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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIA

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND TRADE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MOFNP) is the lead government ministry responsible for creating a conducive and enable environment for international cooperation to take place particularly between the private sector, donor community, multilateral and bilateral partners. MOFNP also ensures that line ministries are working in cooperation with international development partners.  

In addition to mobilizing funds on behalf of the entire Government apparatus, MOFNP is the government’s central planning department. Recently the long term planning function of the ministry has been enhanced to ensure that long-term economic visioning is conducted on a continuous basis.   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MOFNP)

To ensure coordination of the total financial outlay (annual government grants to different Ministries and donor assistance to sector programmes).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

Directs policy on (Administers) international cooperation issues.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The following acts are the key legislation which influence capital flows and trade.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

 ECONOMIC REFORMS

Considerable reforms of the Zambian mining based economy have been implemented over the last decade in an attempt to reverse economic decline. These reforms were formally adopted in March 1992 when a Structural Adjustment Programme backed by the World Bank and IMF was initiated to stabilise the economy and restore economic growth. The emphasis of these reforms has been the implementation of broad based market-oriented policies and the privatisation of state enterprise. In a broader context, policy has concentrated on privatisation, liberalization and diversification.   

In the last ten years budgets and policies have focused on the following issues: 

Macroeconomic Policies

Ø       Achieve growth in GDP

Ø       Reduce end year inflation

Ø       Limiting the budget deficit GDP

Ø       Increase Gross International reserves

Ø       Lay a foundation for reducing poverty

Fiscal Policies

Ø       Aimed at promoting growth

Ø       Income Generation

Ø       Employment Creation

Ø       Poverty Reduction

Ø       Debt Reduction

 

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

The MOFNP is the Government lead ministry which conducts and supervises the implementation of national projects and programmes through various line ministries. Major projects and programmes being undertaken by the government include the following.

 

Programme

Background

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)

The objective of the paper is to utilize resources on critical priorities with high potential for assisting economic growth and for provision of basic social services. The PRSP recognizes the potential contribution that mining, tourism and the manufacturing sector have in international trade. The government also recognizes the need to shift emphasis in agriculture towards production of export goods.

Public Sector Reform Program

Aimed at restructuring the Public Service for improved service deliver.

Sector Wide Approaches

The implementation of SWAPs seeks to achieve broad reforms in the sector policy and regulatory frameworks as well as build sector capacity to raise expenditure efficiencies and effectiveness.

HIPC Initiative

 

National Capacity Building Programme for Good Governance

Aims to strengthen institutions that promote and safeguard good governance. This is a comprehensive programme to go beyond the enactment of laws and creation of appropriate institutions, and instead ensure that the various institutions of governance obtain enough capacity to carry out their respective responsibilities.

Privatization and Parastatal Reforms

This programme aims to privatize and/or commercialize state owned businesses and public institutions to reduce government intervention in the running of businesses and enable them operate more efficiently hence profitably.

Status 

DEBT RELIEF

Zambia is presently one of the world's most highly indebted low-income countries. Based on long-term debt figures, Zambia's external debt stock rose rapidly in the 1970s.  In 1980, long-term debt was 3.4 times higher than it was in 1970. Long-term debt stock of US$2.2 billion in 1980 was 68.3% of the total external debt stock. From US$3.3 billion in 1980, total external debt increased 2.1 times to US$6.9 billion in 1990. A combination of reliance on grants and debt forgiveness and rescheduling have ensured that the debt stock remained more or less stable around the 1990 figure, being lower in most years. However, the total debt stock increased by US$l billion in 2001 to US$7.3 billion. This was mainly due to Paris Club creditors not granting Zambia the expected debt relief totalling over US$770 million under Naples and Cologne terms. The balance of US$230 million was due to increased external borrowing by the private sector, mainly in the mining sector. Had the Paris Club relief been extended, Zambia's total external debt stock would have been reduced to US$5.9 billion.

 Table 1: Zambia's External Debt Stock (US$ millions), 1997 - 2001 

 

1997

1998

1999

2000       

*2001

Bilateral

3,296.9

3,477.8   

2,676.4

2,390.2   

3,091.76

Of which

 

 

 

 

 

Paris Club               

2,816.5

2,998.5   

2,405.0   

2,131.4

2713.85

Non-Paris Club       

480.4

479.3

271.4

258.8

377.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multilateral

3,152.4

3,172.7   

3,375.1

3,446.82 

3,346.04

                Of which

 

 

 

 

 

ADB/ADF

327.0

257.0

320.7

316.66

318.66

World Bank             

1,450.2

1,547.6

1,668.3

1,736.43

1,837.06

IMF

1,205.5

1,205.2

1,219.2

1,245.4

992.0

Others    

169.7

162.9

166.9

148.33

198.32

Total Government Debt               

6,449.3

6,650.5

6,051.5

5,837.02

6,437.8

Private and Parastatals

303.3

278.2

455.9

473.49

832.3

Total External Debt Stock

6,752.6

6,928.7

6,507.4

6,310.51

7,270.06

Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, Economic Report - Feb 2002

* The figures for 2001 are preliminary and likely to change due to on-going reconciliation with creditors

Challenges  

In spite of these reforms, Zambia’s economy is still largely mirrored by the fortunes of its copper-mining industry. In this regard, the delay in the privatisation of the Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines and its loss making operations presented considerable challenges for the Zambian Economy in particular for the period from 1996 to 2000, and acted as a major drag on the economic performance during that period. The performance of the mining sector improved significantly following the privatization of the nations largest mining asset, Konkola Copper Mines, which was acquired by Anglo American Corporation (AAC) in March 2000 enabling the much needed financial and intellectual resources to follow to the sector. However and regrettably, commodity prices have fallen sharply in the face of a significant downturn in the world economy and this has impacted not only on the profitability of the mining operations but it has also significantly increased the level of external financing required to complete the recapitalization of the mining sector. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation  

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION

Various indicators show a high aid intensity for Zambia. Between 1993 and 2001, the ratio of aid to GDP averages 13.4% and aid per capita at US$40.2. Aid to government spending was as high as 55.8% in 1995 before declining to 36.0% in 2001Aid inflows have steadily increased since 1973 and peaked in 1993 at US$534 million. This was because of donors satisfaction with Zambia’s transition to a multiparty democracy and her embracing of liberal economic policies. However, thereafter, there has been some decrease in aid flows as governance issues stated to take center stage in the country’s aid relations, particularly in 1996 and 1998. In 1998, ODA inflows stood at only US$308 million after a total freeze in Balance of Payments Support. ODA inflows amounts to US$432.7 million in 2001. 

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The ministry of Commerce Trade and Industry is supposed to work closely with the Ministry of Tourism Environment and Natural Resources together with other bodies that are dealing in the issues of the environment in making decisions that promote sustainable consumption and production in industry. Unfortunately this has not been the case. This can be attributed to lack of a coordinating body in the country. It is envisaged that the reintroduction of the department of planning at the Ministry of Finance and National Planning might improve the situation.

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Commerce Trade and industry

has a central role of coordinating and making decisions on issues of trade and Industry. The Ministry plays a regulatory role for matters relating to promotion of economic growth with regard to Commercial, Trade and Industrial sectors within the market economy through the creation and maintenance of a conducive legal, regulatory policy framework.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Consumer welfare Act to protect people from consuming substandard products like expired products.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Ministry of Commerce Trade and Industry through the Zambia Bureau of Standards monitors the quality of products that enter the country so as to minimize the entry of substandard products. However, the Ministry, like most government institutions suffers the setback of lack of equipment and resources to effectively execute its responsibilities.  

The Environmental Council of Zambia also plays a very cardinal role in ensuring that industrial operations conform to the required standards. There is need however, to introduce projects that aim at changing the consumption patterns in Zambia. Government needs to commit itself to developing a national policy framework in order to alter the consumption patterns and to ensure there is national participation by all stakeholders in the policy making process. In this regard therefore, it’s recommended that policies should be harmonized among institutions to enhance collaboration. 

Issues of the environment and changing consumptions in particular have not been taken care of to the full.  It will be imperative that experts in the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and other institutions that deal with the environmental issues guide the Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry in coming up with investment incentives that will lead to changing consumption patterns in Zambia. The Ministry of Commerce Trade and Industry is in the process of reviewing the Investment Act. This should be an opportunity when the Policies on environment should be harmonized with the investment Act.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

Consumer Association of Zambia are an Advocacy group acting on behalf of consumers.

Programmes and Projects 

There are no project and programmes in this field. 

Status 

The Government of Zambia has shifted its budget theme to wholly address Poverty Alleviation. The Government has reached an advanced stage in formulating the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. (PRSP). This process is meant to link resources within the overriding objective of poverty alleviation.

Challenges

Changing of the consumption pattern is a new theme and there is urgent need to put it on top of the agenda as it has the same devastating effects as production if it is not controlled. Zambia needs to press more by encouraging; recycling, reducing wasteful packaging and introduce more environmentally sound products. It is clear that in Zambia a more environment-conscious-consumer public has began to emerge. A few members of the public have been able to report cases where environmental considerations have been overlooked. The issue of establishing synergies between institutions is important and equally important.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The government is committed to strengthening the public research institutions, such as the National Scientific and Industrial Research, to undertake ecological development and adaptation, choice and selection of equipment, provision of information on the availability of raw materials and quality assessment. Public research institutions should be linked to the private sector. 

Information 

The Consumer Welfare Association has some information which is provided to the business community.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing 

Financing of the Commercial Trade and Industrial sector has been done through normal budget allocations. A number of projects have been lined up under the Public Investment Programme to give support for the private sector development.

Cooperation

The Zambian government encourages increased partnerships with the private sector, NGO’s, members of the civil society and the international community in the development of the Commercial, Trade and Industrial sector.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

At decision-making, the Ministry of Finance & National Planning has put poverty reduction for sustainable development as an overarching goal of government policies.  In order to achieve this the Government has to address the long-term challenges of financing for development to promote sustained economic growth and redistribute wealth so that development benefits all.

Body / Government

Responsibilities

Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MOFNP)

To ensure coordination of the total financial outlay (annual government grants to different Ministries and donor assistance to sector programmes) and ensure that the responsible institution is working.

Consultative Group (CG)

A grouping of Zambia ‘s main cooperating partners responsibly for bridging Zambia financial gaps arising the Government’s implementation of development programmes and functions.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

Zambia has indeed a very big task of fulfilling the challenging development goals, which include eliminating poverty, improving social conditions and raising living conditions. Zambia has to address long term challenges of financing for development to promote sustained economic growth and redistribute wealth so that development benefits all. Zambia accepts the primacy of national actions imbedded in sound policies, good governance and rule of laws.  Much progress has been made in each of these areas. However, with passage of time, and as the economy and progress in human development failed to make significant positive improvement, it is becoming clearer that international actions that compliment national actions need to be reformed as well. Bold steps are required to reform the country’s aid/loan relation, reduce debt to sustainable levels, reform and free the multilateral trading system and, amend the international architecture so that Zambia has a voice in the bodies that set norms, standards and policies which have a significant impact on her domestic actions. 

Zambia will continue to pursue the goal of maximising resources to support the development efforts. In this regard, Zambia seeks to strengthening its ability to mobilize resources and capacity is being built at the Ministry of Finance and National Planning. Other initiatives being undertaken include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

 Ministries, business leaders, civil society, and politicians.

 Programmes and Projects

In light of the challenge described the need for Zambia to create appropriate internal conditions to facilitate the mobilisation of sufficient resources to invest in development cannot be over emphasised. Zambia like most of the Sub Saharan African countries has been experiencing the problems in resource mobilisation. This has been compounded by the slow down in the global economy and the effects of globalisation, leading to the following:

Because of the small economic base and the slow pace of economic growth, the resources available to finance sustainable development programmes have been inadequate and have tended to be overstretched. 

Status 

With the support of cooperating partners, Government is trying to define a strategy for better mobilisation of resources both domestically and Internationally.

DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILISATION

Zambia’s gross domestic savings as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest in the world, having declined from 16.5% in 1990 to 5.4% in 1998.

The inadequacy of domestic savings to finance savings is worsened by the fact that the government is forced to borrow from the domestic financial markets through treasury bills and government bonds to finance its own operations leaving little domestic credit to the private sector.

Government has taken very important strides to help mobilise domestic revenue to fund its own development programs.  These include:

 INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES MOBILISATION

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

Government recognises the importance of Foreign Direct Investment in bridging the gap between the low domestic savings and the country’s investment needs.  Zambians share in world-wide flows in Foreign Direct Investment is very insignificant, standing at only US $126 million in 2000 and having steadily declined from $207 million in 1997. 

Zambia has striven to create the necessary conditions to attract and enhance inflows of productive capital such as:

(a)              The enactment of the investment act of 1991 under which the investment centre was created;

(b)              The government has also pursued an ambitious privatisation programme.  Privatisation has also been a major way through which Foreign Direct Investment has been attracted to Zambia.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Although it is widely accepted that trade is one of the single most important source of external development finance Zambia has faced serious difficult in ensuring that her external trade meets this idea.  In nominal terms, Zambia’s earnings from goods and services dropped from US $1,625 million in 1980 to US $1,016 million in 2001.  This is a decline of 37.5%, with a substantial decrease recorded when reflected in real terms.  Imports of goods and services have fallen less drastically, declining by 22.8% from US $1,986 million in 1980 to US $1,534 million in 2001, partly met from the balance of payments support from donors and partly by drawing down the country’s international reserves. 

The biggest factor that has given rise to this situation has been the fall in mineral earnings since the mid – 1970s.  Copper prices have never consistently recovered since 1975.  Zambia’s terms of trade index has continued to deteriorate.  The terms of trade index in 1990 terms fell to 83.8 in 1998.  This has been reinforced by a sharp drop in mineral output which declined from nearly 700,000 metric tonnes in the mid 1970s to 450,000 tonnes in 1990 before going down further to 300,523 tonnes in 2001.  

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION

Various indicators show that Zambia’s aid intensity is one of the highest globally.  In 1994, the ratio of aid to GDP stood at 54.9%, aid per capita at US $233 and aid to government spending at 56.1%.  Aid flows to Zambia steadily increased since 1973 with a very significant rise in the 1990s, peaking in 1995 at US $2,093 per capital.  This was because of donors’ satisfaction with Zambia’s transition to a multiparty democracy and her embracing of liberal economic policies.  However, thereafter, there has been some decrease in aid flows as governance issues started to take centre stage in the country’s aid relations particularly in 1996 and 1998. 

DEBT RELIEF

Zambia is presently one of the world s most heavily indebted low-income countries. Based on long term debt figures, Zambia’s external debt stock rose rapidly in the 1970s.In 1980 long term debt was 3.4 times higher that it was in 1970.Long term debt stock of US$2.2 billion in 1980 was 68.3% of the total external debt stock. From US$3.3 billion in 1980,total external debt increased 2.1 times to US$6.9 billion in 1990. A combination of reliance on grants and debt forgiveness and rescheduling have ensured that the debt stock remains more or less stable around the 1990 figure, being lower in most years.  With a high debt stock, as presented above, debt service presently absorbs a significant share of resources meant for critical development programmes.

Challenges  

DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILISATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The following challenges are experienced:

 FINANCIAL SECTOR STRENGTHENING

The following challenges arise:

 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

 The following challenges arise:

(a)              Aid effectiveness

(b)              Aid management

(c)               Aid coordination

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available.

Information   

The Ministry of Finance and National Planning and Bank of Zambia holds and produces data on the flow and receipts of financial resources.  

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation

There is generally a goodwill from both bilateral and multi-lateral organizations towards Zambia.  These include Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Nertherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK, USAID, World Bank, AFDB and EU. 

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Body / Government

Responsibilities

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT)

 

The government ministry charged with formulating and implementing policy on science, technology and vocational training.

The National Technology Business Centre

The prime objective of this institution is to promote and assist entrepreneurs and business in technology acquisition, adoption and upgrading literacy through the provision of technology information, linkages and syndication mechanisms and; evaluation and assessment services.

The Environmental Council of Zambia

was established by an Act of Parliament, Environmental Protection and Pollution Control (EPPCA), Act NO. 12 of 1994 to advise Government in the field of environment.  It undertakes environmental information generation and exchange, plan and implement activities and capture early lessons through monitoring systems.  The main activities of ECZ as regards environmental information management include, inventory of natural resources and other environmental conditions, forecasting resource status, hazard predictions and risk of environmental degradation, problem solving, action planning and policy formulation, reporting status of the environment and natural resources. 

ZABS

 

These various institutions operate under different acts and hence there is no comprehensive policy governing the transfer of environmentally sound technology in Zambia.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation / regulation

Background

Science and Technology Act

Legal framework for the whole science and technology sector. Gives the minister powers to establish Science and Technology support centres and for them to derive their functions from the act by statutory instruments.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

Currently, there have been initiatives made in the sense that a multi-stakeholder adhoc committee being spearheaded by the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research which also happens to be the focal point for the development of biotechnology policy and legislation.  

Programme

Background

Constraints & Challenges

The Cleaner Production Program

under ECZ and ZACCI involving industry is also another program aimed at reducing environmental stress resulting from various production streams by among others investing in environmentally sound technology. 

This has been a very successful program with more than 50 companies trained and as a result of various measures taken, millions of kwacha have been saved due to reduced wastes and less raw materials.

Status 

Despite the Challenges (See under Challenges), on a more positive note, the Environmental Council of Zambia has in conjunction with the ZACCI and NORAD been successfully running a program for industry known as the Cleaner Production Program.  This program as has been earlier mentioned encourages industry to invest in cleaner technology, which will reduce the waste flows from the production process resulting in more savings and bigger profits.

This program has encouraged industry to invest in environmentally sound technology because it has proved that raw materials reduce and sometimes, even what could have been discarded as waste is reused in the whole process and thus saving on the price of more raw materials.

On a more sustainable basis, technology transfer mechanism has now been institutionalized with the creation of a National Technology Business Centre (NTBC) by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training.  The NTBC will facilitate the technological transfer as well as ensure that the environmental sound technology being transferred into the country is for user clients.

CONCLUSION

It is evident that the transfer of environmentally friendly technology into Zambia has made consideration advances with the coming of new investors, especially into the mining sector who follow strict international environmental standard and so have to adhere strictly to the Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Act (EPPCA) standard. 

However, there has been an urgent need to have a more systematic system of screening technology coming into the country with the coming of different investors with different packaging systems as has been seen for the various drinks and so on.  So if we could have a system where the different agencies involved with environmentally sound technology came together and form of consortium, it would greatly facilitate the North-South transfer either through capacity building or the technology itself coming into the country since there would be a more organized structure to come through.

It is gratifying to note that the Zambian Government through the MSTVT has created an institution, which will be autonomous and will facilitate technological transfer and also ensure that those technologies are environmentally friendly.

Challenges  

For a long time, there has been a fragmented approach towards the transfer of environmentally sound technology into the country as has already been alluded to.  There has been no single institution responsible for overseeing what kind of technology enters the country.  This poses a great danger especially with the coming of the privatization program, which has seen a wide range of investors coming into the country usually with heavy equipment.  This equipment is not screened for environmental soundness.

Another major constraint to the transfer of environmentally sound technology into Zambia has been the lack of tax incentives.  A good example is in the case of solar energy which is a better kind of technology as compared to the present energy sources in the country, however, due to high taxes, the price of acquiring solar panels make them unaffordable, especially for rural populations who are not serviced by the electric grid lines.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

In terms of capacity building in relation to the transfer of environmentally sound technology, this is being done so far by the ECZ and ZACCI under the mentioned Cleaner Production Program.  Until a better harmonized system is put in place, it is very difficult to encourage a unified system of training for environmentally sound technology.  In this regard, the NTBC under the MSTVT will play a very significant role in the training and awareness raising on environmentally sound technologies.

Information 

As earlier alluded to, the only information that has been available on environmentally sound technology transfer is through the Cleaner Production Program under ZACCI which also documents how much companies have saved as a result of investing in cleaner technology. 

However, one of the functions of the NTBC is to create a database of all available new technology which will later be disseminated to all user clients.

Research and Technologies

They are no research undertakings in the area of the transfer of environmentally sound technology.

Financing 

This Cleaner Production Program is funded by the Norwegian Government as well as counterpart funding in form of personnel and office space from the Zambian Government through the Environmental Council of Zambia and ZACCI.  Companies that attend the training programs also pay a nominal fee for tuition, lodging and transportation.  The NTBC will also contribute to financing the cleaner production program.

Cooperation

In relation to the transfer of environmentally friendly technology to Zambia, the cooperation has been through capacity building through the Cleaner Production Program under NORAD.  The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Global Environment Facility (GEF) has also advanced some funding to Zambia for research concerning Climate Change and also the proper management of chemicals and hazards related thereof.  The management of PCBs (poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls) which cause deleterious effects on animals and human life is also being sponsored under UNEP-GEF and CIDA.  These pcbs are usually found in transformer oils used by ZESCO and so a National Plan of Action to phase them out in being draft.

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Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) is the National Focal Point for the Convention on Biological Diversity. The National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) is the National Biosafety Focal Point. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT) is co-ordinating the adoption by the Government of the National Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy. 

The major stakeholder are the Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Education; Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry; Zambia Revenue Authority; the National Science and Technology Council; the Environmental Council of Zambia; the Zambia National Farmers Union; the University of Zambia; and the Tropical Diseases Research Centre. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Currently there is no law in the Zambian statutes that can be used to protect human and animal health as well as the environment from potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their products.  Existing laws deal with the transfer, handling, release and use of animals and plants.  There are, however, no laws, which deal specifically with the transfer, handling and use of microorganisms.  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects   

The draft Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy is the outcome from the support Zambia received on the project to Prepare a National Biosafety Framework which was funded by the global environment facility (GEF) with technical assistance from the united nations environment programme (UNEP) in 1999. 

Once the draft policy is adopted the Zambian Government, intends to enact appropriate legislation and designate or establish a National Biosafety Competent Authority to implement, enforce and carry out the provisions of the national Biosafety regulatory framework. 

Status   

In Implementing Chapter 16 of agenda 21 Zambia agrees with the focus of the programme areas as follows: 

(i)                  Increasing the availability of food, feed and renewable raw materials; 

(ii)                Improving human health; 

(iii)               Enhancing protection of the environment; 

(iv)              Enhancing safety and developing international mechanisms for cooperation; and 

(v)                Establishing enabling mechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound application of biotechnology. 

Traditional Biotechnology which covers fermentation technology such as beer brewing, production of antibiotics and cheese making is practiced in Zambia. However, Modern Biotechnology which refers to recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology, which is usually called genetic engineering or gene technology is not practiced in the country. 

Unlike traditional biotechnology, modern biotechnology is of concern by virtue of its nature.  The aspect of modern biotechnology that leads to the generation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is of particular concern because of uncertainty of the effects GMOs will have on human and animal health as well as the environment.  

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Zambia requires technical, financial and material assistance in the implementation of Chapter 16 of Agenda 21 and the National Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy once it is adopted by Government. 

The Rockefeller Foundation through AfricaBio has pledged to provide US$ 24 000.00 for a project on the provision of accurate information on biotechnology, build capacity to communicate on biotechnology as well as strengthening existing institutions, organisations and programmes. 

Information 

There is no formal information management system on Biotechnology and Biosafety currently existing in Zambia.

Research and Technologies 

There is very little research on Biotechnology being carried out in the country. What is being done is plant tissue culture, which is being used in the production of potato seed and in the domestication of wild fruit trees. 

Financing 

The Zambian government is financing from the national budget Biotechnology related activities through the various responsible government agencies. UNEP/GEF supported Zambia through a grant of US$ 71 000.00 to develop the National Biosafety Framework. 

Cooperation

The Netherlands government through the Southern and Eastern African Consultation on Biotechnology and Biosafety provided US$ 2 000.00 for the identification by stakeholders of national priorities in Biotechnology and Biosafety. 

Zambia participated in all Conferences of the Parties (COP) to the CBD which among other issues deliberated on and made decisions on matters related to biotechnology and biosafety.  

There are also three regional Biosafety initiatives, to which Zambia is affiliated: the Southern African Regional Biosafety (SARB) Programme; the AfricaBio and the Southern and East African Consultation on Biotechnology and Biosafety.

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INDUSTRY

No information available.

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TRANSPORT

No information available.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

No information available.

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