicators will include health, education and nutrition trends, while environmental indicators will include changes in erosion, forests, pollution, water and wildlife resources. The data base will feed into the National State of The Environment Reporting Process which is being coordinated by the MET.

The Department of Veterinary Services has established a geographical information system for teak borne disease and other diseases affecting cattle. The GIS also contains information on the environmental impacts of dip tanks. In the same department there is also a data base on the impact of land use on tsetse eradication.

Research and Technologies

No information available.

Financing

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

For a basic statistical profile of Zimbabwe, click here.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Cooperation

The following Conventions have been signed and ratified by the Government of Zimbabwe:

The Basel Convention and the Convention to Combat Desertification have been signed but not ratified.

The Convention on Indigenous People and the Ramsar Convention have not been signed or ratified.

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This information was provided by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1997.

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