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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIA

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries bears the main responsibility for agriculture and in general terms, rural development.  Zambia has a great potential for both rain fed and irrigated crop production as well as livestock production.  Issues arising from land and agriculture in Zambia include land tenure, soil and land degradation, food security and contamination of surface and ground water because of fertiliser and chemical usage.  To deal with these issues entails the active involvement of the Ministry of Lands, Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources and the Environmental Council of Zambia.  

Zambia has put in place institutional reforms in the agricultural sector such as the Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (ASIP) and the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) to improve and enhance the use of land in Zambia for agriculture and other land uses to ensure sustainability and lasting food security. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The principal legal instrument for agricultural management is established by the Agricultural Lands Act.  The Act establishes the Agricultural Lands Board, and provides for its functions which inter alia, includes keeping under review the use that is being made of leasehold land outside urban and peri-urban areas and to make appropriate recommendations.  Other relevant pieces of legislation are the Lands Act, the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control act, the Town and Country Planning Act, the Forestry Act, the Fisheries Act and the Water Act. At the policy level, Zambia through the Lands Act of 1995 has recognised customary land as eligible for state registration and thus one can get leasehold title on customary land.  This has empowered peasant farmers and women with security of tenure to land.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

The government of Zambia has been implementing the Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (ASIP) consisting of three main components: 

(i)                  Policy and institutional reforms

(ii)                Support for private sector investment, and

(iii)               Rehabilitation and strengthening of public sector agriculture services. 

Since 1991, a number of broad policy reforms have been initiated and implemented in the agricultural sector.  Of these, the most predominant ones are the liberalisation of the agricultural markets and the promotion of private sector participation in all aspects of the agricultural sector development.  This has entailed the implementation of a number of strategies including:

(i)                  doing away with maize and fertiliser subsidies

(ii)                liberalisation of prices for commodities and inputs

(iii)               lifting import and export restrictions and

(iv)              privatising agro-processing firms

Liberalisation of the agricultural sector has enhanced private sector participation in agricultural development, thereby reversing more than three decades of government dominance in the economy.  By the end of 1997 all agronomic parastatals were privatised and by 1998 privatisation of agro processing firms had already started bearing positive results including boosting the demand for agricultural products. 

Maize, cassava, rice, wheat and small grains such as sorghum and the millets are the staple food crops grown in Zambia.  The production of these food crops over the past decades has been characterised by extreme variation based on policy interventions and whether patterns.  In 1988, there was a grain surplus of 70% while in 1992 Zambia had a deficit in cereal production of 50%.  Over the last decade Zambia has been a net importer of maize, rice and wheat mainly due to recurrent droughts, which have constrained food production. 

Net farm incomes have only ranged between 85% and 40% of GDP over the last decade. This is mainly due to droughts, uncertainities caused by the transition to a liberalised agricultural sector, unfavourable agricultural policies relative to the prices of manufactured goods and low labour and land productivity. 

Livestock production has also been declining mainly due to disease and impacts of drought.  Almost the entire traditional herd of 2.2 million depends on natural grassland and browse for feed while the commercial herd is given supplementary feed.  The rangeland available for the traditional herd is approximately 11,000,000 hectares, which gives a stocking rate of 5 hectares per animal compared to the carrying capacity of 10-15 hectares per unit.  About 90% of the traditional herd is concentrated in Central, Eastern, Southern and Western provinces.  Pressure on rangeland resources is greatest in these provinces and these are the areas targeted for intervention under the UNCCD initiative. 

Status   

No information available.

Challenges

Zambia's main objective in implementing Chapter 14 of Agenda 21 has been to: ensure household and national food security; generate income and employment; ensure that the existing agricultural land resource base (land, water and soil) are maintained and improved upon; and contribute to sustainable industrial development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Zambian government's challenge is to move from a mineral/mining dependent economy. Agriculture is perceived to play a critical role in this process of diversification of the economy.  For sustainable agriculture to be achieved there is need for institutional competence building in the public and private sectors.  The following strategies for dealing with environmental issues in the agriculture sector, require support:

(i)                  reorganisation of the management and delivery of key support services, especially research, extension and the establishment of farm credit schemes

(ii)                development of mechanisms for improving the economic status of women in agriculture

(iii)               mechanisms to assist farmers to deal with climatic variations such as droughts

(iv)              development and promotion of environmentally friendly production technologies such as soil conservation, agroforestry, crop rotation, green manuring, intercropping and use of animal manure

(v)                Livestock development. 

To enhance community and major groups participation, information dissemination is being undertaken through radio and television programmes.  Field days are also organised in various areas to encourage sharing of knowledge and experiences among farmers.  The private sector has also introduced out grower schemes through which small-scale farmers are provided with extension services, agricultural inputs for selected crops and a ready market for their produce. 

Information 

The implementation of market policy reforms has improved some aspects of the agricultural sector, particularly the prevalence of seasonal and regional price variations for inputs and produce.  Zambia now has one of the most comprehensive agricultural price information system in the region implemented by the agricultural Marketing Information Centre (AMIC).  However, this system is still weak on information management and availability at the district level. 

Given the multitude of environmental problems, social issues and political factors involved in agriculture, the information required for sustainable agriculture is very wide-ranging.  An integrated information management system is not yet developed to create an informed and environmentally sensitive farming community. 

Research and Technologies 

Agricultural research has generated appropriate technologies for improving and sustaining the agricultural sector.  In crops, research activities have emphasised the improvement and development of food crops, such as cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables and legumes and export crops such as cotton, cashew, tea, coffee and sugar canes.  The frequent droughts in agro ecological Regions I and II have also tended to shift research attention from maize to sorghum and millet, which are more drought tolerant.  In Region III research has concentrated on improving the productivity of the farming systems that are traditionally based on finger millet, cassava and sweet potatoes. 

Financing 

Since UNCED, Zambia has implemented sustainable agriculture activities from the national budget with assistance from cooperating partners.  In 1999 support from cooperating partners to agriculture was 52 percent of the total budget with government providing the balance. 

Cooperation  

Zambia has continued to support regional programmes such as the SADC Plant Genetic Resource Centre (SADC PGRC) which is hosted in Zambia.  Zambia continues to participate and support activities of the SADC Agriculture Food Security and Livestock Sector, the Fisheries and Marine Resources Sector, Inland Fisheries Sector and SADC Environment and Land Management Sector.  Zambia has been an essential contributor to and beneficiary from the Southern African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural Research and Training (SACCAR) on important crops, agroforestry and plant genetic resources. Zambia has also actively participated in the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilisation of the Soil (SARCCUS) in the areas of regional exchange of agriculture related technical and scientific information, expertise and know-how.  At international level, Zambia has continued to be an active collaborator in FAO and IFAD programmes and activities. 

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN AGRICULTURE

Performance Indicator

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Agriculture GDP (1994 constant prices K=million)

242,403

322,379

302,183

402,964

400,423

386,703

Total value of Agric. Exports (US$=million)

28.34

35.70

23.89

47.24

56.56

109.44

Yield/ha of major crops

0.75

1.64

1.28

n.a.

1.61

n.a.

Area cultivated/ha per farm household

-

-

1.37

-

1.17

-

Percentage of households with cattle

20

17

14

13

13

13

Source:  Ministry of Agriculture   

Area Cultivated (000 hectares) for major crops

Season

1991/

1992

1992/

1993

1993/

1994

1994/

1995

1995/

1996

1996/

1997

1997/

1998

Total area cultivated

887.2

892.5

930.5

737.9

925.4

915.9

701.5

Source:  Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In 1992 Zambia established an Environmental Council Zambia (ECZ) through an Act of Parliament, the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act. ECZ is the implementing arm of government for all projects and programmes that aim at protecting the atmosphere. 

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for policy guidance, coordination and monitoring of environmental and natural resources management issues in the country.  The Ministry has constituted a National Climate Change Steering Committee (NCCSC) comprising senior government policy makers and stakeholders from key sectors of the economy.  The Committee is set up to provide policy guidance and ensure effective implementation of activities undertaken on climate change and integration of the study findings into national development plans. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Zambian government enacted the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act which became effective in 1992 in response to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).  National legislation has generally been reviewed in light of Agenda 21.  The Licencing and Emission Standards Regulations were enacted through Statutory Instrument No. 141 of 1996 to protect the atmosphere from air pollution arising from industrial processes.  Recently, regulations on ozone depleting substances have been passed through Statutory Instrument No. 27 of 2001. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

The impacts of climate change have been investigated in the agricultural, wildlife, forestry, health and water sectors using the intergovernmental panel on climate change guidelines. The following studies have been undertaken: 

Four sectors have been inventoried; these are energy, industry, land use and forestry.  The green house gases considered in the studies were carbon dioxide (Co2), Methane (CH4) nitrous oxide (NO4) and precursors like oxides and nitrogen, carbon dioxide (C0) and non methane volatile organic compounds.  

Electricity is the main source of energy in the Zambian industries.  However, some industries use fossil feed in boilers for production of steam.  CO2 emissions from the industrial sector accounted for about 14% of the total CO2 emissions that were estimated at 300,465 Gg in 1994. 

The transport sector produced 1211.553 Gg of CO2 representing 53 per cent of the total emission.  CO2 emissions from households were 57.046 Gg accounting for 24 percent of the total CO2 emissions.  The total green house gas emissions due to energy use in 1994 was 2,294.885 Gg. 

Results from these studies have shown that the production of maize the staple food of Zambia would reduce under the scenario of double the amount of carbon dioxide that is currently present in the atmosphere particularly in Zambia's agro-ecological zones II and I. Under drought conditions, reduced soil moisture and poor quality fodder, stress, mortality and migration of wildlife would occur.  Under low rainfall (500mm) and high temperature (20°C) and few rain days (50 days) miombo woodland cover, which is 80% of forested land, would suffer a 50% reduction whereas the dryer mopane and munga vegetation types would predominate. During periods of high rainfall, humidity and high temperature, malaria incidences would increase in all the three ecological zones of Zambia exerting a heavy burden on the health service deliver system. 

Adaptation measures already being implemented include the development of drought tolerant and early maturing crop varieties, crop diversification, sinking boreholes and construction of dams to provide water to people, livestock and wildlife during droughts. Game ranching and plantation forestry for conservation purposes is being encouraged and institutional and legal frameworks are being strengthened. 

Climate change mitigation measures being considered include:

·        the improvement of charcoal production processes,

·        switching from the use of diesel powered generators to mini hydropower,

·        minimising green house gas emissions from coal mining,

·        reducing energy demand by encouraging energy efficient cook stoves and increasing electrification of households in the low income groups and

·        promoting the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind. 

Mitigation measures for reducing CO2 emissions in the manufacturing industries have focussed on improving boiler operating efficiency as well as converting coal and diesel fired boilers to electric ones.  In the mines the strategy for reducing CO2 emissions is being achieved by switching from diesel to electric engines and adoption of new technologies such as the use of flash smelting furnace, ceramic concentration filters and oxyfuel smelters in smelter operations. 

In the transport sector the strategies that are being encouraged are: pooling transport, running vehicles that are technically efficient and blending fuel with ethanol. 

In agriculture mitigation measures have focussed on reducing CO2 emissions by discouraging shifting cultivation through the use of organic manure and fertilisers 

Status 

Zambia's main objective in implementing Chapter 9 of Agenda 21 over the past ten years has been to improve the nation's understanding of the processes that influence and are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere, reduce the adverse effects of the energy sector on the atmosphere, develop and promote cost effective policies and programmes aimed at controlling harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The nation is encouraging industrial development in ways that minimise adverse impacts on the atmosphere, promoting appropriate land use practices that contribute to reduction of atmospheric pollution and enhance conservation and sustainable management of all sinks for green house gases, controlling the use of ozone depleting substances and developing strategies aimed at reducing emissions responsible for stationary and transboundary air pollution and their effects.

Challenges  

Zambia is constrained by inadequate skilled human resources, poor infrastructure and week economy in responding in a timely and effective manner to challenges of protecting the atmosphere.   

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Modest achievements have been made under the industrial pollution prevention programme and the ozone layer project.  Equipment to measure industrial stack emissions and various equipment for recycling, retrofitting and proper handling of ozone depleting substances have been acquired. 

The University of Zambia School of Mines has been conducting training workshops on air pollution and monitoring systems for the industries, the public, NGOs and various bodies involved in environmental programmes.  Other higher learning institutions have also introduced courses in environmental pollution control. Under the ozone layer project, Zambia has conducted hands on training on refrigeration handling and servicing techniques for refrigeration technicians at the University of Zambia and Northern Technical College in Ndola.

Information 

Zambia is establishing a database on air emissions from industries at the Environmental Council of Zambia and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources through the Environmental Information Network and Monitoring System project of the Environmental Support Programme.

Research and Technologies 

There has been very little research done on protection of the atmosphere in Zambia.  Sulphur dioxide emissions from roasting and smelting operations and the burning of sulphur containing fuels have been the main sources of air pollution in the Copperbelt.  Before privatisation and capitalisation of the mines, concentrations of sulphur dioxide occasionally exceeded recommended levels of 600 micrograms per cubic metre per hour or 200 micrograms per cubic metre per day.  In 1977 the mean ground level concentration of sulphur dioxide within 7km of the smelter in Kitwe was 15-40 micrograms per cubic metre of air.  At Luanshya and Mufulira concentrations of sulphur dioxide within 2km of the smelter were 100 and 78 micrograms per cubic metre of air, respectively. 

 

YEAR

 

1971

1979

1990s

Sulphur emissions (tonnes per year)

450,000

270,000

200,000

       

  Source: ECZ 

To strengthen research in environmental related areas, the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources established an Environmental Study Fund for research activities in 1998.  The University of Zambia, Geography Department has conducted a study under this fund, which looked at the levels of copper in plants from dust emissions from copper smelters in Mufulira's Kankoyo's township. 

Financing 

Zambia has no specific fund for climate or atmospheric protection purposes.  The country has implemented projects and programmes over the past ten years, with assistance from cooperating partners.  The Germany Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) supported the Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering to start work on green house gas emissions and mitigation assessment studies in 1994.  The United States Climate Change Programme (USCCP) also supported the Zambian government in climate change studies on green house gas inventories, mitigation and vulnerability assessment in 1995.  The Industrial Pollution Prevention Programme, which is targeted at industries, was initiated with financial support from NORAD in 1996. 

The Ozone Layer Project was started in 1997 with financial support from the multilateral fund of the Montreal Protocol.  The United Nations Environment Programme provided technical assistance.  The Zambian government continues to contribute to protection of the atmosphere and the environment through its national budget allocations to the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, the Meteorological Department and counterpart financing to programmes supported by cooperating partners such as the World Bank supported Environmental Support Programme (ESP). 

Cooperation  

Zambia continues to be committed to the process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. 

Zambia is a member of regional networks such as the Air Pollution Information Network of Southern Africa (APINSA) and is involved in the activities of SAFARI 2000 in the Western Province of Zambia in which the levels of particulate in the ambient air will be assessed. 

In 1994 plantation forests and natural forest regeneration provided sinks for an estimated 71,504.00 Gg of CO2 emissions while a total of 72,710.05 Gg of CO2 were emitted making Zambia a net CO2 emitter in that year. See also under Financing.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is the national focal point on matters pertaining to the management of biological diversity in Zambia. The responsibilities of the Ministry include the coordination, conservation and restoration of the full range of biological diversity of the country. In fulfilling this mandate, the Ministry collaborates with all relevant Ministries and agencies responsible for various components of biological diversity. 

A Biodiversity Steering Committee was established to coordinate and monitor implementation of programmes on biodiversity management. Membership on the steering committee consists of the following institutions: 

(i)                  Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) which is mandated by law to control pollution and protect the environment from damage;

(ii)                Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) which is mandated by law to protect and ensure sustainable use of wildlife resources;

(iii)               The Fisheries Sub-programme in the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries which is mandated to promote sustainable use of fish resources;

(iv)              Department of Forestry which is mandated by law to protect forests and promote sustainable use of forest resources;

(v)                Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF). Whose primary responsibility is to increase food productivity on a sustainable basis;

(vi)              University of Zambia (UNZA) which represents institutions of higher learning;

(vii)             Zambia Alliance for Women which is a Women NGO representative;

(viii)           Wildlife and Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia (WECSZ) which is one NGO that has a long history of involvement in advocating for sustainable management of Zambia’s wildlife resources;

(ix)              Wildlife Producers Association (WPA) which was established at the turn of the 1990s by wildlife ranchers.  WPA is a forum for promoting good ethics in management of wild animals reared in captivity;

(x)                National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) which is a government agency established to initiate and coordinate scientific and industrial research.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The main legal instruments supporting the conservation of biological diversity in Zambia are the following: the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act; Zambia Wildlife Act; Forestry Act; Fisheries Act; National Heritage Conservation Commission Act; Lands Act; 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Local Communities resident in Forest Areas, Game Management Areas (GMA), and some fishing communities participate in decision making through local Community Based Natural Resources Management Committees, Wildlife Resource Boards and Community fishery management committees.

Programmes and Projects 

Since UNCED, Zambia has embarked on measures to control depletion of its biological diversity by starting to address appropriate Articles of the Convention as follows:

(i)                  Reviewing policies and developing national strategies and action plans to enhance capacities for conservation and sustainable utilisation of the country's biological resources.  In 1994 Zambia prepared and adopted a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP); in 1997 the country prepared the Zambia Forestry Action Plan (ZFAP); in 1999 the country developed the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action (NBSAP) and the National Biosafety Strategy and Action Plan. In 1997 Zambia also developed legislation on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

(ii)                Strengthening of links with neighbouring countries in conservation and sustainable utilisation of wildlife resources in border areas with Malawi, Zimbabwe and Botswana including developing of joint research and training programmes in fisheries with Zimbabwe on Lake Kariba and with Tanzania, Congo DR and Burundi on Lake Tanganyika.

(iii)               Strengthening the system of in-situ conservation of biological resources by repealing appropriate laws. The Wildlife Act was repealed and a new Wildlife Act was enacted in 1998; the Forestry Act was repealed and a new Forestry Act was enacted in 1999; enactment of the new Lands Act in 1999; the new Water Act in 2001

(iv)              Initiating appropriate measures for ex-situ conservation of biological diversity has been done by involving the private sector and NGOs in the establishment of Game Ranches, Bird Sanctuaries, Crocodiles Farms and herbaria and the involvement of local communities and civil society organisations in resource management.

(v)                Strengthening and broadening of public awareness and community participation in conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is being promoted through establishment of Community Based Natural Resources Management Mechanisms such as ADMADE, PFAP, CEMP CBNRMP, SCAFE and through print, electronic and folk media. 

Zambia has implemented several sector programmes and projects, some of which are listed below: 

(i)                  The NBSAP and Biosafety Strategic Plan were prepared to guide the conservation and sustainable use of the nation's biodiversity. 

(ii)                ZFAP and PFAP programmes were formulated to provide a vision for the protection and sustainable use of forestry resources throughout the country. The implementation of PFAP which had started in Luapula, Copperbelt and Central Provinces has now included Southern Province. 

(iii)               The Zambia Wetlands Strategy and action Plan and Policy were developed to guide sustainable management and utilisation of wetland resources in the country. 

(iv)              Studies for the development of game park management plans and determining biological resources available in them have been undertaken. All studies are at species level and cover both plant and animal biodiversity. Other programmes are the Zambia - Zimbabwe Fisheries Development project which is aimed at assessing the status of fish stocks in Lake Kariba. 

(v)                Stock assessment studies were also undertaken in the Bangweulu swamps to determine biomass, relative abundance by species and to determine fish biodiversity of the swamp ecosystem.  Similar studies were carried out in Lake Mweru. 

(vi)              Lake Tanganyika Research Project (LTRP) initiated in 1990 was continued into late nineties.  The study aimed at generating limnological data and information of biodiversity nature such as fish stocks and productivity. 

(vii)             Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project (LTBP) was a multifacetted approach to biodiversity management initiated in 1996 and ending in the year 1999.  Like LTRP the LTBP covered four countries namely Zambia, Tanzania, Congo D.R and Burundi. 

(viii)           Japan-Zambia Joint Fisheries Research (IZJFR) started late 1980s was strengthened to provide data and information on the biodiversity of inshore cichlids. 

(ix)              Other fisheries programmes for biodiversity management are climate monitoring of Lake Tanganyika, which focuses on impacts of climate change on biotic resources.  The project covers the Tanzanian and Zambian portion of the lake Tanganyika.

Status 

Zambia signed the Convention on Biological Diversity on 28th May 1993. The Convention came into force on 29th December, 1993. Zambia is endowed with an abundance of natural resources and a rich biological diversity. It has been estimated that the country has more than 5,500 species of flowering plants, 233 species of mammals, 731 species of birds, 145 species of reptiles, and over 409 fish species. 

Zambia has a long history in the conservation and management of its biological resources.  The country has an elaborate network of nature reserves which include 19 National Parks, 32 Game Management Areas (GMAs), and several protected forests and woodlands covering about 8.6 percent of the country.   

Challenges  

While Zambia can still boast of a rich biological diversity, the country is facing a number of socio-economic problems with potential negative impacts which are seriously depleting the country's biological diversity.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Zambia’s long involvement and commitment to the conservation of biological resources has enabled the country to develop local capacity for planning and managing the country’s biodiversity through an elaborate network of protected areas.  The country has trained personnel at professional and technical levels in fisheries, wildlife, forestry and environmental assessment.  

The institutions offering biodiversity training include the Copperbelt University and University of Zambia (School of Geography, Department of Biology in the School of Natural Sciences and, the School of Agriculture) Technical level training is offered at Natural Resources Development College and the Zambia Forestry college.

In service training is offered by various institutions such as the Plant Genetic Resources Center at Mt. Makulu, SADC Plant Genetic Resources Centre at Chalimbana and agricultural colleges scattered across the country.  The Zambia\Zimbabwe joint fisheries management project also serves as a training and public awareness promotion programme. 

Various sectoral institutions have developed specific programmes for awareness raising.  For example, ESP and ECZ have been sponsoring Television series to educate the public on the value and importance of conserving the country’s biological resources. The National Agriculture Information Services (NAIS) provides extension information, which incorporates biodiversity conservation massages.  

Radio broadcasts have been used by NGOs to promote awareness. Institutions involved include, the Wildlife and Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia (WECSZ).  Workshops and Seminars have also been used by PANOS Institute, the German Foundation for International Development (DSE), Pan African Institute for Development (PAIDESA), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and IUCN to promote high level involvement in biological resource conservation.

Information 

As part of the Environmental Support Programme, Zambia has embarked on the development of priority sectoral databases for five pilot areas. Subject areas include forest resources information system in Chibombo district, fish, and wildlife information system in Kafue National Park, land degradation information system in Mpika and Siavonga districts, air pollution information system in Mufulira district and water and sanitation information system in Lusaka urban district.  Information systems already developed include computerised databases at ECZ, Forestry and Fisheries departments.  GIS information systems are also found at Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries (MAFF), Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and University of Zambia (UNZA).  The Departments of Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Wild life have libraries, which contain books, and local reports on specific biodiversity components.   

Zambia and Zimbabwe have established a unified data base system for fisheries management in Lake Kariba.  MENR, ECZ, ZAWA, and the Departments of Fisheries, Forestry and Agriculture are reachable by Internet, ECZ, WECSZ, UNZA and MENR have established websites. 

Other sources of information on biodiversity are the SADC Plant Genetic Resources Centre and the National Plant Genetic Resources Centre at Mt. Makulu. 

Research and Technologies 

The main Government Institutions responsible for biodiversity research are the Department of Field Services (Crops, livestock and fisheries) under the Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries; Department of Forestry and the Zambia Wildlife Authority under Ministry of Tourism Environment and Natural Resources.  Other national institutions actively involved in biodiversity research and technology development are UNZA, Copperbelt University (CBU) and NISIR. 

Current research activities have mainly focused on resource inventories (fisheries and wildlife), resource monitoring (wildlife and forestry), and resource mapping. Some of the specific research undertakings are as follows: 

(i)                  Agroforestry research of food and medicinal plants to improve living conditions for both rural and urban dwellers through improved availability of forest products.

(ii)                Conservation of Miombo ecosystems by assessing the structure and ecology of Miombo woodlands and closely monitoring changes over time.

(iii)               Research in seed production technologies intended to diversify food production and ensure sustainable crop production.

(iv)              Wildlife resource monitoring especially in protected areas intended to observe trends in resource use.

(v)                The gene bank programme aimed at collecting and preserving a broad diversity of plant species for future use.

(vi)              Community-based natural resource management mechanisms being developed in different sectors as a tool for enhancing local community involvement in biological diversity management and promoting education and awareness through CBNRM approaches and concepts being developed in wildlife, fisheries and forestry sectors.

Financing 

The Government of Zambia has continued making annual budget provisions for management and conservation of biological resources through various Ministries and agencies. However, national provisions for biodiversity management have continued to be inadequate and require supplementation from cooperating partners and multilateral donor agencies. Several donors have contributed financially to the implementation of programmes under the CBD as follows:  

(i)                  UNDP, World Bank and NORAD facilitated preparation of the NEAP and ESP between 1993 and 1996.

(ii)                GEF\UNDP facilitated preparation of NBSAP between 1997 and 1998.  The process was coordinated by IUCN.

(iii)               UNDP, and The Netherlands Government funded preparation of ZFAP.  The process was coordinated by FAO

(iv)              FINNIDA funded preparation of PFAP and has continued to facilitate its implementation in four provinces

(v)                Several donors cooperated with World Bank\IDA in preparing ASIP which was finalized in 1996.  Implementation of specific programmes under ASIP have continued to benefit from donor funding.

(vi)              Preparation of management plans in wildlife protected areas was facilitated by JICA, European Union (EU), NORAD, USAID, Frankfurt Zoological Society, WWF, David Shepherd Foundation and other wellwishers.

(vii)             Other cooperating partners who, have contributed finances for implementing CBD programmes in Zambia are SIDA, IFAD, CIDA, ADB, NORDIC Development Fund and DANIDA. 

Support from cooperating partners has been more in the area of planning rather than actual implementation. 

Cooperation

Zambia was very active in the convention on biological diversity preparatory processes and actively participated in the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992. After signing the CBD on 11th June, 1992 Zambia ratified the Convention on 28th May, 1993.  Zambia has also recognized the importance to national development of other agreements and conventions that address specific components of biological diversity. The country signed and is party to the following related conventions:  

(i)                  Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) which was ratified in 1991.

(ii)                Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) which was ratified in 1981. 

Zambia cooperates with other countries in the region in matters affecting conservation of biological diversity and is signatory to the Lusaka Agreement on Management of Elephants and other endangered species.  Zambia also cooperates with neighbouring states through Joint permanent commissions, which periodically deliberate on management of biological resources especially fish, and wildlife. Currently joint commissions exist with Zimbabwe, Angola, D.R Congo, Tanzania, Mozambique, Namibia and Malawi. 

Zambia is host to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Regional Plant Genetic Resources Centre whose responsibility is to collect and conserve the region's plant genetic material, in particular cultivated crops and their wild relatives.

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources has the responsibility of coordinating the implementation of the convention to Combat Desertification. However, there are other government agencies such as the Department of Meteorology, Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit in the office of the Republican Vice President, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Water Affairs and Foreign Affairs that play a supportive role. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There is no specific legislation dealing with issues of drought although there are special legal instruments addressing the issues of land degradation.  Some of these are the Forestry Act, Agricultural Lands Act; Water Act; Land Act; the Town and Country Planning Act; and the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Zambian government through the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources prepared the National Action Plan (NAP) to combat desertification with the support of UNDP/UNSO.  Under this action plan, Zambia is targeting to deal with land degradation and the development of comprehensive drought preparedness and relief schemes in degraded areas of Southern Province, Western Province, Central Province, Lusaka Province and Eastern Province. 

The other programme is the early warning system. This programme consists of institutions responsible for early warning, vulnerability assessment and disaster management such as Meteorological Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Central Statistical Office. 

Under the Environmental support Programme, issues of land degradation are dealt with under the Community Environmental Management Programme (CEMP) and the Community Based Natural Resources Management Programmes (CBNRM).  Currently, at least one district in each province is covered by CEMP and or CBNRM programme. 

Under the Land Management and Conservation Farming Project, diversification of crop production and promotion of drought tolerant crop varieties such as millet, sorghum and cassava is being undertaken in drought prone areas. 

Status 

Zambia is an affected country party in terms of land degradation and experiencing frequent devastating droughts.  Over the last five years, the rainy season has tended to start late towards the end of November and by the end of March the rains have virtually stopped in most parts of the country.  Zambia has in recent years continued to experience mean seasonal rainfall below normal, especially in the extreme southern parts.  Statistically calculated rainfall indices over the last twenty five years clearly show that rainfall seasons for periods  1972/73, 1981/82, 1983/84, 1991/92, 1993/94 and 1994/95 have been the most severe drought seasons that Zambia has experienced.  Zambia is particularly vulnerable to recurrent droughts due to factors such as wide spread poverty and over dependence on rain fed agriculture. It is estimated that about 100,000 hectares of land is affected by land degradation in Zambia. 

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Zambian government recognises that capacity building is vital to the success of the National Action Plan (NAP) to Combat Desertification and land degradation. Emphasis is being placed on training and dissemination of local indigenous knowledge to promote more sustainable use of natural resources and ensure viable income alternatives for natural resource users. 

Through the Community Environmental Management Programme, the Community Based Natural Resources Management Programme, the Soil Conservation and Agroforestry Extension Programme (SCAFE) and the NAP process, community structures for natural resource management have been established in all the nine provinces of the country. 

Teams of qualified Zambians have been trained by both international and local participatory environmental management specialists in a wide range of Environmental and Natural Resources management issues and have adopted participatory techniques in community natural resources management. The national teams have also been training local NGOs, CBOs, line Ministry officials and community committees, leaders and representatives in participatory environmental appraisal to facilitate the development of Community Environmental Action Plans (CEAPS) and Community Based Natural Resources Management Plans (CBNRMP). 

The formation and training of community natural resources management committees has raised environmental awareness and improved financial and technical management skills at the local level. These skills and experiences are now being used by communities in accessing Community Initiatives Funds under the Environmental Support Programme (ESP), Zambia Social Investment Fund (ZAMSIF) and Rural Investment Fund (RIF). 

Through the efforts of NGOs such as the Zambia Alliance of Women (ZAW), Wildlife and Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia (WECSZ), Environmental Conservation Association of Zambia (ECAZ), and WWF, the general public are being enlightened on issues pertaining to environmental management and land degradation through folk media, newsletters, radio and television programmes. 

Information   

Institutions involved in Land related information management are the Environmental Council of Zambia, Surveys Department, Meteorological Department, University of Zambia, Ministry of Agriculture, Local Authorities and the Environmental Information Network and Monitoring System project under the ESP.

Research and Technologies   

Other than weather factors, which lead to frequent drought situations, there are other anthropogenic factors that are responsible for land degradation in Zambia. Traditional farming and pastoral areas such as Southern, Eastern, Western, Central and Lusaka Provinces have experienced gradual deterioration of land linked to overgrazing, soil erosion and increased soil acidity due to over utilisation of chemical fertilisers. 

Zambia has a number of research and training institutions such as the National Science and Technology Council, National Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, University of Zambia, Department of Crop and Animal Research in the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources. However, over the past ten years Zambia's research and technology in Land management has focussed more on the development of extension approaches and conservation farming technologies. These include soil conservation technologies such as: minimum tillage, soil conservation works, agroforestry, vetiver grass bands, mulching, crop rotation, use of kraal manure and inter cropping. 

Financing   

To strengthen integrated development programmes for eradication of poverty and promotion of alternative livelihood systems in rural areas including those prone to drought and land degradation, the Zambian government has introduced the Zambia Social Investment Fund Programme with the support of the World Bank and the EU to provide matching grants to community initiatives and projects. Through sustainable agriculture and forestry programmes, various cooperating partners are also supporting tree planting, agroforestry and alternative income initiatives in degraded areas of the country. 

UNDP/UNSO supported Zambia in developing the National Action Plan on the Convention to Combat Desertification, JICA has also been providing support in drilling bore holes in drought stricken areas of Zambia.

Cooperation

Zambia signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in countries experiencing drought and/or desertification particularly in Africa in 1994 and ratified in 1996.   

Zambia has actively participated in regional initiatives such as the SADC/UNEP Kalahari-Namib Action Plan, SADC Integrated Land Use Planning and Economics of Conservation programmes. At international level, Zambia actively participated in the negotiations of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and continues to collaborate with various agencies in implementing the Convention. See also under Financing.

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ENERGY

No information available.

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies     

The Forestry Department under the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is the primary institution mandated to deal directly with all matters pertaining to the sustainable management of forests including combating deforestation. Other institutions indirectly involved in combating deforestation are the Environmental Council of Zambia, Ministry of Energy and Water Development, the Zambia Wildlife Authority and various NGOs dealing with environmental issues.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In order to develop supportive policies and policy instruments, a new forestry policy and a legal framework were introduced in 1998 and 1999 respectively.  However, the Forestry Act of 1973 is the legal framework currently being enforced in the country. The main constraint in effecting  the new Act has been financial and technical limitations in establishing a new institutional structure in the form of a forest commission.  Other relevant laws complementing the Forestry Act are the Zambia Wildlife Act No. 12 of 1998 and the environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act of 1990. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

See under Programmes and Projects.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

In 1995 the Zambia Forestry Action Programme (ZFAP) planning process was launched in response to the FAO tropical Forestry Action Plan of 1987. ZFAP was undertaken as an integral part of the National Environmental Action Plan process, which was developed to incorporate environmental issues into social and economic policy and development planning. The current forestry policy and Forestry Act of 1999 are outcomes from the ZFAP planning process. Implementation of the ZFAP programmes activities has not fully taken off due to lack of financial and technical support from the cooperating partners.  This is despite the donor roundtable meeting, which Zambia hosted in June 1999. 

To promote the community participation in forestry planning, Zambia has been implementing the Provincial Forestry Action Plan (PFAP) since 1995 as a local level planning process of the ZFAP.  The first phase of PFAP was started in 1995 mainly as a planning process to develop action plans in three pilot provinces and this was completed in 1998.  Various stakeholders such as traditional rulers, community representatives, local authorities and NGOs have participated in this process.  The second phase of PFAP focussing on sustainable management and conservation of indigenous forests through Joint forest Management with local communities and sharing of benefits was initiated in February 2000. 

To integrate combating deforestation with poverty alleviation strategies a new forest resource management innovative project to secure sustainable income base for the poor and rural communities dependent on forest resources has been initiated to cover North-Western and Luapula Provinces.  This project will be supported through a credit from International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). 

Other initiatives include: the village-based woodland management project (VBWMP) whose main goal will be to contribute to poverty reduction and sustainable management of natural woodlands through forest income sharing to be supported by the African Development Bank; a project on strengthening of revenue collection supported by FAO whose main objective is to develop a mechanism for community participation in forest revenue collection and sharing; and various projects on community natural resources and environmental management supported by UNDP, the Dutch government, World Bank and more recently DANIDA. 

Status 

Combating deforestation as well as promoting reforestation and afforestation, have been important issues in Zambia since large scale mining activities started in the early to mid 1900s. Deforestation is considered to be a serious problem in Zambia.  Loss of forests occurs mostly due to clearing for agriculture, woodfuel and settlements. Indigenous forest productivity and tolerance to environmental stress is further reduced by bush fires. 

The main constraints to effective forest conservation and reforestation are the alternative land uses, especially agricultural expansion to forestall hunger, the demand for domestic energy, commercial logging of timber and over grazing of animals in certain parts of the country.  The deforestation problem is further compounded by increasing poverty levels (estimated to affect 80% of the population). 

The government has adopted a new forest Policy in 1998 and Parliament passed a new forest Act in 1999.  The new forest Act provides for the transformation of the Forest Department into a Statutory Body to be called the Zambia Forestry Commission (ZAFCOM).

Challenges  

See under Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Formal forestry training is being undertaken at the Zambia Forestry College which offers diploma and certificate courses and at the Copperbelt University which offers degree courses in forestry and wood science. Institutional capacity in the forestry sector is currently not satisfactory. The number of graduating foresters at the Copperbelt University each year averages 22 while the number graduating with diplomas and certificates from the Zambia Forestry College averages 18 and 19 respectively. 

Under the PFAP programme, training workshops for extension workers, community representatives and NGOs have been organised and information literature on forest resources management published. 

Information 

Currently Zambia does not have an established deforestation or forest information system for decision making and evaluating changes in land use and management.  All attempts at establishing information systems have been project area specific, unsystematic and do not facilitate national wide assessment of the status of forest resources.  Information such as deforestation rates, forest cover and standing stock are based on outdated studies. 

Zambia currently lacks up to date information on the status and productivity of forests resources to the extent that it is not possible to prepare forest management plans from a national perspective.  The last forest inventory was undertaken in the early 1970s. 

Research and Technologies 

The Zambian Forestry Sector continues to face difficult challenges in terms of population growth, changes in population distribution, economic pressures and efforts to alleviate poverty and ensure food security.  Decisions on whether to retain land under forests as opposed to converting it to other land uses have to be made. 

Research to resolve the challenges of how to meet the growing demand for forest products while at the same time safe guarding the ability of forests to provide a range of environmental services including among others, the conservation of biological diversity, mitigation of global climate changes, protection of soil and water resources and safe guarding livelihoods and the rights of local communities, requires the support of regional and international organisations. 

Most of the current research activities aimed at combating deforestation are basic and include the development of efficient charcoal kilns and stoves, use of coal briquettes as a substitute to charcoal, agroforestry techniques and identification of drought and termite/insect resistant plants. 

Financing 

Government has continued to meet operational recurrent costs from the national budget while cooperating partners have been supporting the capital cost elements in most of the projects and programmes. 

The budget of the main institutions in the forestry sector (ZMK Million): 

 

YEAR

 

1992

1993

1994

1995

Forestry Department

141.1

388.2

708.7

775.2

Wildlife Department

369.2

928.6

2742.9

3844.6

Agriculture Department

1280.9

8364.1

14741.5

-

Source: Government Expenditure

Cooperation

Zambia continues to collaborate with regional and international agencies in the area of sustainable forest management and exchange of information on forest resources.  At SADC level cooperation arrangements are maintained with the SADC Forestry Sector Technical Coordination Unit based in Malawi.  At the international level Zambia is actively involved in FAO activities and initiatives.  At the bilateral level Zambia has continued to work closely with its neighbouring countries and cooperating partners such as FINNIDA, IFAD and the EU.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Zambia embarked on water sector reforms in 1993. One of the main problems identified were the multiplicity of actors in the water sector, which made it difficult to coordinate water resources management and development.  Other constraints identified were: inadequate legal and institutional framework; limited stakeholder participation; inadequate human resource capacity; insufficient information and data; inadequate infrastructure and financial investment. 

An interministerial committee comprising members from the Ministry of Energy and Water Development; Ministry of finance and Economic Development; Ministry of Local Government and Housing; Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries; Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources; Ministry of Community Development and Social Services; Ministry of Works and Supply; Ministry of Health and the Environmental Council of Zambia; was set up to spearhead and provide policy guidance to the water sector reform process. 

Following the water sector reform programme, the mandates of various actors have been redefined as follows: the Ministry of Energy and Water Development is responsible for water resources management and development; the Ministry of Local Government and Housing including Local Authorities are responsible for water supply and sanitation; the Ministry of Health monitors water quality, sanitation and promotes hygiene; community mobilisation and participation is vested with the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services; the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for environmental management and natural resources conservation policy; while the Environmental Council of Zambia is responsible for pollution control and environmental impact assessments. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Water Act of 1948 facilitates water resources assessment in terms of quality and quantity and provides the framework within which water rights are allocated.  However, this Act does not provide for the control of ground water and international waters.  The other relevant pieces of legislation are: the Water Supply and Sanitation Act of 1997; the Local Government Act of 1991; the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act of 1990; the Public Health Act of 1930; and the Town and Country Planning Act of 1949. Under the Environmental Support Programme the review and harmonisation of legislation related to the water sector was commenced in 1999 and a report on the review of legislation was produced in 2000. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

Zambia developed a water policy in 1994 with the aim of promoting sustainable water resources development. The country further developed the National Water Resources Master Plan of 1995, which outlines required developments in the water sector for water development form 1995 - 2015. 

The department of water affairs undertook the hydrological observation system master plan study, which was completed in March 1992, and it established minimum and maximum water development potentials for the Zambezi, Kafue, and Luangwa rivers at selected sites.  The Environmental Council of Zambia has also completed a Kafue River water quality study to determine pollution levels and aquatic weed infestation. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

Programmes and projects to increase rural water supply coverage through construction of dams, weirs, wells and bore holes have been undertaken by the Department of Water affairs in partnership with local communities to ensure sustainability.  Through the water sanitation and hygiene education (WASHE) programme, communities have been empowered to manage their water supply facilities.  Women are particularly encouraged to be members of village WASHE committees whose main tasks include maintaining of facilities and to look after contributions needed to sustain operations and maintenance of water points. 

Status   

Zambia is endowed with sufficient fresh water resources to meet the present and future demands.  However, the uneven distribution and threat of pollution poses the greatest danger to its continued availability in certain areas.  The major uses of water resources include hydropower generation, agricultural, industrial, recreation, domestic and navigation. 

Surface water resources in Zambia are estimated to cover 45,000 square kilometres, which is 6 percent of the total land area.  The country's annual run off is estimated at 90 billion cubic metres and storage in lakes and swamps at 60 billion cubic metres.  The total ground water storage is estimated at 1,740,380 million cubic metres while ground water recharge is estimated at 160,080 cubic metres per year. 

Ground water is evenly distributed and most areas depend on it while surface water is unevenly distributed.  The Southern half of the country experiences water shortages although it receives the largest annual runoff.  To continue meeting current and future demand, the fresh water resources of the country need to be developed, conserved and protected. 

Challenges  

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

There are very few water resources experts working in the water sector in the country.  The department of water affairs only has 38 professionals out of 70 and slightly over 100 technical personnel out of about 200 to implement national programmes.  The sector requires recapitalisation in terms of new equipment for water laboratory, flow measuring and drilling machines. 

The education curricula have integrated water management and sanitation in subjects such as environmental science, social studies and geography.  Public awareness campaigns are also undertaken through radio, TV, print and folk media. 

Information   

The department of water affairs collects hydrometeorological information and data and interprets hydrological information which is stored and disseminated.  A database is being developed. The Zambezi River Authority also maintains a database on the Zambezi River covering information on river flow, water quality, pollution sources, land cover, land use, rainfall, temperature and social and economic information. 

Research and Technologies   

The University of Zambia, School of Engineering and various agencies, have been working with small-scale irrigation farmers and have developed simple pumping devices called treadle pumps.  In rural communities, the use of gravity furrow irrigation is widely practised and hand pumps are wide spread in water abstraction from wells and boreholes. 

Financing 

Financing of water projects by the Zambian government has been very low in the past 10 years mainly due to the obligation of servicing the foreign debt.  Zambia is reported to have spent only 0.1% of its total investment in the water sector during the period 1991 to 1999. 

Cooperation  

Zambia has continued to receive grants and technical assistance from cooperating partners for water resources management and development. Notable donors in this area are the Federal Republic of Germany; Japanese government; Netherlands; Royal Norwegian government, Ireland aid; the European Union, World Bank, WMO, FINNIDA, SIDA and DANNIDA.   

Zambia is a signatory to a number of agreements relevant to freshwater resources. Notable agreements are: UN Non Navigational Uses of International water courses (1994); and Ramsar Convention on Wetland Conservation; SADC protocol on shared watercourses for sustainable management and utilisation of shared river basins. Bilateral cooperation between Zambia and Zimbabwe through the Zambezi River Authority treaty of 1987, which is for developing and managing of the common Zambezi River for hydroelectric power generation.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Lands is the national institution responsible for land administration i.e. the provision of land for residential, commercial, industrial, small holdings and farms to deserving applicants.  The department of Town and Country Planning under the Ministry of Local Government and Housing ensures the orderly and planned development of the country as a whole.  It establishes planning authorities for various areas and provides for the control, use, change of use and reservation of land for various purposes.  The Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) under the Ministry of 'Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources coordinates policy implementation activities of the environment, monitors trends in the use of land resources and their impact on the environment.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Town and Country Planning Act of 1994, the Land Survey Act of , the Lands Act of 1995, the Agricultural Lands Act of , the Zambia Wildlife Act of 1998, the Forest Act of 1999 and the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act of 1990 are the important legal instruments of land use planning in Zambia. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

To ensure sustainable land resources utilisation at household and national levels a number of integrated programmes and projects have been undertaken in the past ten years.  These include: 

(i)                  Extension and public awareness campaigns on land degradation and undertaking conservation measures such as minimum tillage and control of bush fires.

(ii)                Soil conservation and agro-forestry Extension (SCAFE) which is a programme implemented by farmers in Eastern, southern and Central Provinces.  Under this programme farmers have adopted such practices as terracing, ridging, range management and green manuring.

(iii)               Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) and Community Environmental Management Programme (CEMP) under which communities are facilitated to develop community natural resources management plans and community environmental action plans which form the basis of developing community self help projects which the communities use to apply for matching grants from the community based initiative fund under the pilot environmental fund of Environmental Support Programme /Zambia Social Investment Fund.

(iv)              Other conservation measures aimed at reducing the process of soil erosion and land degradation continue to be used by farmers and land users.  These include:  crop rotation; use of kraal manure; intercropping fallowing and contour ridging. 

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is assisting the Surveyor General's office to digitise some base maps under the Environmental Information Network and Monitoring System component of the Environmental Support Programme.  This initiative is meant to standardise mapping and remove disparities in scales and spatial resolution, variability in sampling methods and the inherent differences in geographical models used in data collection, storage and display. 

Status 

Zambia's main objective in implementing Chapter 10 of agenda 21 has been to reduce land use problems of alienating land to various competing and conflicting land use categories; to strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources and to create mechanisms for facilitating the active involvement and participation of all concerned, particularly communities in decision making on land use and management. 

Zambia has a historical heritage of land uses and systems.  With a total land area of 752,000km², there are several issues that affect land resources management.  Some of these are land tenure, ecological zones and land use. 

Most of Zambia's land falls under the category of customary land tenure system.  This is a traditional system of land management and administration. The underlying principle of this system is that land use is held in common ownership by the community in perpetuity.  Land is transferable following family/community traits. The other category of land is that held under leasehold land tenure system.  Under this category, title to land is given to the applicant for a period not exceeding 99 years after which the leasee has to apply for renewal of the title. 

The current land Act recognises traditional land as eligible for state registration and thus people owning land under customary tenure can convert it to leasehold title.  This in effect converts customary land to leasehold land. 

In Zambia land resource use systems have to a great extent been influenced by the physical and climatic characteristics of the three major agro-ecological zones.  These agro-ecological regions are based on annual rainfall.  Region I, with 600-800 mm annual rainfall.  Region II with 800-1000 mm annual rainfall.  Region III with 1000-1500 mm annual rainfall. 

Challenges  

See under Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

There is an urgent need to undertake a proper land evaluation and capability assessment to guide the allocation of land to various uses in a well-coordinated and integrated manner.  Land resources planning and management has not adequately been integrated into the overall social and economic policies and strategies of the nation particularly economic development programmes. 

The environmental impact assessment regulations under the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act is the only systematic planning tool available for examination of the interaction between a project and environmental components in determining whether or not a proposed development project or alternatives, have significant adverse or beneficial impacts on the environment. 

Assessment of current levels of EIA implementation in Zambia reveal inadequacies in information flow between ECZ and the developer and the local communities on the importance and value of EIA for sustainable land resources development. In this regard, Zambia needs to develop the following capacities for integrated land resources planning and management: 

(i)                  Development of specific land resources planning and management guidelines

(ii)                Development of professional competence in integrated land use planning

(iii)               Enhancement of institutional coordination in planning and management of land resources

(iv)              Enhancement of ECZ's monitoring capacity and capacities of planning authority agents to ensure integrated land resources management

(v)                Enhance general public awareness especially in deriving integrated land resources management options.

Information 

Land resources data in Zambia is very diverse in nature, content and scale due to the sectoral approach in the management of land resources.  Information on state registered land can be obtained from Lands Department while information on surveyed land is under the custody of the Surveyor General's office.  Other Ministries and agencies also keep management information on other land resources such as forests, water and arable land.

Research and Technologies 

The critical issue of food security depends on the quality of land resources such as quality of soils, availability of water resources, and pasture. The sectoral approach taken in the management of these resources requires to be reviewed through applied practical research which has been lacking in the past ten years. 

The environmental information network and monitoring system component of ESP has commissioned research studies aimed at developing information subsystems on land degradation, deforestation, water pollution and sanitation, wildlife depletion and air pollution.  This it is hoped would ensure sound decision making at all levels.

Financing   

Financing of integrated land resources planning and management is being undertaken within the national budget allocations to sector ministries. Planning authorities at each level are responsible for financing the plans while other proposals for local development are financed by the project proponents. 

Cooperation

Zambia has adequately participated in various regional programmes on land resources planning and management. Under the southern african development community, Zambia has actively participated in the Zambezi River Basin Action Plan (ZACPLAN), the Kalahari-Namib programme of action, the mapping programmes along common borders and more recently, in the biodiversity strategy on conservation of dry lands initiated between Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. 

Zambia has also informally benefited from international programmes for land resources planning and management particularly in the area of Environmental Information systems such as UNEP's Environment and Natural Resources Information Networks (ENRIN), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) which has supported a few Zambians in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) training, the Germany Foundation for International Development (DSE) which has continued to support human resource capacity building in participatory environmental management, GIS and Environmental Information Management.

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MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The greater part of Zambia is situated on the continental divide and constitutes the part of the Central African Plateau with an average elevation of 1200m above mean sea level. The Montane zone, usually at an elevation in excess of 2000m is characterized by deeply incised stream valleys, with patches of relict montane forest and seasonal swamps in low-lying areas.  The plateau is generally undulating and is broken here and there by isolated hills or hill ranges composed of the more resistant rocks.  The highest parts of the plateau are found in Northern Province around Mporokoso, Mbala, Mpika and Tunduma; in Central Province around Serenje; in North Western Province between Solwezi and Mwinilunga; where elevation exceeds 1525m and in a few places 1650m. 

The highest parts of Zambia are located in the North-East bordering Malawi where the Montane zone exceeds 1850m. The highest point in the country lies at an elevation of 2164m at a point on the Malawi border. This montane zone comprises of both Montane plateau (The Nyika Plateau) and the narrow linear summits of the nearby Mafinga Hills and Makutu Mountains. 

Zambia is a land locked area covering an area of 752,000 km 2 , which includes some hilly areas.  Zambia does not have mountains. Therefore, issues of relevance to protection of mountain ecosystems are covered under Chapter 10 (of Agenda 21) on integrated approach to land resources use. See under "Land Management"  

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Zambia is a landlocked country and as such is not an affected country party under the International Law of the sea. By ratifying the Law of the Sea, Zambia has committed itself to the prevention, realisation, reduction and control of degradation of the marine environments by controlling activities that can significantly have adverse impacts on marine environments. Although Zambia is not an affected country party, it is concerned about the protection and management of international waters and their resources in oceans and seas and the shipment of its imports and exports. 

As a member of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), Zambia has continued to support and contribute to the protection of the ocean and coastal areas by implementing UNEP council decisions, which include: 

(i)                  the treatment of municipal wastes before discharging it into rivers, estuary and the sea

(ii)                promoting shipping safety

(iii)               reducing the risk of pollution from bulk carriers, and

(iv)              promoting the use of less harmful chemicals 

Zambia's main objective in implementing Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 is to support the peaceful use of the seas and oceans, ensure the equitable and efficient utilisation of their resources and the conservation of their living resources and marine environments. However, Zambia's contribution to safe guarding the ocean's resources is through it’s the fulfilment of the objectives under chapters 18 and 19.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment and natural Resources (MENR) is responsible for environmental policy formulation while the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) is responsible for its implementation.  

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The principal Act in ensuring sound management of toxic chemicals is the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act (EPPCA) of 1990. Under this Act the Pesticides and Toxic Substances regulations of 1994 were formulated for the sound management of chemicals in Zambia.  The other complementary Act contributing to sound management of chemicals is the Food and Drug Act of 1999. The Food and Drug Laboratory of the Ministry of Health administers this Act. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The priority concerns addressed in the legal framework include: air pollution; pollution of inland waters; pollution of ground water; drinking contaminated water; soil contamination; pesticides residues in foods; heavy metals in foods; hazardous waste treatment; occupational health; industrial and agricultural chemical accidents; adverse effects on the ecosystem; storage of obsolete pesticides; and chemical imports.   

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

A multi stakeholder approach to dealing with issues of toxic chemicals has been adopted and this has resulted in the formation of a Chemical National Working Group (NWG). Members of the NWG are drawn from relevant government departments, industry, NGOs and Academia.  All essential chemical management related decisions are made through consultation and by consensus.   

Programmes and Projects 

In 1996 Zambia in collaboration with the United Nations Training and Research (UNITAR) carried out an assessment of the legal framework, human and institutional capabilities in relation to chemical management. The main objective for this programme was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps that existed and set national priority actions and recommendations for the sound management of chemicals. 

The Pesticides and Toxic Substances regulations require that all importers and dealers in pesticides undergo a registration review. A National Technical Review Committee (NTRC) is responsible for reviewing and approval of all applications. Review is done before chemicals are imported and its objective is to prevent restricted or banned chemicals from entering Zambia. Other activities undertaken include: 

(i)                  Disposal and decontamination of 21 (210-litre) Chumbwa mine cyanide drums Disposal of Chlorine and other toxic substances has also been done.

(ii)                Setting of standards and conditions under the regulations and enforcing them through the PTS Unit. This important activity is embedded in every annual plan. 

(iii)               Border controls coupled with a registration process and regular monitoring has significantly reduced the risk of dumping of illegal chemicals which usually found their way into Zambia because of lack of proper control checks.  This is a national concern because Zambia was vulnerable to dumping of hazardous wastes and other banned and restricted chemicals. 

(iv)              Implementation of a laboratory strengthening program. The objective of the program was to improve the quality of analytical skills and reliability in selected labs in Zambia. Among the laboratories selected includes the Food and drug Laboratory and Environmental Laboratory of the University of Zambia. 

(v)                Disposal of about 360 tonnes of obsolete pesticides. 

(vi)              Initiated in with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), of a program to build national capacity for the environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals using PCBs as a concrete case. 

(vii)             Conducting countrywide inventory of suspected PCB containing equipment and other Pops of concern; all equipment likely to contain PCBs has been audited and the data generated has been entered into the database. 

(viii)           Storage of PCB materials in specially designed storage facilities have been done at selected sites. The selection of sites was based on security considerations. Kariba and Luano in Kitwe have been selected as appropriate locations. 

(ix)              National technical guidelines for PCB management have been developed and are available. The PCB technical guidelines are implemented under the hazardous waste regulations. 

(x)                Zambia with financial and technical support from the Canadian International Development Agency began to develop an environmental emergency plan in 2000. The main objective of this program is to coordinate all stakeholders and improve response time to environmental related accidents. The program also aims at rapid mobilisation of resources to effectively deal with environmental emergencies and minimise environmental pollution. 

Status 

The Country's main objective in Implementing Chapter 19 of Agenda 21 is to achieve the laid down program activities for sound management of chemicals namely:

(i)                  Expanding and accelerating international assignments of chemical risks;

(ii)                Harmonising of classification and labeling of chemicals;

(iii)               Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemical risks;

(iv)              Establishment of risk reduction programs;

(v)                Strengthening national capabilities and capacities for management of chemicals;

(vi)              Prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products; and

(vii)             Any other initiatives to address the above.

Challenges  

See under Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Public awareness, training and educational programs are undertaken but this is constrained by inadequate financial resources. Multi stakeholder participation is always encouraged. Stakeholders include public interest groups such as schools, local chemical industry and relevant government departments. The main vehicles of communication include programmes such as TV, Radio, print media, brochures and posters. 

Zambia is yet to develop capacity to deal with the disposal of very toxic chemicals. Therefore, until such a time when capacity is developed, Zambia will in the meantime continue to rely on facilities that exists in developed countries such as incinerators. Zambia will also continue to draw upon the provisions of the international conventions, which she is a party to, such as the Basel Convention. 

In 1996, a training workshop was held for Customs Officers to educate them about the standard procedures to follow in curbing illegal chemical imports.  Other training programmes have been conducted in collaboration with the Local Agrochemicals Association and training of Customs Officers in identification of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).

Information 

A chemical database has been developed whose major objective is to act as a tool for decision-making in chemicals management.  Current information contained in the database is limited to imported and registered chemical only. Effects on human health and the environment are not recorded.

Research and Technologies 

To promote Indigenous methods as a way of encouraging integrated pesticides management, the University of Zambia is currently undertaking a research for termite control using homegrown bacteria. If this research succeeds, the bacteria will be used for termite control in farming and building to replace the usual organo chlorines such as Chlordane currently being used for termite control in buildings.  ECZ is also encouraging indigenous options for biodegradation of PCB contaminated soils.

Financing 

Zambia finances 95% of the activities on chemicals management from the Government grants and licence fees. The local chemical industry accounts for 5% of the total local financing. The industry financing is in form of cash contributions, technical expertise and training of ECZ officers. 

Cooperation

Various countries and international organisations have collaborated and supported the chemical management program. The countries that have supported chemical management in Zambia include but are not limited to Norway, Canada, Sweden, Germany, USA, Switzerland and the Netherlands. While international organisations include UNEP, the Basel Convention, World Bank, UNITAR, WHO, FAO, UNDP, ILO and UNIDO.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation 

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is the policy focal point while the Environmental Council of Zambia is the competent implementing  authority of the Chapter 21 of Agenda 21. 

A National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) has been prepared to provide guidance to all stakeholders on their roles in improving waste management in the country.

The National Sanitation Strategy, which was developed in 1998, recommended for the incorporation of sanitation in water supply projects. To achieve this the Water Supply and Sanitation Act (1997), provides for the formation of water utility companies. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act (EPPCA) provides the regulations for the management of solid waste. The waste management regulations statutory instrument no. 71 of 1993, (Licensing of transporters of waste and operators of waste disposal sites regulations) provide for the control of transportation of waste and management of waste disposal sites.  All persons transporting waste or operating waste disposal sites including Local Authorities are licensed and have to adhere to set conditions and standards.  ECZ issues licenses to transporters of waste and operators of waste disposal sites.  The licensee provides an estimate of the quantities of waste to be transported or disposed of. 

However, some aspects of waste management are not yet adequately covered by the existing legal framework. There are no specific guidelines to regulate the management of hospital and hazardous waste. ECZ is in the process of developing standards and procedures to ensure safe storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

The main activities in waste management have been that of ensuring that waste generated is collected and disposed off in designated sites, or is taken to appropriate recycling facilities. 

The support to Local Authorities to undertake waste management activities (collection and operating of disposal sites) in their areas of jurisdiction has not received a lot of support.  This has led to a decline in quantities of waste collected and disposed in designated areas. Some of the initiatives being implemented in collaboration with various stakeholders include: 

(i)                  Lusaka City Council is implementing a sustainable cities programme, aimed at developing a framework for effective stakeholder participation in solid waste management and developing strategies to improve water supply and sanitation in peri-urban areas. 

(ii)                On the Copperbelt, Asset Holding Company (AHC) provides municipal services in 5 mine townships, involving waste collection, operation of disposal sites and sewerage treatment. 

(iii)               Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are supporting communities in Peri-urban (unplanned) areas with disposal of waste.

(iv)              Community Based Organisations (CBOs) have also organised themselves in various Local Authorities to solve solid waste and sanitation related problems with the help of NGOs . 

(v)                Private enterprises are now being encouraged to get involved in the collection and disposal of waste on a commercial basis, but with the absence of a framework for their involvement, operations have not yet been streamlined. 

Status 

Zambia is party to the Basel Conventions on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Zambia signed the Basel Convention in 1994. The country's main objective in waste management is to ensure that waste related problems are solved in such a way that waste causes as little damage and harm to the population and the natural environment as possible.  This is achieved by ensuring that waste and waste management utilise the least possible of the nation's resources.  Zambia's main strategy is to prevent the generation of waste and reduce its amount of harmful substances; to promote re-use; material recycling and energy recovery; and to secure environmentally sound disposal methods of the remaining waste. 

Municipal waste generation per capita in Zambia is estimated to range between 0.150 - 0.350 tonnes per year out of which only 12.4 percent or 0.0186  to 0.0434 tonnes is disposed. An average Zambian is estimated to produce 0.45 kg of waste per day. 

Zambia is faced with two main types of waste, municipal and industrial waste. At present the financial requirement for the management of solid waste is about US$22.6 per tonne. This poses serious financial problems for Local Authorities who are responsible for waste management. 

The environmental issues related to solid waste management affecting the country can be listed as follows:

(i)                  Littering, uncollected garbage and illegal dumping in undesignated areas

(ii)                Improper handling of hazardous waste

(iii)               Low standards of operational disposal sites 

Challenges  

It should be noted that there are a number of constraints that Zambia has faced in tackling the problem of waste management. Some of these are:  

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Capacity building, training, education and awareness is required in the institutions that are involved in the management of waste particularly in the Local Authorities. 

Information 

Licensing by the ECZ provides information on types of waste going to various disposal sites. The availability of recycling facilities can also be determined. ECZ and water utilities also maintain information on the current levels of treatment for sewerage waste and the quality of effluent being handled. 

Research and Technologies 

It is generally accepted that the current waste production and expected increase under the present economic and industrial production coupled with consumption trends are unsustainable.  To achieve sustainability the concept of minimising the use of raw materials and reducing the impacts related to waste disposal should be investigated. 

Studies on the impact of operating waste disposal sites on underground water sites are being undertaken in Lusaka to determine the status of ground water. 

The Pilot Environmental Fund (PEF) under the Environmental Support Programme (ESP) has also been awarding small research grants to groups of individuals to undertake research on various environmental issues including solid waste management. 

Technology Development and Advisory Unit (TDAU) of the University of Zambia, was also commissioned by the Sustainable Lusaka Programme (SLP) to develop transportation equipment for use by small-scale waste collectors in peri-urban areas.  Zambezi Paper mills has been contributing to solid waste management by recycling paper. 

Financing 

The Zambian Government through its annual budgetary allocations has continued to finance ECZ and Local Authorities including other relevant ministries to control and monitor the generation, treatment and disposal of solid waste. 

However, the funds provided are in adequate and there is an urgent need for Industry to finance and implement pollution control measures. 

Cooperation

Zambia has collaborated with various countries and international organisations in dealing with solid waste management initiatives. The countries and international agencies that have collaborated with Zambia include but are not limited to Norway, Canada, Sweden, Germany DANIDA, UNDP and the Netherlands Government. 

The Lusaka City Council is currently being assisted by the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA) to set up a waste management system.

The Canadian Government through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) undertook a project for characterisation of waste in Lusaka in 1996 with the support of ECZ and Lusaka City Council.   

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Hazardous Wastes 

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) is the policy focal point on hazardous waste management while the Environmental Council of Zambia is the competent implementing authority.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act (EPPCA), No. 12 of 1990,Cap 204 of the laws of Zambia, amended in 1999, is the principal law on environment.  In the EPPCA, “hazardous waste” means waste, including objects, articles or substances, which are poisonous, corrosive, irritant, explosive, inflammable, toxic or harmful to man, animal, plant or the environment. 

The EPPCA provides for the control of generation, transportation and disposal of hazardous wastes. 

Regulations on hazardous wastes have been finalised.  The list of hazardous waste to be controlled, are based on the Basel Convention classification. The regulations for licensing of transporters of waste and operators of waste disposal sites, which were formulated in 1993, are currently being applied to also control hazardous waste. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The country's main objective in waste management is to ensure that waste related problems are solved in such a way that waste causes as little damage and harm to the population and the natural environment as possible.  This is achieved by ensuring that waste and waste management utilise the least possible of the nation's resources.  Zambia's main strategy is to prevent the generation of waste and reduce its amount of harmful substances; to promote re-use; material recycling and energy recovery; and to secure environmentally sound disposal methods of the remaining waste.   

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

A draft National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) whose theme is “a clean and green Zambia begins with you’, is being developed in consultations with all key stakeholders.  The overall goal of the NWMS is to control pollution, improve waste management and prevent environmental degradation through an efficient, effective and sustainable waste management system. 

The objectives of the NWMS are to:

(i)                  reduce the environmental impacts of hazardous waste by reducing the generation of wastes and the harmful substances in the waste;

(ii)                ensure increased re-use, recycling and utilisation of energy; and

(iii)               ensure that final treatment of the hazardous waste takes place in an environmentally sound manner.

Status   

The inventory of waste indicates that hazardous waste is disposed of together with non hazardous waste. Currently, most of the hazardous waste is stored in industrial premises, while some may be disposed of in disposal sites. 

Zambia being a developing country has various types of resource based industries such as mining, tanneries, petroleum refining, blending of oils, etc.   Some of these industries generate hazardous waste in form of air emissions, effluent and solid wastes. The technologies that are used range from very old and outdated, to new ones. 

Challenges  

There is need to increase funding for the setting up of hazardous waste treatment facilities.  This is especially relevant where health-care or clinical waste is disposed in municipal disposal sites without treatment.   

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The absence of regulations and guidelines on hazardous wastes has led to a situation were awareness of potential adverse effects and the appropriate and adequate management practices for industry and the general public has been low. 

In 1998, the Basel Convention Secretariat supported a three months awareness programme, through which a national workshop on hazardous wastes was held, and brochures on PCBs; lead acid batteries; petroleum products; wood preservatives; agrochemical and fertilizer waste were prepared. 

Training of relevant staff in environmental Audits has been undertaken.  However, no industry has been audited except for accreditation purposes. Training workshops have also been held for industry and the media on issues of managing hazardous waste. The engineering environmental Lab at the University of Zambia has been upgraded and it is able to analyse a number of hazardous waste materials. However, there is still need to improve the numbers of experts in the relevant institutions dealing with the management of hazardous waste. 

Capacity building in terms of establishing hazardous waste treatment or disposal facilities is the most critical aspect, that is lacking in the area of hazardous waste management in the country. 

Cleaner production training for industry was initiated in 1998 with Det Norsk Veritas (DNV) of Norway, as principle consultants.  Knowledge on this training has been transferred to local experts, who now conduct the training sessions. 24 industries have had their staff trained under this initiative. Training in Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) related to the disposal of current stocks of PCBs was conducted for several institutions. 

A national awareness programme has been set up to sensitise industry and the general public.  This is in form of workshops, radio and television discussions, and reading materials e.g. posters.  The awareness programme has provided an opportunity for open discussions on issues. 

Information 

An inventory of hazardous waste has been created.  This covers waste which is generated on an annual basis, or whose quantities are not expected to increase due to restriction on use.  PCBs is one such restricted chemical, and no new imports are expected. 

Inventory of hazardous waste from hospitals and clinics has been done only for a limited number of institutions.  There is therefore need to improve this information in the hazardous waste inventory. 

Arising from the inventory, and subsequent classification, a list of hazardous waste to be controlled has been agreed upon based on the Basel Convention classification. 

Research and Technologies 

The use of waste for other purposes, e.g used oils in timber preservation and in building construction is being investigated. In 1997, a feasibility study was undertaken to assess the use of hazardous organic waste as an alternative fuel in a cement kiln at Chilanga in Ndola. To operate at a profitable level in relation to the additional investment required, at least 10,000 tonnes of organic hazardous waste is required, the bulk of which is expected to be waste oils. 

Research is also being conducted in Lusaka on the impact of current and previous disposal practices on ground water.

Financing 

The Zambian government is financing waste management activities through budgetary allocations to the ECZ and other institutions to control and monitor the generation, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. 

The private sector, particularly industry, is being encouraged to finance and implement pollution control measures.  The polluter pays principal is also being implemented to some extent through fines and environmental licenses. 

Cooperation  

Zambia is party to the Bamako and Basel Conventions on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Zambia signed the Basel Convention in 1994. The implementation of the Bamako Convention has not taken off due to the absence of a secretariat at the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) now African Union (AU). 

The Basel Convention regional training centre for English speaking African countries, based in Pretoria, South Africa, has established a task force to spearhead technology transfer and training programmes.  Zambia is a member of this task force.

UNEP through its various programmes, the latest being the disposal of obsolete ozone depleting substances (ODS), has provided some complementary support and the Norwegian Government, through NORAD is providing support for the control of hazardous waste.

In 1996, 360 tonnes of obsolete pesticide stocks were shipped for destruction in Europe under the Food and Agricultural Organisation arrangement with funding from GTZ and the Netherlands Government.   

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Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The coordinating Zambian government body on Chapter 22 of Agenda 21 is the Radiation Protection Board under the Ministry of Health which is the regulatory body.  Its function is to advise the government on radiation matters and allocation of priorities and coordinating activities in order to formulate a cost effective regulatory programme, which will achieve safety goals in a manner compatible with national resources and needs.  The radiation Protection Service is the executing arm of the Board in regulatory control, occupational exposure control, environmental radioactivity monitoring and waste management.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The legal status of the Radiation Protection Board is derived from an Act of Parliament of 1972, which was passed to regulate the use of ionising radiation.  This legislation is found in CAP 311 of the Laws of Zambia.  Regulations on waste management have been prepared and are available in draft form. 

There are other instruments supporting the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Zambia and these are:  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

No major programmes have been undertaken on radionuclides. apart from initiating discussions with new owners of the mines and also efforts are being made to involve non governmental environmental organisation in the management of technically enhanced natural occurring radioactive materials (TENORM).

Status   

The Radiation Protection Board through the licensing procedures, is able to trace all radioactive materials that come into the country and hence is able to advise its clients on how to dispose or manage the radioactive materials.  However, the Board has to deal with some radioactive materials that have been abandoned (referred to as 'orphaned sources') by companies that have left or are no longer in existence. 

There has been satisfactory progress made in the establishment of a radioactive waste storage facility at Nkana Mine for the storage of radioactive wastes produced by the then ZCCM. The registry for the spent sealed sources has been updated and a record of these sources has been maintained.   

In Zambia, radioactive waste is generated mainly from hospital, industry and mining operations. Low level waste is presently conditioned and stored in Kitwe. Zambia's objectives in the management of radioactive waste is to deal with radioactive waste and dispose it in a manner that ensures protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. More specifically, the following are the major concerns in managing radioactive waste: 

(i)                  protection of human health, both within and beyond national borders

(ii)                protection of the environment both within and beyond national borders

(iii)               protection of future generations

(iv)              burden of future generations

(v)                control of radioactive waste generation

(vi)              safety of waste management facilities   

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

In terms of capacity building, the Radiation Protection Board has been conducting training courses for radiation safety officers and radiation workers.  In addition, it organises national workshops/seminars for radiation workers as and when financial resources become available.  In terms of awareness raising, very little has been done. 

Zambia has continued to benefit from the International Atomic Energy agency training courses on various subjects concerning radioactive waste management. Participants at such courses came not only from the regulatory authority but also from the user institutions or radioactive waste generators.

Information   

Licensing of importers, exporters and user institutions by the Radiation Protection Board gives information on how radioactive wastes are being managed. The Radiation Protection Board maintains information on radioactive wastes produced in Zambia.

Research and Technologies 

Currently there is no research being undertaken in the area of radioactive substances.

Financing 

The government of Zambia through its national budget finances the Radiation Protection Board through the Ministry of Health.  Institutions that attend training courses, workshops and seminars organised by the Board pay participation fees. 

Cooperation  

The International Atomic Energy agency (IAEA) is assisting the Radiation Protection Board in capacity building by the provision of equipment, training and expert services in radiation protection and waste management.  At regional level It is hoped that the development of the 'Bore Concept' for disposal of radioactive wastes can be viable and be attained.  South Africa has been given the mandate to study the viability of the concept under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) AFRA Programme.

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