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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIA


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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The implementation of sector wide programmes demands strong leadership and coordination. This responsibility lies with the Government.  

At the programmes operational level coordination has mainly concentrated with improving efficiency of actions through information exchange, facilitate government administrative procedures, mobilization of resources, avoid overlapping activities, develop data bases, publication of newsletters, regular partner coordination meetings.

In order to achieve the above, the various sectors have introduced management structures for the implementation of sector programmes.  These have provided for all stakeholders participation and Donor Community to take an active role in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes.  These management structures include Steering Committees, Forums, Supervisory Boards and Project Management teams. 

Supervisory Boards handle policy issues and amendments to project documents and approve annual plans, budgets and reports.  The Steering Committee is responsible for management of the programme. The fora enables Government a platform to discuss with the donor community and stakeholders.   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources (MTENR)

has the mandate to provide an environmental policy framework, monitor, evaluate and co-ordinate its implementation, to ensure protection of the environment and sustainable development, management and utilization of natural resources for the benefit of the present and future generations.  The ministry’s main functions include coordination of national programmes and activities related to environmental control.  It is also responsible for coordinating statutory bodies dealing with environmental issues such as the Environmental Council of Zambia, and further facilitates meaningful involvement of the Civil Society in environmental issues.

The Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ)

was established by an Act of Parliament, Environmental Protection and Pollution Control (EPPCA), Act NO. 12 of 1994 to advise Government in the field of environment.  It undertakes environmental information generation and exchange, plan and implement activities and capture early lessons through monitoring systems.  The main activities of ECZ as regards environmental information management include, inventory of natural resources and other environmental conditions, forecasting resource status, hazard predictions and risk of environmental degradation, problem solving, action planning and policy formulation, reporting status of the environment and natural resources. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) provided a framework for making significant changes needed to bring environmental considerations into the main stream of decision making in Zambia.  It provides an overview of Zambia’s environmental problems, existing legislation and institutions and strategy options for improving environmental quality.  The plan is based on a review of relevant studies and reports, local knowledge at Provincial level, and a process of Consultant and discussion involving Central and provincial governments, academic institutions, governments, private sector, academic institutions, civic representatives, NGO’s,  International organisations and donor Community. 

Environmental issues in Zambia have been the responsibilities of Government sector ministries until in recent years when institutional reforms and strategies are changing towards cross-sectoral coordination with increasing awareness on the significance, severity, cross cutting and complex nature of environmental issues.  In view of this, the Government as earlier stated presently is reviewing most environmental legislation to ensure that they are in line and consistent with current macro economic reforms and the national environmental policy.  The indulging reasons for sectoral policy and legislation reviews are the need to balance economic growth with an efficient and sustainable use of the environment and natural resources as well as the need to integrate environmental management in all sectors. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

There are a number of NGO’s in Zambia working in the area of Environment namely; Environmental Conservation Association of Zambia (ECAZ), Worldwide Fund for nature (WWF), IUCN, WECSZ, etc. (hence the NGO sector has therefore not been sufficiently visible in matters related to environmental protection and management). 

Programmes and Projects 

There are a number of sectoral development programmes (SDP) that have been developed in the country based on environmental principles in their formulation and implementation.  These include: (Source: PRSP, MoFED 2001). 

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

Environmental Support Programme (ESP)

Supports the Governments development Strategy of poverty reduction within the framework of economic growth and protection of the Environment and Natural Resources Management in Zambia’s development process at the National and local levels. The program is being executed through various line ministries and agencies under the overall coordination of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources.  The approach of the program centers on addressing environmental concerns as identified by the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), namely soil degradation, water pollution and inadequate sanitation, deforestation, air pollution and wildlife depletion. ESP is receiving financial assistance from UNDP, World Bank, Netherlands.  .

The impact of the programme since inception has not been very good due to lack of proper coordination and linkages between implementing stakeholders

Public Sector Reform Program (PSRP)

Aim was to improve the operations of the Public Sector.  This will be done through reducing public employment, decompressing public sector salaries and strengthening financial management capabilities and improving performance management systems. 

 

Zambia Forestry Action Program (ZFAP) (2000-2020)

Is a national initiative to assess Zambia’s forest resources and the country’s capability to manage the forests.  The programme include a wide range of approaches for sustainable forest management taking into consideration holistic, inter-sectoral and iterative approaches, ecosystem approaches that integrate the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources adequate provision and valuation of forest goods and services.  It includes components on Wood energy, Tree development, Biodiversity Conservation and Extension services.

Lack of finance to community based projects.

Administrative Management Design (ADMADE) program (1999-2003)

For wildlife management in Game Management Areas that seek to build capacity for community based natural resources management by decentralised decision making and wildlife revenue sharing.

 

Provincial Forestry Action Program (PFAP)  (2000-2004)

Focuses on promoting community participation for sustainable forestry management and building capacities for forestry planning at provincial and district levels.  The program is being implemented in four provinces, namely; Copperbelt, Central, Luapula and Southern Provinces

There is a Shortage of manpower implement the project nationally due to funding constrains. It is however operating in 4 provinces.

Community Based Natural Resources Management Program (CBNRM) (1999-2003)

Provides for the involvement of local communities in the development of management plans and management of natural resources such as forests, wildlife, fisheries, water and arable land.  The program emphasizes an integrated management approach of natural resources with the involvement of all gender groups.

 

Inadequate funding. Poor management due to lack of trained manpower.

Soil Conservation and Farming Systems program (SCAFE) (1985-2010)

Aims to combat soil degradation and undertaking integrated agriculture and forestry extension efforts with local communities in four provinces namely, Eastern, Southern, Central and Lusaka Provinces.

 

 

Zambia Social Investment Fund (ZAMSIF)

Is supporting communities to rehabilitate infrastructure through implementation of micro-projects by provision of matching grants.  The expansion of the fund has included environmental projects apart from ensuring that all projects supported by the fund undergo environmental assessments.

 

Environmental Management Programs (EMP)

Being implemented by the Environmental Council of Zambia and negotiates on behalf of Government on development of Environmental Management Plans for each Mining area as per terms of the sale agreements within the privatization process.  The plans defines the commitments of owners regarding adherence to environmental regulations according to Zambian laws.

 

 

Industrial Pollution Prevention Program (IPPP) (1997-2003)

Arising from the Regulations and standards set under the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act, and aims at ensuring pollution prevention and attaining sustainable development.  The program develop capacity for Environmental Council of Zambia to enforce regulations through a stringent monitoring and licensing of industrial operations in Zambia and also has a component of cleaner production under the Zambia Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ZACCI).

 

Water Resources Action Programme (WRAP) (1999-2003)

Aims to contribute to poverty reduction.  The programme supports the National water policy in the establishment of a comprehensive framework that will promote the use, development and management of water resources in a sustainable manner.  It is assumed this will contribute to poverty reduction as water is key to social and economic prosperity.

 

 Status 

Zambia recognises the importance of sustainable natural resources management and the contribution of these to the national economy and environment.  The development of sector programmes discussed above indicated wider stakeholder participation in planning and decision making processes in connection with these programmes. However, the implementation of these sector programmes has stagnated in most cases owing to budgetary constraints.  In addition there is shortage of reliable and up to date data and information on the major sectors. 

The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) formulated in 1994 aims to integrate environmental concerns into the social and economic development planning process of the country.  And the overall framework for natural resources management recognises the role of different interest groups including the local communities.  To some extent stakeholder participation has been provided under revised sector legislation such as the Wildlife Act, Forests Act and the Water Act.  The challenge however, remains to translate the policy provisions into reality. 

Sustainable natural resource management depends on enabling environmental laws that provides for various stakeholder participation.  The Government is exploring the best ways of involving local people in managing the environment through community based natural resources programmes.  The Government with the assistance of the donor community namely, USAID, UNDP, FAO, FINNIDA and Netherlands Government is supporting community based programmes in selected parts of the country.  These programs aims to raise farmer’s income and alleviate poverty by improved production and marketing of agriculture and forest products.  The CBNRM programmes also aims to contribute to effective management and conservation of Zambia’s natural resources in an integrated manner by assisting local community based groups to develop the skills and knowledge required to identify, initiate and manage viable economic activities.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Capacity Building

 

The various sector programmes with donors assistance as regards environmental management have provisions for capacity building to include training of personnel, purchase of equipment and materials support for meetings and conferences.  Capacity building within local institutions is being done by providing education in natural resources management and utilisation and creation of awareness on the value of natural resources for all beneficiaries.

Education

 

The Environmental Support Programme (ESP) has a component on environmental education and public awareness which is implemented by the Environmental Council of Zambia through two approaches, school system and media to provide a broad based support to raise awareness of environmental issues among the general public.  The ECZ works in close collaboration with the Curriculum Development Centre of the Ministry of Education which has the responsibility of Curriculum review and modification.  The institutions offering natural resources training include University of Zambia, Copperbelt University, Zambia Forestry College, Natural Resources Development College.

Training

 

Awareness-raising

 

The public must be made aware of their right to a clean environment and must demand for it.  Hence, it must be ensured that information materials that are generated from various sources get to the general public.  The Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan disseminated information on biodiversity and related environmental issues hence contributed to raising awareness at all levels.

Information 

Under the Environmental Support Facility there is a provision to put together a Central Database for Environmental information. Information is currently scattered amongst various ministry.

 Research and Technologies 

The importance of research and development of technologies for sustainable development in the country need to be emphasized.  In recognition of this significance, a number of institutions are presently involved in environmental research and management.  These institutions have also been encouraged to collaborate and wherever possible carry out joint research activities with neighboring countries and international organizations.  The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources is spearheading research in fields such as pollution monitoring and control methods, watershed management, energy saving and tree development. Other institutions involved in environmental research include University of Zambia, National Industrial Research Council, Water Sector,  Energy Sector, Zambia Wildlife Authority and Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries through various sector programmes.   

The Technology Development Unit of the University of Zambia in collaboration with the Energy Department and National Industrial Research Council has carried out studies that would make solar, wind and biogas energy accessible to the local people. These institutions have continued to develop necessary technology that will save the country from high costs and minimize the polluting effects of oil and coal.

Financing 

Government budgetary allocations to the environmental sector have generally been inadequate.  The massive investment in the sector has been made possible by the external financing from Zambia’s co-operating partners.  Donor funding has during the period 1991 to 1995 ranged between 75 - 91% of the sector budget. 

The Environmental Support Programme (ESP) has a pilot environmental fund which is an investment component with two financing windows namely;  community based environmental fund and environmental study fund which focuses on promotion of community based micro-protects and oriented towards natural resources management and environmental studies and development of action plans and strategies of national importance respectively.

Cooperation

In addition to legislation and policies at national level, conservation and management of natural resources has been influenced by international law and policy.  The principal influence among the international conventions comes from Convention on Biological diversity (CBD) which Zambia ratified in 1993.  Zambia recognises the significance of CBD objectives and obligations and has used the Convention as an opportunity to integrate these objectives into on-going national policies, plans and programmes to include Environmental Support Programme (ESP), Zambia Forestry Action Programme (ZFAP), Water Resources Action programme (WRAP) and Agricultural sector Investment Programme (ASIP). 

Zambia is also a party to other international Conventions, namely; Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD).  Under the Ramsar Convention, Zambia has listed two wetland sites, Kafue and Bangweulu, and has developed a Wetland policy and strategies.  And under CITES, Zambia has assented to the listing of several species of flora and fauna in the three Appendices of the Convention NBSAP, MENR, 1999). 

Zambia cooperates with neighbouring countries at the regional level through bilateral and regional agreements.  Zambia cooperates through regional groups, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Government of the Republic of Zambia has established integral institutional mechanism for gender mainstreaming and the structure exists at three levels, namely: national, provincial and District.   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Gender In Development Division

Parliament and Civil Society organizations.  The GIDD is mandated with the responsibility co-ordinating, monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the National Gender Policy. 

Gender Focal Points

At sectoral level, Gender Focal Points have been appointed to co-ordinate gender mainstreaming activities in their respective Ministries. 

Parliament through the Parliamentary Committee on Legal Affairs, Governance, Human Rights and Gender matters

, is responsible for subjecting the activities of Government Administration to detailed scrutiny to ensure, among others, that gender mainstreaming is given priority and prominence at all times.

the Non-Governmental Co-ordinating Committee

In terms of civil society, NGOCC, is an umbrella organisation which is responsible for co-ordinating activities of affiliate NGOs involved in the implementation of Gender and Development activities.  The NGOCC has established Provincial Chapter in all the nine provinces of the country to ensure effective co-ordination at provincial and district level. 

Provincial Administration

At provincial level, the Provincial Administration is responsible for the co-ordination of programmes and projects on gender.  To ensure the effective co-ordination, GRZ have been appointed in planning unit.  The efforts of the Gender Focal Point are further enhanced through the Provincial Development Co-ordinating Committee (PDCC).

District Administration

At the District level, the District Administration is responsible for co-ordinating gender and development activities.  Their co-ordinating role is further strengthened by the District Developnment Co-ordinating Committees.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

 Zambia has demonstrated commitment and political will through various pieces of legislation to ensure that women are not hindered from participating in and contributing to sustainable development.  The Republican Constitution, bestows upon all persons in Zambia regardless of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, the rights and freedoms enshrined their in. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government of the Republic of Zambia developed and adopted an explicit National Gender Policy in March 2000.  The Policy provides guidelines for mainstreaming gender in the public and private sectors.  Gender being a cross cutting issue, the implementation of the National Gender Policy is therefore co-ordinated by the Gender In Development Division at cabinet Office. 

In addition to the National Gender Policy, the Government has developed Guidelines and Checklist for Mainstreaming Gender into the Public Sector.  The Guidelines and Checklists have been distributed to all Government ministries and stakeholders to ensure that gender issues and concerns are incorporated into their respective polices, programmes and activities. 

Zambia attaches great importance to the promotion of women’s health.  At national level, a number factors have been identified as areas of concern and these include: nutritional status of girls; maternal morbidity and mortality; high fertility rates; access to and utilisation of family planning services; safe motherhood; and HIV/AIDS. 

The Maternal Mortality ratio currently stands at 649 per 100,000 live births and is as high as 800 per 100,000 live births in some remote rural areas (ZDHS 1996).  The major causes of this high mortality rate include young age at first pregnancy; high fertility rates; short spacing between pregnancies; lack of knowledge of high risk pregnancies; high number of deliveries done at home; heavy workload; and limited access to health services. 

Antenatal care service is available in almost every health institution in Zambia.  According to the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) of 1996, the number of women receiving antenatal care from medically trained providers increased from 93 percent in 1992 to 96 percent in 1996.  However, despite the recorded increase in the number of women receiving antenatal care, most Zambian women do not seek antenatal services in the early stages of pregnancy.  This has resulted in delayed detection of unsafe pregnancies, thereby increasing the risks of infant and maternal mortality. 

Fertility rate has remained high in Zambia.  According to the 1990 Census, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was estimated at 7.2 children per woman.  Results from the ZDHS, 1996 indicated that the TFR had declined to 6.1 children per woman.  The high fertility rates could be attributed to low contraceptive use, limited access to family planning services and lack of control over their reproductivity by women, early marriages, especially in rural areas.  Results from the ZDHS 1996 indicate that 26.1 percent of currently married women were reported to be using any method of family planning and only 20.9 percent of married rural women were using such methods compared to 33.3 percent of urban married women.  According to the available information, although Family Planning Services are offered by 80 percent of all health institutions, these services are only provided on regular basis in one third of health institutions in the country.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects   

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

The Good Governance Capacity Building Programme

which has incorporated measures to strengthen the legislative measures and facilitate civic education on matters dealing with gender related matters and children;

 

  •  Resources

  • Gender analytical skills

  • Poor relation and coordination between NGO’s and Government.

Victim Support Unit

The establishment of the Victim Support Unit in the Zambia Police Service to specifically deal with issues of gender-based violence from a social  perspective.

  • Communication problems
  • Lack of transport by Police
  • Slow sensitization

 

Human Rights Commission

The establishment of the Human Rights Commission, which has enhanced the promotion and protection of human and women’s rights;

·        Human and Financial Resource

·        Very centralized. Out reach poor.

Programme for the Advancement of Girls Education (PAGE)

Through PAGE, measures have been put in place to raise the level of the public, institutional and pupil awareness of the essential equality of boys and girls.  In addition, the school curricular at primary school level has been revised to ensure that sex-role stereotyping in text books is removed to ensure that boys and girls are portrayed in a positive manner;

·        Financial resources lacking

 

Family Planning in Reproductive Health:  Policy Framework Strategies Guidelines

In order to ensure that women and men have same right to decide freely responsibly the number and spacing of their children, the Government through the Ministry of Health has formulated and is implementing the Family Planning in Reproductive Health:  Policy Framework Strategies Guidelines.  The Guidelines recognize the need to empower women and male responsibility as cardinal for healthy and sustainable development.

 

·        men not wanting to participate in family planning due to stereotype.

·        Funding inadequate

Status 

There has been progress in the participation of women in power and decision-making, in the past ten years although their number is still low compared to that of men. The average national percentage of women in power and decision making is less than 30 percent.  Zambia has committed herself, to achieve at least 30 percent of women in power and decision making by 2005 as contained in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Declaration on Gender and Development of 1997, to which Zambia is a signatory. 

However, the number of female representation in power and decision-making has been fluctuating.  The ninth session (2001 – 2006) of the Zambian National Assembly (Parliament) recorded the highest number of female Parliamentarians at 19 ( 12.02 percent) followed by the eighth session (1996-2000) which had 16 representing 10.13 percent out of 158. The first (1964-1968) and the seventh (1991-1996) sessions recorded 6.67 and 6.7 percent representation of women respectively.  This represents a 79.40 percentage increase in female representation in Parliament between the first and ninth National Assembly. 

At ministerial level, there were 2 (9.09 percent) female Cabinet Ministers out of 22 in 1995 and 1996 and 2 (8.33 percent) female Cabinet Ministers out of 24 in 1997 and 1998.  The current number of female Cabinet Ministers is 3 out of 20 representing 15.04 percent. By June 2000, there were 8 female Permanent Secretaries out of 46, 2 female Supreme Court Judges out of 7 and 4 female High Court Judges out of 16. 

The Non Governmental Organisations also played a vital role in encouraging women to participate in the electoral processes and have put in place programmes to facilitate the increased participation of women in the Presidential, Parliamentary and Local Government Elections that were held in December 2001.  In particular, the National Women’s Lobby Group (NWLG) was very instrumental in this process and held a number of training workshops for female parliamentary candidates and political parties to ensure that Zambia’s commitment to ensuring the achievement of 30 percent female representation in politics and decision-making is achieved by the 2005.

Challenges  

See under Programmes and Projects and Information.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Capacity Building

 

Programmes for capacity building are in place at all focal points. However intense training is required subject to availability of funding. Guidelines and checklist have been given to various sectors to enable them mainstream gender matters into their programmes.

Education

 

There is a Gender Studies Unit at the University of Zambia and at the National Institute for Public Administration. Gender is also being introduced into the curriculum for higher education.

Training

 

 

Awareness-raising

 

In order to eliminate the persistent negative images and stereotypes against women, the Government has been working in collaboration with various Non Governmental Organisations in creating awareness on the value of girl children.  This is being undertaken in schools, communities and workplaces.   The media personnel have been sensitised on the importance of promoting the image of women and girls and on the need to avoid publishing stereotyped information. 

 

The Zambia Information Services have been instrumental in advocating for the promotion of women and girls’ rights throughout the country.  In order to ensure that as many stakeholders as possible are incorporated in the awareness creation and advocacy, the Information, Education and Communication Committee has been established at national, provincial and district levels.

The GIDD in collaboration with co-operating parties have facilitated gender training for Gender Focal Points to enhance their gender analytical and planning skills.  In addition, other stakeholders in civil society have been trained in gender in recognition of their vital role in the development process.

 Information   

Institution

Type of Data

CSO – Gender statistics Unit

Generation of Gender Statistics Report

National Gender Resource Centre

Dissemination Centre Links GIDD to other institutions

Media personnel have been sensitized on gender issues and concerns to ensure that media and print programmes are gender sensitive. 

The GIDD has established an Information and Documentation Unit to ensure increased knowledge and information on gender related matters 

It is however, worth noting that despite having in place this mechanism, a number of constraints have been encountered, the major ones being the following:

Research and Technologies 

SADC in 2000 conducted a study to determine the level of participation in decision making. Another study to review  laws against violence on children and women was concluded in 2000.

Financing 

Financing for the coordination of gender and development activities have been financed for regular budgetary allocation in the recent past.  Prior to 1996-97 NORAD and UNFPA provided support for co-ordination of activities as well as capacity building.  Other cooperating partners such as DANIDA, FINIDA, CIDA and other cooperating partners are providing financial support for gender mainstreaming in specific sector.

Cooperation  

The Government encourages increased partnership with the civil society organizations in the implementation of gender and development activities. At regional level, Gender is co-ordinated by the SADC Gender Unit while the SADC Gender Minister’s Meeting is held annually. 

Other initiative being undertaken through cooperatation include:

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 CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Sport, Youth and Child Development

Is responsible for the development of Children and Youth.  The Ministry has confined its activities to the provision of the legal and policy framework for the development of the child and youth and put in place an effective regulatory mechanism to ensure that high standards are maintained.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation / regulation

Background

Juvenile Act Cap 217

Act dealing with juvenile (0-14 years) Offenders

Adoption Act Cap 218

Legal framework for adoption.

Probation of Offenders Act Cap 147

Act dealing procedures leading to juvenile offender probation, probation centres and reformatory conditions during probation custody. 

Other legislations that  have a bearing on children and youth development include the Education Act, Health Act and the Criminal Procedures Act.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Youth Policy, (which defines “youth” as a male or female person aged between 15 and 25 years) is concerned with the widest range of issues affecting youth, and with coordinating the efforts and responses of all its Ministries and Agencies, to ensure an effective development programme.  Thus it includes education and training, health and welfare, sport and culture, environmental concerns and so on.  Each of these will be examined later in this document. 

However, at crucial moments in a nation’s development, priorities have to be made, and resources and effort concentrated. In Zambia at this time, youth employment must be the main focus of activity. Thus, the major concentration of this National Programme is on measures to create better employment prospects for youth, particularly by providing fresh training opportunities to those who have dropped out of systems. 

But, the overall theme will be a focus on self enterprise, and particularly in the nonformal sector.  The Programme concentrates on the provision of a coordinated, holistic programme with five principle components: 

(i)                  Skills training responsive to local need.

(ii)                Enterprise training for small-scale business.

(iii)               Small start-up loans.

(iv)              Availability of infrastructure.

(v)                Mentor support of young entrepreneurs.

The programme assumes delivery through Youth Resource Centres strategically placed in each Province, built up from existing and proposed Youth Skills Training Centres.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Besides the Ministry of Sport, Youth and Child Development ,there are a number  of Government Ministries and Departments, Parastatals, and NGOs which are involved in decision making for youth development..

Programmes and Projects 

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

National Programme of Action for Children in Zambia

The National Programme of Action (NPA) for children in Zambia is a commitment by the Government and people of Zambia to our children.  It is a statement of the set of goals, which were to be undertaken to reach the year 2000 and it represented a minimum level of development for our most precious resource. The National Programme of Action has been prepared to meet the commitment the Government entered into at the 1990 World summit for Children.  This National Programme of Action provides a focus for specific actions to improve the living conditions for Zambian children and to ensure that the programmes of economic recovery and social mobilization directly address their needs.

Inadequate funding.

Unable to build capacity to conduct monitoring and evaluation.

Attempting to take over community halls from local councils for use as children guidance centres.

Reaching all districts.

National Programme of Action for Youth in Zambia (NPAY)

The National Programme of Action for Youth has been progressively developed through out 1996 and early 1997, and is based on the Youth Policies development and approved by Cabinet Office in 1994.  This document refers to a set of guidelines concerning response to Youth, as well as a mechanism for programme planning, implementation, coordination and monitoring to enable the nation attain planned goals in youth development. 

Funding inadequate.

Reaching all districts.

Building capacity amongst youth workers.

Status 

Structure of the Education/training and employment System

Despite significant increases in the number of primary schools over the past decades, the percentage of children in school-going age who enrol still too small.  Population growth has outstripped the supply of places. Consequently, there has been a significant rise in the number of children both in urban and rural areas who have never been to school at all. 

Education stage

Enrollment

Drop Outs

Primary Level Grade 1 to 7

260,000

170,000

Junior Secondary, Grade 8 to 10

90,000

67,000

Senior Secondary, Grade 11 to 12

23,000

17,000

University

1,800

 

Voc. Training

4,000

 

  

Employment by Sector

Number

Informal Sector- employed and self employed

Urban

Rural

 

330,000

1,970,000

Formal Sector – employed

500,000

The Status of Children as Vulnerable Group

The social crisis in the country, as a result of deprivation due to poverty, the debt burden and HIV/AIDS has increased the vulnerability of the majority of children in Zambia.  These vulnerable children are primarily orphans, street children, child headed households, and child labor. 15 percent of children are orphans and Ministry of Health estimates indicate that in 15 years there will be one million orphans. They represent the biggest burden of households.  Although the extended family system exists, its capacity, especially in the era of structural adjustment, is not infinitely elastic.  Consequently of particular concerns are an increasing number of orphans who do not have a traditional safety net of extended families and who are victims of various forms of neglect, abuse – sexual, physical and mental, and discrimination. 

Three years ago it was estimated that 75% of households were caring for at least one orphan.  Orphans normally live in a typical households: grandparents-headed households, child-headed households, single parent-headed households and rarely do they live in household headed by two parents. 

Related to, but not exclusively, to the orphan growth is the emergence and growth of street children.  Two decades ago, street children were an unheard of phenomenon in Zambia, but today their visibility has created a social concern.  Current estimates of the number of street children are not available.  However, the most recent figures estimate 75,000 between 15 and 18 years. 

Among the street children, the most vulnerable are the homeless children who live, work, eat and sleep on the street.  In 1991, a sample study revealed that 2 percent of the children were homeless.  By 1996, this proportion had grown to 7 percent.  With the growing number, especially of double orphans, the number of homeless children could rise. 

The living conditions of children on the street are in many instances sub-human.  This makes them highly vulnerable to illness, and yet because they don’t have an adult to accompany them to health clinics or hospitals, it is unlikely they will be attended to.  Given this situation their likelihood of attaining adulthood is sadly diminished. 

Child-headed households are being increasingly talked about in Zambia although no statistics are available to assess their magnitude.  Child-headed households again are an offshoot of the orphan crisis.  The conditions in child-headed households are worse than those obtaining in female-headed households.  Child-headed households again are the result of death of both parent leaving a trail of children and the responsibility on the eldest child, often a teenager, to look after the younger siblings.  Extended families are increasingly become unavailable to assume this role. 

With the diminishing prospects of grandparents and other being available due to diminishing life expectancy and the increasing proclivity of families to turn nuclear due to increasing economic hardships, the number of child-headed households could increase in the future. 

Child labour is yet another phenomenon that contributes to the growth numbers of children without normal childhood.  It was estimated that during the period 1986-191, 40 percent of the increase in the labour force was due to the incidence of child labour.  The Priority Survey I of 1991 estimated that 4 percent of the working population belonged to the age category 7-11 years and 10 percent belonged to the 12-19 years group.  The Priority Survey II of 1993 estimated that 7 percent of working population belonged to the age group of 7-11 years. 

The LCMS, 1996 report states that 3 percent of the children 5-11 years were involved in income generating activities.  In al, 56,000 children were involved, of which 12,000 were 5-6 years, 25,000 were 7-9 years and 19,000 were 10-11 years.  According to LCMS(1998), 28 percent of the persons in the age group 12-19 years were part of the labour force.  These again are children one would have expected to be in upper primary and secondary schools in normal circumstances.  A larger proportion of the children in this age group in the rural areas (35 percent) entered the labour market as compared to the children in the same age group in the urban areas (16 percent). 

Government’s Response to the Realisation of the Rights of Children

Nine years after ratifying CRC, and its commitment to ensuring the fulfillment of the rights of every Zambian child, Zambia is now completing its Initial State Party Report on how it has met that commitment.  The report has, with candor, recognized that the situation of children in Zambia is far from being satisfactory and has recommended a number of actions for the State to undertake as the principal duty bearer.  A priority among these actions is the review and revision of various Zambian laws and policies relating to children to ensure that they reflect the provisions of the CRC as well as CEDAW.  This is to be followed by the sensitization of all duty bears at nation and community level on the revised laws and policies.  However urgent action will also need to be taken to create an enabling environment to develop social policies and to scale up effective community-based models as part of establishing social safety net mechanisms, which will provide better protection for vulnerable children. 

It must also be understood that many of these phenomena of vulnerability did not spring up overnight but have been the result of a systematic decline in the macro economy over a protracted period and of the impact of such decline on vulnerable households.  Therefore, improving the welfare and protection of vulnerable children, cannot only be limited to legal review, policies and programmes, but must by necessity include arresting the macro economic decline and minimizing its debilitating impact on household 

The Status of the Youth as Vulnerable Group

The key issues for Youth are education and health, and they are largely disenfranchised in all of these areas. 

Twenty-one percent of the population (approximately 2 million) are categorized as youth, being aged between 15 and 24 years.  As described under the section on Education, only a minority are able to access their rights to an adequate education which would equip them well for obtaining reasonable employment.  One study showed that 19% drop out before reaching Grade 7 and a further 46% drop out at Grade 7.  Out of the 34% that enter secondary school, 74% drop out before attaining a school certificate,  24% go onto formal vocational training and only 2% enter university.  Disaggregated for sex, girls fare less well than do boys in the educational stakes. 

Consequently, the majority end up being their under or unemployed.  A study conducted by government in 1993 found that 75% of the urban unemployed were under 25 years of age.  For the urban youth, 3 out of 4 aged 15-19 years and 1 out of two aged 20-24 were unemployed.  In the rural areas the situation is somewhat better, presumably because of the farming opportunities – two out of 10 of those aged 15-19 years and 105 out of 10 aged 20-24 years were unemployed.  In 1997 it was estimated that a total of half a million youth were unemployed and given the extent of the economic deterioration the figure could be even higher.  Where youth are employed the majority are in the informal sector, without access to decent wages, promotion opportunities, job security or safe and health conditions of work. 

As described elsewhere in the report, an increasing number of youth are AIDS orphans and homeless and consequently at particular risk of sexual abuse and disease, as well as exposure to drug and crime. 

Given this situation, it is not surprising that juvenile crime is a problem, largely for the males.  When caught and charged young people are committed with adults, exposing them to great risk of sexual and other forms of abuse, and consequently to STDs, including HIV infection.  Under or unemployed female youth, in an effort to achieve economic self-sufficiency, are easily tempted to provide sexual favours in return for money, food and clothes, risking early pregnancy and STDs, including HIV. 

Health-wise, females become sexually active at a median age of 16 years, and given their biological immaturity, they are at increased risk of contracting STDs, including HIV.  Many make an early marriage (70% by the age of 20) and commence childbearing, with 4% of teenagers having 2 children by the age of 19 years.  The latter in itself is risky, in terms of the health of both mother and child.  Others resort to what is frequently unsafe abortion, resulting in morbidity and sometimes death.  Thirty percent of abortion related cases at UTH were among women under the age of twenty-five years of age.  Morbidity and mortality arising from the ten major causes of disease, including malaria and respiratory infections, are also high for youth. 

Government’s Response to the Realization of the Rights of Youths

Government recognizes that Youth are an important section of the population and has put in place a policy and programme of action as well as structures, including the Ministry of Sport, Youth and child Development.  Its work is complemented by that of other ministries, NGOs and churches.  National Youth Council exists.  At the implementation level, Skills Centres have been created, as well as a Youth Enterprise Development Fund and a Constituency Youth Fund which aim to assist economic empowerment of youth.  In regard to health services, some attempt has been made to make them more “youth friendly”, especially for reproductive health related services but the generally poor state of health services means that efforts are not always effective and they are certainly sufficient to meet the need.  In the education sector, the cost of school fees, the pressure to obtain an income and poor state and limited teaching capacity of many schools contribute to non-attendance and early drop out.  In short, the lack of funds for the social sector is a major constraint to help youth meet their basic rights for health, education and meaningful employment. 

While the approach is appropriately multi-sectoral, resources are insufficient to meet the need consequently, a significant segment of the population is seriously deprived and not well equipped to lead a healthy and productive life.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Capacity Building

 

Human resource development is of high priority for Zambia in establishing an environment that provides young people with knowledge, information and skills required for their empowerment. Particular attention is paid to capacity building among girls and young women especially in rural areas.

 

For many years, Zambia paid special attention to the development of her human capital, ensuring improved access to education and health facilities.  But the declining economy, since the mid 1980s, negatively affected the access and quality of these two essential social services.  This has resulted in substantial erosion in human capital formation. In addition, population increases have almost consistently been above the capacity of the country to invest in the social sectors (education, health, water and sanitation and housing) needed to both maintain and enhance human capital within the country. Allied to this, by the early 1990s the guarantee of jobs for school leavers and graduates within the public sector – which then dominated economic activities – could no longer be assured. Coupled with the slow private sector response, the job market remains unattractive.  

Since late 1980s high inflation and continued devaluation of the Kwacha have reduced the purchasing power of professionals, leading to increasing brain drain, as many qualified Zambians left the country for “greener pastures”.   

Human capital has also been adversely affected by HIV/AIDS as deaths from the pandemic are expected to lead directly to a reduction in the number of workers available. Deaths are affecting workers in their most productive years, and as younger, less experienced workers replace experienced ones, productivity is inevitably reduced (The Economic Impact of AIDS  in Zambia in 1999). Furthermore, AIDS cause significant increases in labour costs, both direct and indirect. These include increased health care costs, burial fees, absenteeism (due to funerals) and training and recruitment of replacement employees.

 

Education

 

Education is rightly recognised to be the cornerstone in the development process and this is especially true for females because of their influential role in family welfare. Since independence educational institutions have been expanded to cater for increased number; but as indicated above, the trend had been downward in the recent decades. Considering the State’s obligation for progressive realisation of this right to access free primary education, this regression poses a serious concern, and urgent corrective measures are called for.  

The evidence above, particularly with respect to access to primary education, suggests that government’s policy of universal primary education one of the most powerful means of escaping poverty is not being fully respected nor fulfilled, particularly among the most vulnerable the rural poor and girl child.  The disadvantage faced by females in the education sector is of particular concern considering the globally acknowledged linkages between the level of education and fertility and maternal mortality, which are both intricately associated with the state of poverty. Policy targets, established in line with International Development Targets, include:  

  • Every child should have 7 years of basic education by the year 2005;

  • Every child should have access to nine years of good quality basic education by the year 2015; and

  • The upgrading of all primary schools to full basic school status in the year 2015, and

  • Reduction in adult literacy from 25 percent to 12 percent, and female literacy from 33 percent in 1990 to 12 percent by 2000.

 

Training

And Awareness-raising

The Zambian Government has taken action for the development and maintenance of human resources and intellectual capital; for example: 

Priority for basic education and literacy programmes, especially for young women and girls and young people in rural areas.

Skills and management training for youth work through supported distance training.

Skills and entrepreneurship training

Review educational curricular to include elements of enterprise, work ethic, health conflict resolution, cultural environment, sports, values, family life and parenting skills education, according to the respective needs of individual countries.

Promote the practice of such positive values as equality, tolerance, cooperation and respect for diversity.

Raise young people’s awareness of indigenous knowledge so as to promote the development and protection of indigenous intellectual capital.

Promote awareness programmes on environmental conservation and the protection of natural resources. 

 

 Information 

The Government through the Ministry of Sports, Youth and Child Development has undertaken measures to promote and advocate for the improvement of access to information and Communications Technology (ICT) and to providing young people with the skills to make use of; for example: 

Research and Technologies 

The Government through the Ministry responsible for Child and Youth Affairs has been  and is directing its efforts at developing and strengthening Child and Youth development institutions, child and youth policies, legislate and constitute provisions impacting on child and youth development.

Financing 

Government and cooperating partners have endeavored to allocate resources for the Plan of Action through existing planning cycles and programmes including microeconomic and sectoral budgetary processes, integrating a child and youth perspective into such activities. 

Recognizing the fact that there are constraints on the availability of funds for new areas of activity, the Plan of Action also recommends the provision of resources to strengthen existing child and youth specific programmes. 

As outlined above Cooperating Partners have been very instrumental in assisting in child and Youth Development programmes. 

Cooperation  

Development Partners’ Response on the Rights of Children

The principal actor in this area has been UNICEF, whose activities in this regard are similar to those outlined under Chapters 4 and 5.  special emphasis in this area is on supporting the HIV/AIDS orphans, and in collaboration with ILO, trying to eliminate child labour. 

Development Partner’s Response on the right’s of Youth

The bilateral donors and the UN Agencies provide considerable assistance to youth programmes.  As a group, the UN Country Team, through the Peak Performance Project, is providing training to young people on conflict management and positive attitudes as well as facilitating the placement of a number of young high school and university graduates as interns.  The ILO is supporting youth activities in the employment sector, while WHO, UNFPA and UNAIDS are supporting the health needs of youths.

* * *

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services and the Ministry of Local Government and Housing are the government institutions responsible for strengthening community structures for sustainable development.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There is no specific legislation dealing with community organisation issues other than the Local Government Act.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Several NGOs have also actively participated in organising communities for effective participation in community and national development issues. 

Programmes and Projects   

A process of empowering communities and preserving indigenous knowledge systems through policies and legal instruments is in place and community initiated projects and development programmes are being implemented in all the nine provinces of the country. Community Natural Resources Management Programmes (CBNRMP) have been initiated and are being implemented in Western, Central and North Western provinces. Community Environmental Management Programmes (CEMP) are being implemented in all the nine provinces of the country. The Soil Conservation and Agro-forestry Extension Programme (SCAFE) is being implemented in Eastern, Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces while ADMADE is being implemented in all the Game Management Areas. ZAMSIF is building district capacity in establishing community structures for social and development initiatives throughout the country. 

Zambia has continued to recognise traditional leaders, supports and encourages traditional cultures and ceremonies. At the local government level, traditional rulers nominate their own representative in the Council of elected leaders. However, the House of Chiefs which is supposed to advise government on traditional matters and on national development has not been constituted for over a decade. 

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Communities participating in integrated natural resources management programmes have been exposed to participatory learning and action methods including participatory rural and urban appraisal. With expert support, they use these approaches to analyse their problems, identify solutions and devise management plans for sustainable livelihoods.  

The Traditional Health Practitioners Association of Zambia (THPAZ) have had there members trained in hygiene and sustainable harvesting methods for herbal and other alternative medicines. THPAZ has also been integrated into National Working Committees on validating traditional medicines.

Information 

There is very little documented information on community structures, participation and indigenous technical knowledge in integrated natural resource management.  However, the Traditional Health Practitioners Association of Zambia have been assisted to establish a data base on their members and various plants, herbs and materials they use in traditional and alternative medicine.

Research and Technologies 

Over the past few years, case studies on community attitudes, knowledge and practices have been undertaken focusing on various natural resources.  To strengthen and build knowledge and information on environment related issues, the Zambian Government has created a specific studies fund under the ESP's Pilot Environmental Fund (PEF) and under the Zambia Social Investment Fund ZAMSIF).

Financing 

The Zambian Government is financing community based initiatives through the national budgetary allocations to various ministries and agencies.  However, all the Community Based Natural Resources Management Programmes are largely being supported by NGOs and various Cooperating Partners. The only perceived constraint is that Cooperating Partners seem to support the action planning processes but tend to shy away when it comes to implementation of those plans.

Cooperation

Zambia has continued to actively participate in regional initiatives on Community Based Natural Resources Management and Indigenous Technical Knowledge. The only constraint is that community intellectual property rights are not yet recognised and rewarded by various researchers and specialists who are using this knowledge. The Dutch Government, UNDP, World Bank, DANIDA, EU, WWF, USAID, Care International, GTZ and others are involved in Community Based Natural Resources Management efforts at various levels.

* * *

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Government designated the Ministry of Community Development and Social Services as a focal point for NGO coordination.  It was also given the responsibility to initiate an enabling policy and legal framework whose purpose was to facilitate the coordination and regulation of these organizations. At the point of programme implementation, line Ministries are also expected to coordinate the activities of NGOs operating within the respective sectors.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Societies Act Regulates the formation, governance and operations of non-profit making institutions, charities and associations in Zambia. Lands and Deeds Act for the registration of trusts.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Among the actions that Government has taken to strengthen and consolidate the role of NGOs in line with Agenda 21, has been the formulation of an NGO policy and an accompanying legal framework.  The NGO policy was developed in close consultation with NGOs.  It was intended to provide guidance on NGO operations and ensure that standards and best practices are upheld. Also the NGO policy provides an attempt to develop framework leading to the development of an NGO Act although this process is stalled as NGO’s broad concensus on the drafting of an act has not been reached. NGO’s are being included in Government Capacity Building Programmes with the theme building partnerships and strengthening partners. In this regard government has contracted certain NGO’s to implement government project as in the case of Programme Against Malnutrition (PAM). 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Cooperating partners, communities, NGO’s

Programmes and Projects 

They are no specific programmes, which focus on strengthening the role of NGO’s in sustainable development.

Status 

The NGO policy was adopted in principle by Cabinet in 1998 but had to await the drafting of an NGO Bill.  This process has, however, stalled. 

There are views from civil society that Government abandons the idea of an NGO policy and that NGOs be left to regulate themselves and identify among themselves a focal point to oversee this responsibility.

Challenges  

With the proliferation of so many NGOs in Zambia, the onus still is on Government to ensure that a mechanism for self-regulation is put in place.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

They are no specific  initiatives in the area of Capacity Building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising for NGO’s.

Information 

Information on NGO and operations in Zambia is available in line Ministries, NGO umbrella organizations and specific NGOs themselves.  More information is needed on the impact that NGOs are making towards sustainable development.  There is also need for more readily available information on the amounts of donor inflows into the NGO sector.

Research and Technologies 

Research was conducted in 1994 on the role of NGOs in Zambia.  The research findings provided information on the numbers, coverage and sector leanings of NGOs operating in the country.  The study showed that NGOs are concentrated mainly along the line of rail, while rural areas are not serviced due to among other factors, poor infrastructure which increases their operational costs.  There is need to undertake another research since more NGOs have been established.

Financing 

Strengthening of NGOs through various capacity building activities has been supported by a number of International Development Partners.    The drafting of the NGO Policy was financed by the world Bank through the Social Recovery Programme (SRP).  Government has also entered into an Agreement with GTZ to finance a project on the strengthening of Civil Society organizations.

Cooperation

Government, International Development Partners, NGOs and CBOs are working together at various levels.

* * *  

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Local Government and Housing is responsible for local government administration at the policy level. However, in the absence of a strong government commitment to decentralisation due to financial constraints, and the lack of an agreed overall framework for governance at the local and district levels, donors have acted through a variety of agencies, both governmental and non-governmental to implement their own forms of decentralised development, particularly at sub-district levels. The result has been a proliferation of unofficial parallel structures and organisations. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The basic law on local government is the Local Government Act of 1991 and subsequent amendments of 1992, 1993 and 1995.  This principal law suffers from various omissions and ambiguities.  This is further exacerbated by a series of other Acts which, although not specifically concerned with local government, have further changed the functions, powers and revenue sources of local authorities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

Government through the Zambia Social Investment Fund (ZAMSIF) is reestablishing sub-district consultative bodies based upon different areas as defined by sector specific services and donor/NGO projects and what ZAMSIF calls 'communities of interest'. This is in addition to the communities defined by traditional demarcations.

Status 

Zambia currently has a dual system of (i) devolved elected local governments (ii) deconcentrated sector ministries reporting to their parent ministries in Lusaka. The District Council Secretaries or Town Clerks have no legal or financial power over the line ministry representatives. 

In spite of their relatively long existence, Local Authorities in Zambia are in a poor financial and human resource state, and are unable to fulfill their obligations and challenges effectively. The deteriorating state can be seen from a set of various indicators: These are inconsistent and unpredictable level of government grants to councils; non-functioning income generating activities; staff attrition levels; poor service delivery; insufficient maintenance of public infrastructure etc. Thus the Local Government Association of Zambia concludes that "Central Government has not yet developed a national local government policy with a clear vision and implementation strategies. However, there is a newly drafted local government policy under which it is proposed to give District Councils responsibility for all or nearly all development activities at and below their level. It is also government intention to provide local authorities with sufficient financial and administrative resources for effective local governance at district level. 

Challenges

The lack of legally constituted, local government institutions at the local and ward or area levels is a major weakness in the current system. The Cabinet circular of 1995, which established the District Development Coordinating Committees (DDCC) envisaged that these committees would integrate a process of 'bottom-up' local development planning and implementation, but failed to specify any institutional format for such a process. (see also under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies)

There is still need for District Councils to receive a large portion of their funds from the Central Government for them to make any meaningful contribution to local initiatives in support of agenda 21. This is especially necessary now that the councils are desperately short of funds.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation  

No information available.

* * *

WORKERS AND TRADE UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Zambia has been a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) since 1964 and has embraced the principles of tripartite consultation on which the ILO operates. In the tripartite arrangement, the Government acts as Secretariat through the Ministry of Labour ands Social Security, the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) represents the workers’ organisations are represented by the Zambia Federation of Employers (ZFE).  The Government ratified ILO Convention Number 144 on Tripartite consultation to underscore its resolve to such consultation. Government, Employers’ organisations, Employees’ representatives and other fringe organisations constitute the Tripartite Consultative Labour Council (TCLC) which is a supreme consultative body that deliberates on Employment and Labour Market issues.  The Tripartite Consultative Labour Council (TCLC) has two working groups, viz:

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Labour and Social Security

 

ZCTU

The largest congress and umbrella of all trade unions in Zambia.

ZFE

The representative body for employer. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Zambia has ratified a number of International treaties and recommendations to ensure social justice and promote “decent work” in this era of globalisation.  As at today,  Zambia has ratified a total of 43 ILO Conventions (39 of which are in force).  These 43 include the eight (8) Core Labour Conventions which were first established in the conclusions reached at the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995 namely: 

Legislation / regulation

Background

ILO Convention 87

– On Freedom of association and protection of the right to organise

ILO Convention 98

– On right to organise and collective bargaining

ILO Convention 29

– On Forced labour.·   

ILO Convention 105

– On Abolition of forced labour.

ILO Convention 138

– On Minimum age.·    

ILO Convention 182

– On Worst Forms of Child Labour.

ILO Convention 111

– On Discrimination (Employment and Occupation).

ILO Convention 100

– On equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Factories Act Chapter 441 of Laws of Zambia.

Administers by the Factory Department and Factories Inspectorate.  Provides the legal framework for the inspection of factories and construction sites to promote safety and health of workers environment.

Employment Act Chapter 268 of Laws of Zambia

Regulates workers and employers relationships in the work place. Gives guidance on minimum condition of service.

Industrial and Labour relations Act Cap. 269.

Governs industrial and labour relations system in the sense that it provides a framework for the creation of unions and  employers associations/federations. Gives guidance on the formation of such institutions and their governance.

Employment of Young Persons and Children’s Act Cap. 274.

Addresses issues of child labour and defines minimum age and child labour. It also stipulates penalties for default. However, the act is outdated and needs review.

The Minimum wages and Conditions of Employment Act of 1982.

Provides the state with authority to intervene in the determination of minimum wages and conditions of employment in circumstances where collective bargaining is not possible or effective.

Since the country adopted the policy of economic liberalisation, need arose to ensure that legislation in respect of Labour relations is not in conflict with this policy.  Consultations were engaged with employers;  workers’ and women’s organisations in reviewing these laws.  This review which is on going has seen the amendments of the Employment Act Cap. 268 and the Industrial and Labour relations Act Cap. 269 undertaken in 1997.

 As far as International Law is concerned, workers’ rights apart from ILO Conventions, are also enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, the International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights.  The rights accorded by these instruments are more extensive than those ILO Conventions that have been designated basic rights Conventions. They include the right:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Hitherto, Zambia does not have an Employment  and Labour Market Policy in place and has consequently been using labour legislation to manage the Labour Market. A draft Labour Market Policy was produced in the year 2000 after a long consultative process.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

ILO/UNDP JOBS FOR AFRICA PROGRAMME

Programme aimed at resolving the perennial problems of youth unemployment have been designed involving NGOs, ILO, UNDP and other stakeholders. The programme uses advocacy techniques. National and Provincial advocacy groups were formed to lobby for investments that are job intensive.

·        Started in 2000

·        Infrastructure and framework in place.

·        Funding erratic

·        Counter funding inadequate

 

PROGRAMME FOR THE ELIMINATION OF THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR

A programme aimed at eliminating all forms of Child Labour with emphasis on the Worst forms such as Child prostitution, stone crushing, child domestic workers and street vending is being implemented in partnership with ILO, ZCTU, ZFE and several implementing local NGOs. The programme has adopted five key strategic areas of Prevention, Withdrawal, Rehabilitation, Policy and Capacity Building.

·        This project is in it early stages and is generally proceeding well. Effects are being monitored.

·        However more funding required to upgrade human resource, infrastructure and logistical support.

STRENGTHENING LABOUR MARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM (LMIS)

This programme is meant to create a mechanism for collecting, processing, analysing and disseminating LMI

·        Funding has been poor previous although k500m has been allocated in this years budget.

·        Poor national infrastructure for data collection. Need to build capacity in the district labour offices.

·        Need to strengthen relations and have a permanent network between stakeholders.

·        Require infrastructure to conduct labour survey.  

Status 

Zambia has had a very strong trade union tradition dating back to the colonial era.  Under the previous labour law, trade unions affiliated to one mother body, the Zambia Congress of trade Unions (ZCTU). However, the  amendments to the Industrial and Labour Relations Act Cap 269 of the Zambian laws saw a proliferation in trade unions and formation of another representative body the Federation of Free Trade Unions (FFTU).  This was perceived to have undermined solidarity of the workers’ movement. But largely, the current economic hardships and increasing unemployment due mainly, to closure or privatisation of former parastatals have weakened trade unions.  A large number of the labour force is found in the informal sector where Employers’ and workers’ organisations are absent.  The prevailing scenario is therefore that:

Trade unions activities in Zambia centre on promotion of fair terms or employment and decent working conditions. Other activities include workers rights education and employment promotion.

Challenges  

Lack of capacity in terms of resources at the Ministry of Labour and Social Security has negatively affected implementation of programmes such as: 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

 

Capacity Building

 

They are desires moves to strengthening the TCLC by making the secretariate independent. 

Education

 

The Department of Education and The Occupational Assessment Services Department have an input in developing training and curriculum programmes at the TEVETA.

Training

 

Awareness-raising

 

These are conducted through sensitisation workshops on workers’ rights and Labour Laws.

Information 

The Planning Unit coordinates all Ministerial activities and has mandate to host a database on LMI. Information obtaining at the ministry of labour includes:

·        Basic Labour Market Data: ILO Conventions, labour laws, retirement figures, occupational accidents, vacancies notified.

·        Social Security Beneficiaries Database: A registry of social security schemes and keeps record of the number f beneficiaries by gender.

Research and Technologies 

Strengthening social dialogue: A study on all social dialogue institutions (on Labour matters) commissioned by the ILO was undertaken late 2001. This assessed the capacity of key Labour market institutions including the tripartite Consultative Labour Council in undertaking social dialogue on labour market issues. 

Financing 

The Government provides finances for implementing of programmes. However, some programmes are supported by the ILO.

Cooperation

The ILO takes a leading role in promoting employment and workers’ rights.  ILO supports programmes aimed at strengthening tripartism, social dialogue and employment policy (See also under Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations).

Other partners include: UNDP, Other Govt. Ministries, Workers’ and Employers’ organisations, NGOs.

* * *

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

The Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry

is the central Government decision-making institution on trade and industrial policy formulation in Zambia.  The Ministry plays a regulatory role for all matters relating to promotion of economic growth with regard to the Commercial, Trade and Industrial sectors within a market economy through the creation and maintenance of conducive legal and policy regulatory framework.

The Ministry also works closely with the Ministry of Finance and National Planning.  National Associations concerned with Commercial, Trade and Industrial sector development, the Zambia Revenue Authority and other line economic institutions to develop a conducive environment for industrial development.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Ministry administers a number of legislation through the Statutory Bodies that fall under it ambits. These include the: 

Legislation / regulation

Background

Competition and Fair Trading Act

Regulates the market to ensure fair trading practices and prevent market domination through the Competition Commission.

Investments Act

Regulates, Promotes  and monitors foreign investment coming into the country though the investment centre.

SED Act

Promotes SME Development. Allows the SED Board to put in place measures to assist SME’s through incentives and grants.

Standards Act

Provides the legal framework for regulating and enforcing standards.

Companies Act

Regulates company formation, corporate governance and company operation in Zambia.

Trade Mark Act

Regulation and protection of trademark use.

Privatisation Act

The legal framework for the establishment and  operation of the Zambia Privatisation Agency. Gives guidelines and modalities for the privatisation of state owned enterprise.

Patents and Designs Act

Regulates and protects Intellectual Property Rights.

Trade Licensing Act

Administered by local authorities. The legal framework for authorising and regulating formal trade.

Registration of Business Names Act

 

 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Zambia’s sustainable Commercial, Trade and Industrial reform policies were adopted in 1994 under the Industrial, Commercial and Trade Policy.  This policy seeks to advance Zambia’s achievements and to promote a dynamic environment based on growth and productivity.  The Policy document is currently under review. 

The Industrial, Commercial and Trade Policy is pursued within a liberalised and market-oriented framework.  To this end, the policy enables enterprises that have capacity and potential to compete and make necessary adjustment and assist others to find viable options within a supportive trade and commercial environment.   

The Zambian Government believes that stimulation of the private sector is the key to growth in the industrial and commercial sectors through the provision of medium and long-term credit, to finance investment projects.  The CTI sector has however, been faced with a number of problems that have affected the competitiveness of Zambian industries and some of these are:

This is has sometime led to relocations of some companies to neighbouring countries. 

Zambia's Trade policy has been through the liberalisation of the trade sector. The implications of the trade policy has been manifested in the privatisation programme which have been achieved through the privatisation of a number companies. This has however seen a closure of some companies that could not compete due to the opening up of the markets. There has been a general out cry from the business community for need to have some form of protection. 

The trade liberalisation has also seen the reduction of tariff in the economy. Currently Zambia has four tariff bands of 0% for capital goods, 5% for raw materials, 15% for intermediate goods and 25% for finished goods. 

The Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry has tried to resolve some of these inadequacies, the ministry has come up with initiatives including: 

The industrial policy document has recommended the following strategies:

·        Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry and Zambia Investment Centre should embark on a ‘Buy Zambia’ campaign in order to encourage locals to buy Zambian products.

·        Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry should put in place Safeguard measures to protect the local industry from unfair competition.

·        Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry should strengthen Private Sector Support Institutions i.e. ZACCI, ZENA, etc

·        Establish a central government planning Authority that will take into account the new environment, which is created, to ensure that government projects and programmes are focused, complementary and well coordinated. The same institution would develop a national strategic plan and vision.

·        Reduce taxes to the levels that will leave manufacturing firms with funds for re-investment and declaration of dividends.

·        Widen the tax base by bringing current non-tax payers into the tax net and encourage relevant government departments and local authorities to strengthen the collection mechanism through payment of collection fees. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Various associations, individual companies sometimes, GRZ/Private Sector Consultative Dialogue Forum which meets 4 times a year.  

Women have traditionally not been a major force in the formal sector, although the situation is changing.  However, their role in the informal sector has been a major source of employment.  Government sees this as the greatest immediate outlet to employment creation and a basis to build up and enhance productivity.  To support this activity, the following strategies shall be pursued: 

·        Government will assist with the establishment and strengthening of business associations for women for the purposes of networking, information sharing and exploitation of business opportunities. 

·        It will promote the education of women on the opportunities that exist in a market economy and impart technical and entrepreneurial skills.

Programmes and Projects   

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

Privatisation Programme

 

Administered under the Zambia Privatisation Agency which plans, implements and and controls privatisation of state owned enterprises.

·      Political Interference

·     Finding the right mode of Privatisation.

·     Inability to follow up and enforcement Investment pledges.

Private Sector Development Programme

PSDP is an integral part of the EU third phase of the Structural Adjustment Facility, in support of the Zambian Governments on-going efforts at reforming the economy and supporting the private sector.

 

 

Enterprise Development Project

This is a US$45 million World Bank funded project that has three main objectives:

  • To provide financial resources needed for investment purposes and working capital for exporters.
  • Ro provide technical assistance to private firms to enable them prepare detailed marketing, technological, organisational and investment strategies.
  • To provide technical assistance to financial institutions .

 

Export development Fund

EU fund which supports projects exporting to the EU market. They providing funding and technical assistance.

 

Status 

Government has realised that Business and Industry play a very important role in the social economic development of a country.  Through the liberalisation policy, the Ministry has continued to support the business community through putting in place a conducive legal regulatory framework for business to operate in. 

The formulation of industrial, commercial and trade policies took into consideration consistent and complementary macroeconomic developments and policies.  In this regard the reform process sets the most important parameter for the sectoral growth. 

The most relevant aspects of the reform programme to commercial, industrial and trade policies are already in place. These are investment, privatisation, financial sector, legal and trade reforms which have been successful. 

It however, needs continued support by an active industrial policy, whose primary purpose is to secure a dynamic comparative advantage in the global economy for Zambian enterprises. 

·        The Ministry through SEDB facilitate the identification of potential projects for SME development. However, the capacity of SEDB need to be strengthened and resource would be mobilised. 

·        To promote more efficient production process, the Ministry has, through the Zambia Bureau of Standards  (ZABS) been promoting the adoption and use of international recognised standards in industry and commerce. 

Competitiveness of Zambian industries

The competitiveness of the Zambian Industry has been influenced largely by economic reforms embarked upon in 1991, which saw the shifting of the industrial and commercial policy from import substitution, protectionism and heavy public sector involvement to promotion of an open liberalized market economy. The reduction of trade tariffs, however, opened Zambian companies to foreign competition before they had the chance to re-tool and upgrade equipment. This led to a shift in demand from local to foreign cheaper products. Regional conflicts have also hindered efforts to export. 

The manufacturing sector is the third largest contributor to GDP averaging around 10-11% and employing 47,782 people in 2000, which has been the average for the period 1997-2000. The composition of the manufacturing sector includes food, beverages and tobacco, textiles and leather, wood and wood products, paper and paper products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, non-metallic minerals products, basic metal products and fabricated metal products and other manufacturing. 

Reports of company closures, lay offs and relocations to other countries continued in 2001. It has been generally observed that those industries that depend on raw materials and other inputs imported outside COMESA and target the local market have had problems surviving in the liberalised market environment. The COMESA Free Trade Area is expected to benefit firms sourcing inputs from within COMESA where duty on raw materials is zero-rated. This measure is expected to reduce production costs thereby making locally produced products competitive. 

Other factors affecting the manufacturing firms in Zambia include high transport cost, obsolete machinery, communication and energy costs, high interest rates, lack of development finance, unfair trading practices by some COMESA member’s states, poor economic infrastructure, high taxes and lack of capacity to enforce quality assurance and standards. Distorted duty structure, lack of a strategic plan and vision and shortage of critical raw materials also contribute to Zambia’s uncompetitive ness both locally and abroad. 

Challenges  

While the ZABS has been trying to provide facilities for testing and calibration of physical standards, the institution faces a number of serious constraints which include: 

·        lack of infrastructure – This has made Zambia to have one of the least developed national standards bureau in the region, 

·        lack of adequate numbers of technical staff 

·        inadequate levels of operational material and logistical resources. 

However, the Ministry is looking forward to a situation where the constraints are overcomed so that the business community is helped and technical requirements become critical in the production process of industry to reduce on wasteful production processes. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Capacity Building

 

The Ministry has developed good relationship with the business community and is making efforts to work closely with them on all matters related to Commerce, Trade and Industry. The Ministry through the Small Enterprises Development Board has been building technical capacity for SME through offering business skills training. 

Education

 

The University of Zambia, the Zambia Institute for Chartered Accountancy Studies and other colleges offer degree to diploma certificates course in business, IT and accounting related subjects.

Training

 

SEDB has training programmes to equip SME’s under there membership. ZABS also has training course to make companies aware of standards. Technical standards have been identified as the biggest barrier to trade.

Awareness-raising

 

There funding available to MCTI under PSCAP to develop a website. MCTI holds regular awareness meeting with associations and initiates awareness campaigns for various programmes. A MCTI bulletin is supposed to be published quarterly however this is not being achieved. Creative Group has recently been contracted to  develop a monthly commerce gazette.

Information 

Numerous databases exist at various statutory institutions and these include the following: 

Institution

Key Indicators / Databases  Generated

Investment Centre

Pledged investment and jobs, implementation, sector

Registrar of Companies

Incorporation details, Directors and shareholder, Authorised Capital, area of business

MCTI – Planning and Information Department

Trade Database, import and export data. Products, quantities, destination and value.

Patents and Trademarks Registry

Registeration of Patents and Trademarks

 An Industrial Audit is to be conducted by MCTI under PSCAP.

Research and Technologies 

The challenge is for  Government to continue to strengthen public research institutions, such as the Technology Development Advisory Unit and the National Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, to undertake technological development and adaptation, choice and selection of equipment, provision of information on raw materials and quality assessment.  Public research institutions should be linked to the private sector. 

The transfer of technology is a key input into industrial and commercial sector growth.  It is critical for raising productivity in both small and large-scale enterprises.  Government continues to promote and encourage adaptation of new technology.  Firms should have access to appropriate technology.

Financing 

Financing of the commercial, trade and industrial sector activities mainly been through the normal budget allocations from the Central Treasury. The Government  however at isolated times receive funding and technical assistance from donors which is usually for capacity building within the Ministry.  

Finances have been provided through donor support to the Ministry under different projects. Some of the programmes that were undertaken included: 

(a)    The Ministry in collaboration with the World Bank formulated the Enterprise Development Project to enhance private sector development.  The Enterprise Development Project is a credit meant to facilitate for the expansion, rehabilitation and modernisation of the Zambian small and medium enterprises.  

(b)   Further, the Export Board of Zambia has an Export Development Programme, which became operational in December 1993 and is on going.  The Export Development Programme is intended to address production and export market constraints in the horticultural and floricultural, textiles and cotton, coffee and tobacco sectors.  It is financed by the European Union under the Export Development Fund. 

(c)    The Ministry also received Technical Assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), to establish at the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry (MCTI), an effective national capacity compromising human skills and systems to enable Government formulate capacity, policy research and analysis so as to enhance private sector development throughout the country.  The project sought to strengthen the MCTI’s capacity to formulate and implement conducive commercial, trade and industrial policies for private sector development.  This mandate was particularly cardinal to the Ministry given the country’s transition from a public led economy to one based on the private sector.

(d)   Further, the Ministry hosted another donor-funded project namely “GTZ Advisory Services to the Ministry” funded by the German Government for capacity building of the Ministry. 

(e)    Zambia is through the Ministry of Commerce implementing the AGOA. An AGOA Implementation Committee to oversee Zambia’s participation under the Act has already been put in place, which predominantly involves the business community. As regards exports of textiles and apparels to the USA market, the visa system has been formalised and the Statutory Instrument no. 127 was gazetted in the Government Gazette in November 2001. The Gazette was forwarded to the United States Trade Representative and we have since received the final approval of the visa system.

Cooperation

The Zambian Government encourages increased partnerships with the private sector.  NGOs, other members of the civil society, and the international community (COMESA SADC, WTO, ACP-EU, USAID, GTZ etc) for the development of the commercial, trade and industrial sectors.  

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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The decision-making and co-ordination of strategies to enhance community appreciation in science and technology primarily and to promote the uptake of science and technology based careers is versed in government.

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT)

To plan, implement, co-ordinate and regulate policy developments in the science and technology and technical and vocational skills sectors for sustainable economic growth.

Department of Science and Technology (DST)

Co-ordination and provision of linkages between the government and institutions in the national science and technology system in the promotion, developing and monitoring S&T Policies in the country.

Department of Vocational and Entrepreneurial Training (VET).

Co-ordination and provision of linkages between the government and concerned institutions in the promotion, provision, developing and monitoring technical education and vocational training in the country.

The National Science and Technology Council

Set up under the Science and Technology Act. 26 of 1998, co-ordinates and regulates R&D, set broad direction for R&D, recommend the establishment of new institutes and S&T support and services centers, collect and disseminate S&T information, mobilize and distribute S&T Funds and carry out public awareness campaigns.  

 The public awareness promotion involves both research and development institutions and the service and support centers. The services and support centers involved are the National Technology Business Centre (NTBC) for transfer and promotion of sustainable environmental technologies and the National Remote Sensing Institute for provision of remote sensed data for sustainable environmental management.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation / regulation

Background

Science and Technology Act No.26 of 1997

The legal framework developed from the National Science and Technology Policy (NSTP) of 1996 on which the provisions of the policy are being implemented

Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Act No. 13 of 1998

The legal framework developed from Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship (TEVET) Policy of 1996 on which the provisions of the TEVET Policy are being implemented

Statutory Instrument No. 73 of 1998

Effected the establishment of the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) from the former laboratories of the National Council for Scientific Research (NISIR).

Statutory Instrument No. 136 of 1999

Effected the establishment of the National Technology Business Center (NTBC). The NTBC is a technology and promotion merchandising institution with special emphasis on indigenous technology and importation of appropriate technologies from outside so as to enhance productivity.

Statutory Instrument No.137 of 1999.

Effected the establishment of the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC). The NRSC will process and provide remote sensed data for informed planning.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Science and Technology Policy (NSTP) developed in 1996 and the subsequent institutional framework, which has been put in place, places the advocacy and public awareness campaigns on the role of science and technology for the betterment of the socio-economic of the communities as a key strategy.  The appreciation of the role and power of Science and Technology in both the productive and sustainable utilization and management of available natural resources by the community is viewed as the cornerstone of a sustained productive culture.

The Government has since 1996 implemented institutional and public targeted Science and Technology promotion and awareness campaigns. 

The strategies for the attaining of this broad policy objective object include: recognition of gender concerns; rationalisation of the existing and establishing new institutions; ensuring that research is guided by national developmental goals; establishing a mechanism for increased innovation, transfer, diffusion and commercialisation of technologies, especially for the small and medium scale industries, with emphasis on indigenous technology; putting in place efficient facilities to formulate and enforce standards and undertake quality control testing and assessment of industrial products; developing appropriate training which imparts skills and application of knowledge to develop proto-type products and processes in changing environment of market technology; establishing a comprehensive data bank which is easily accessible at strategic locations by scientific, management and industrial users; and providing incentives and high targeted promotion on the importance of science and technology to economic development in the key sectors.  

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

(a)    The Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training. 

(b)   The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The NSTC is composed of 11 Councilors who are professionally qualified and represent the major science and technology application sectors, commerce and the private sector. The NSTC has a fully-fledged Secretariat headed by An Executive Secretary and if a full Government Granted Institution. The NSTC apart from the Council has specialized advisory Sub-Committee in relevant fields to deal with pertinent issues .

(c)    Research Boards. Each Research Institute or science and technology services support center has a management Board (Research Board in terms of research institutes) made up not more than eight members who are qualified persons in matters relating to the research disciplines of that research institute. The Chairperson of the Board is elected by the members for a specified period, usually three years.

Programmes and Projects   

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

1.National Technology Business Centre.

Among the deficiencies identified in the National, Technology System is the lack of an institutional Mechanism to for technology diffusion, transfer and commercialization.  The Project document was drawn up with the participation of stakeholders. The implementation is on and the Centre has been operationalised though most of the facilities have to be sought later due to lack of funds.

Lack of Facilities and equipment

Training of manpower

 

National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC)

 

In order to enhance planning and utilization of natural resources for a sustained growth, a national remote sensing center was planned for during the second phase of the implementation of the NSTP.

1.Lack of Facilities and equipment

2. Training of manpower

Science and Technology Public Awareness

In order to embed science and technology as a culture of life for the Zambian people, public awareness programmes are ongoing. On going. Different awareness themes are developed every on the power and gender neutrality of S&T

Lack of resources to carry out national campaigns

Science and Technology Weak and Forum.

Held every year between July and September. Scientific displays, talk shows and papers presentation on pertaining S&T themes.  Ongoing. Different themes and developed every year.

 

Lack of resources to conduct the science week and forum.

Survey and documentation of indigenous technologies

There is need to carry out a survey and documentation of indigenous knowledge and technologies with a view to upgrade them so as to promote cottage industries in peri-urban and rural communities. Project Document has been finalized and sponsors are being sought.

Lack of resources and facilities to conduct the survey and documentation.

Rationalisation of Existing and establishment of  new institutes and centres

To strengthen capacities and capabilities and to maximize returns on investment the existing institutes need to be rationalized and new institutes and centers established Cap. 236 of was amended to separate the advisory and co-ordination from the laboratories of the former National Council for Scientific Research resulting in the establishment of the NSTC and the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The establish of new institutes and centers is under way

Lack of resources

Status 

In an effort to strengthen Communication and co-operation among scientific and technological community decision makers and the public, the Government has put in place the following avenues: 

1.                  Established a Science and Technology Parliamentary Committee to lobby and make timely recommendations on issues affecting the development of Science and Technology  

2.                  Established the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) to regulate and co-ordinate science and Technology Policy for the betterment of the community  

3.                  Provision of logistical and financial support to Science and Technology professional and promotional Associations to conduct community biased scientific and technological interventions and programmes. 

4.                  Conducting of Publicity Campaigns on the roles of Science and Technology in targeted solution seeking communities. 

5.                  Creation of a Databank on technology profiles with parameters on sustainable utilization of raw materials.

Promoting environmental friendly, harvesting, management and utilization processes especially at community cottage industries.

Challenges  

See under Programmes and Projects.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Capacity Building

 

Establishment of S&T Support and Services Centers and institutes.

Education

 

Establishment of the University of Science and Technology

Training

 

Development of various staff development plans in critical fields

Awareness-raising

 

Public Awareness Campaigns, School S&T Career uptake promotions, Girls Science Camps

Information 

Institution

Type of Data

MSTVT

Science and Technology Indicators (not completed)  

Technical and vocational education indicators  

NSTC

R&D Institutes

Funding to R&D

R&D Capacities and capabilities

National Technology Business Centre (NTBC)

Indigenous, local and imported Technology Profiles (being implemented

Research and Technologies   

See under Information.

Financing 

Financing of the National Science and Technology System is through Government Grants

Cooperation  

Technical co-operation mainly in human resource development and, project planning

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 FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives is the responsible Government Institution charged with the responsibility of developing and coordinating agriculture and cooperatives policy.  Agricultural cooperatives which are meant to facilitate farmers for efficient and effective input distribution and marketing of outputs have in the past been formed by middlemen whose primary objective has been to get cheap agricultural inputs and market them to vulnerable farmers at exorbitant prices.  Other institutions looking into the welfare of farmers are the Zambia National Farmers Union, Tobacco Farmers Association and out grower schemes facilitated by the private sector.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There is no specific legislation looking into the welfare of farmers. However, farm workers are covered by the labour laws and employment Act. The Investment Act also covers those who invest in the agricultural sector. The small-scale farmers in the rural areas are not adequately covered by law and as such they at times loose their lands to large investors who are adequately protected by the laws.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

The major government programme in the agricultural sector since UNCED has been the Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (ASIP) whose main objective has been to improve and enhance the use of land in Zambia for agriculture and other land uses to ensure sustainability and lasting food security. 

However, the implementation of ASIP was disappointing and did not have the desired impact. The other programmes such as SCAFE and out grower schemes have made an impact in improving farming systems and the supply of inputs and marketing of produce among small-scale farmers. The participation of the private sector in extension services is especially demonstrated in cotton with Lonrho Cotton operating in Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces and Clark Cotton and Sable operating in Eastern Province. 

The supply of inputs and marketing of produce among small-scale farmers by the private sector firms, through out-grower schemes, is proving valuable to the majority of farmers.

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Agriculture is expected to be a key sector for future development of the Zambian economy, together with mining and tourism.  At present, transport of agricultural inputs and outputs is a major constraint.  The condition of rural roads is of key importance to farmers and wider agricultural and regional development, especially in trying to bring subsistence or marginally commercial farmers into the cash economy. 

Field days are organised for farmers to share their experiences and practices. Extension services are also provided to farmers although the system appears to have broken down with the public service reform programme under which several extension workers have either been retrenched or retired. 

Cooperatives are being encouraged as a means for farmers to access inputs and market their produce from a strong position.  Training in cooperatives, farm management and food processing is being offered to farmers through the agricultural training centres spread throughout the country.  Radio and Television broadcasts are also aired in several Zambian languages giving information to farmers on various aspects of agriculture.

Information 

There is no database on actual numbers and productivity of peasant farmers in the country. Information on commercial farmers can be obtained from the Zambia National Farmers Union. Due to the vastness of the country, poor communication and the population involved, farmers have proved difficult to organize without an elaborate extension system.

Research and Technologies 

Agricultural research generates appropriate technology for improving and sustaining the farming community in the country. Research has tended to emphasise the improvement and development of food crops and improving the productivity of farming systems. 

Financing 

The Zambian Government through the national budgetary allocations to the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and other corporate bodies such the Golden Valley Trust, has been financing the agricultural sector though not to the desired levels. The World Bank, UNDP and other cooperating partners have been supporting the Zambian Government in its efforts to revamp the agricultural sector.

Cooperation

NGOs and Farmers Unions have been collaborating and exchanging experiences with their counterparts in other SADC countries.  Small scale farmers have also been afforded opportunities to participate in regional training programmes such the land husbandry and integrated land use planning training workshops.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

At the Government level the responsibility for Science related to sustainable development is organised as follows: The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources through the Environmental Council of Zambia has the direct responsibility for environmental research and an indirect overall responsibility for integration of environmental considerations.  The Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training has the responsibility for basic and long-term research.  Other Ministries hold responsibilities for research within their sector areas of jurisdiction. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

Environmental research is basic prerequisite for meeting national and global challenges related to the carrying capacity of the nature, biodiversity and sustainable production and consumption.  During the last 10 years environmental research has not been a field of priority in the Government's general research policy.  Public spending on environmental research has only increased during the past four years with the introduction of the study fund under the Environmental Support Programme. Since this research is not institutionalised in research institutions, it would be an over statement to assert that environment and development issues have become an integrated part of the national research system. 

Science is an important instrument in producing the knowledge needed to make wise and sound decisions for achieving sustainable development in Zambia.  There are many gaps to be filled. For instance, the last known national forest inventory was undertaken in the early 1970s.  The Government and its cooperating partners therefore, still requires to give priority to science for sustainable development. 

Research Institutions such as the University of Zambia, Copperbelt University, National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR), Agricultural Research and Forestry Research are poorly funded to undertake any meaningful research aimed at adding value to the country's understanding of sustainable development.  Threats to the environment must be identified as early as possible and work on environmentally friendly products developed. 

Steps Taken to Improve Scientific Understanding, Long-Term scientific Assessments and Building of Capacity and Capabilities

The most important institutional developments have been the establishment of the Science and Research Council and the transformation of the National Council for Scientific Research into the National Institute for Science and Industrial Research.  However, none of these institutions have the capacity and necessary resources to undertake research relevant and specific to UNCED implementation.

Challenges  

See under Status.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information 

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation  

No information available.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry information and Broadcasting Services

To ensure the release and free flow of vital information from all ministries and related public institutions for dissemination to the public through the government owned electronic and print media institutions', namely the Zambia Information Services (ZIS), Zambia News Agency (ZANA), Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation. (ZNBC), the Times of Zambia and the Zambia Daily Mail.  

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Mission Statement:  “ To promote and facilitate the growth of a sustainable media industry capable of enhancing free flow of information and freedom of expression for national development” 

Goal Statement: To provide legal and policy framework for the development of a sustainable public and private media and increase coverage for a well-informed society” 

The following objectives are being pursued by the Zambian Government:

  1. To formulate appropriate policies and develop guidelines for the growth of a sustainable media industry.

  2. To initiate and update laws to guarantee and safeguard press freedom and individual rights to information and privacy.
  3. To increase media outreach and access throughout the country resulting in free flow of information.
  4. To effectively manage and develop human resources for efficient and effective performance of the ministry and to facilitate capacity building in the media and promote professionalism.
  5. To effectively monitor the implementation of and compliance to media policy and related laws.
  6. To facilitate the creation of a self-regulatory professional body backed by law to enforce ethics and standards.
  7. To establish and maintain an efficient and effective consultative system with stakeholders
  8. To interpret government policies to the public in order to solicit their participation in national development.
  9. To provide efficient and effective administrative and logistical support services for the effective operation of the ministry.
  10. To establish and maintain a management information system for improved information flow and decision making. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

In its dissemination of information on development programmes to the general public, Zambia Information Services apart from channelling its material to ZNBC - TV and radio where the articles are broadcast in English and Vernacular languages and also to the two daily newspapers, the Times of Zambia and the Zambia Daily Mail, the department uses the following channels of its own: 

Programmes

Background

Video/ Documentaries

Video documentaries on various development issues for various sectors are produced in English by the department's video unit and are translated in various vernacular languages for airing on ZNBC TV and radio. The same are also taken to provinces and districts for mobile video shows to communities especially in the remote rural areas where there is no radio and television reception.

Radio programmes

Radio programmes on various development issues are recorded for airing on ZNBC radio in

English and various vernacular languages.

Six Vernacular newspapers

Zambia Information Services publishes six vernacular newspapers which are as follows: -

Ngoma Newspaper- Luvale, Kaonde and Lunda languages;

Lukanga Newspaper - Lenje language;

Intanda Newspaper- Tonga language;

Liseli Newspaper- Lozi language;                

Imbila Newspaper- Bemba language

Tsopano Newspaper in Nyanja language.

All the above carry articles accompanied by photographs on various development issues and are circulated in areas where the languages are spoken covering all the 72 districts in the country.

Zambia Magazine

The Zambia Magazine, popularly known as 'Z' Magazine which is published in English, is also produced periodically carrying stories on various development issues.

Popnews

This is an English publication which is also produced periodically carrying stories on population related issues which have a bearing on development. The Popnews is a publication produced by ZIS Population Communication project (POCOM) which is donor supported and funded by UNFPA. This project has the mechanism of keeping the people informed on various programmes which border on the people's social and economic life styles.

Public address system

The public address system used by ZIS has proved to be one of the most effective channels of information dissemination when it comes to issues requiring immediate response from the people.

This is a community mobilisation process whereby the government uses the mounted mobile Public Address System to inform the people in their communities about government programmes and activities. This is accompanied by video shows which are staged at selected centres on various development issues. Video shows also offer entertainment to the people.

Brochures and Posters

The brochure and posters produced by Zambia Information Services Graphic Artist section have also proved very effective channels, in that the materials are obtainable and could be retained as reference materials.

 Status   

Zambia Information Services

In this regard therefore, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services has mandated the Zambia Information Services as the main public relations wing of the government to collect vital information from all sectors for dissemination to the public at large and educate them on government policies, development programmes and activities as well as major national events. 

The above, therefore, makes the operations of ZIS, in terms of information dissemination to cut across all other sectors in interpreting their roles and operation programmes to the public through the print and electronic media. 

Institutional Linkages

In order for the Zambia Information Services to effectively carryout its mandate of collecting and disseminating information to the public, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services has been mandated to attach well trained Information Officers from ZIS to all ministries as public liaison officers for the purpose of ensuring release and free flow of vital information to the Zambia Information Services and other public media for dissemination to the general public. 

The above linkage, although not yet fully implemented, is important as it provides for harmonisation, coordination, synchronisation and consultation on services and functions amongst institutions responsible for the implementation of development programmes.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation  

No information available.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The responsibility of domesticating international legal instruments that Zambia is obliged to is the responsibility of the Ministry of Legal Affairs in collaboration with respective line ministries and civil society

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects 

Under the Environmental Support Programme the Zambian Government has assessed the legal framework and enforcement capacity with the purpose of enhancing the ability of the Government to draw up and enforce laws and regulations protecting the environment.  This activity exhibits close complementarity with the institutional capacity building component of ESP.  This programme comprised three main elements: (a) harmonising environmental statutes and regulations; (b) strengthening institutional enforcement capacity; and (c) enhancing community awareness and enforcement capacity.  

The harmonising aspect of the project sought to address legal inconsistencies, conflicts and gaps in order to produce a consistent and mutually supporting set of environmental legislation.  This process of harmonisation included: (a) reviewing the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act in order to clarify the mandates and responsibilities of the institutions involved in environmental management and to reflect new initiatives at local and community levels; (b) reviewing regulations for environmental impact assessment; and (c) reviewing legislation related to environment, natural resources management and development to harmonise it with international instruments such as the convention on biological diversity, the convention to combat desertification, the convention on international trade in endangered species and the UNCED declaration and agenda 21.  

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The strengthening of community awareness and enforcement capability was aimed at increasing the capacity of communities to participate in environmental initiatives and to manage and police their own resources.  This was done by revising the legislation and by conducting workshops to raise community awareness of environmental issues. 

The strengthening of institutional enforcement capacity has been undertaken through seminars and training programmes in environmental law, environmental assessment and monitoring, and enforcement techniques.  A small core of trained staff was identified and supported in some of the key ministries and agencies responsible for environmental activities.  In addition, staff in the Ministry of Legal Affairs and ECZ have received graduate training in environmental law and enforcement respectively. 

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation  

No information available.

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