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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects | Uzbekistan

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The major executive authority regarding protection of nature is the State Committee for Nature Protection under the Oliy Majlis (Republic Parliament). Control functions of nature protection are performed by the State Committee of Safety Control in Industry and Mining, the Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the Ministry of Rural and Water Management. Opinion of the above mentioned national institutes are taken into consideration in making decisions on environmental impact.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Adopted in 1997, the "Law on Protection and Use of Flora" has articles regulating the trade of rare and vestigial birds and animals.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The State's domestic and foreign policies are aimed at building a democratic society, integrating Uzbekistan into the world economic system, and establishing mutually advantageous partnerships with other countries and representatives of the world of business.

Challenges

The main source of ecological problems arising in Uzbekistan is the mono-cultural agriculture of cotton crop, which accounts for 70 % of all crop volume. As a result, a lop-sided structure of Gross Domestic Product has been created, with the cotton production taking up 60%- 70% of the GDP. The Cotton Monoculture has caused the processes of land degradation, and pollution of water resources and atmosphere, by the use of pest killers and detrimental fertilisers, as well as the drying of Aral Sea. During the independent years the cotton monopoly has been eliminated, and a scientific rotation of crop has been applied. Cotton production has been reduced by 1/3, but cotton fibre export in 1998 constituted 86% of the 1993 level.

Cooperation

Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Inter-State Council of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. It coordinates its sustainable development activities with the other States of Central Asia under the auspices of the International Fund to Save the Aral Sea and the Regional Commission on Sustainable Development. The broad range of this participation in international and regional cooperation is designed to ensure the country's sustainable development without damaging the environment.

Offices have been established in Uzbekistan by such international organizations as the United Nations, the Commission of the European Community, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the German Technical Cooperation Agency. The United Nations specialized agencies include: the United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programe (UNEP), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). In total, there are 24 intergovernmental organizations working in Uzbekistan.

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This information was provided by the Government of Uzbekistan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 1999.

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

Uzbekistan carries out the investment policy towards development of key economic sectors and increasing of the potential employment rate. Greater attention is given to the demographic distinctions of development and additional jobs establishment in rural areas, so as to make fuller use of the countryside’s natural economic resources. Measures to encourage foreign investments are being implemented.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The State's domestic and foreign policies are aimed at building a democratic society, integrating Uzbekistan into the world economic system, and establishing mutually advantageous partnerships with other countries and representatives of the world of business.

A Policy Review on Social and Structural Reforms has been made in 1997 by the World Bank, in collaboration with the Government of Uzbekistan. The review consists of :

Economic Policy and Macroeconomic Results, including:

Status 

After the decline of Gross Domestic Product during 1992-1995 caused by economical reforms, the GDP has been growing since 1996 (1.6% in 1996; 5.2% in 1997; 4.4% in 1998). Economic reforms produced favorable influences on the environment as the result of reduced industrial emissions and wastes, and a decrease in the utilization of fertilizers and pest-killers and wastage.

Information 

Information on trade, investment and economic growth are made available to the users of state statistical agencies by governmental order.

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This information was provided by the Government of Uzbekistan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 1999.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The basic goal of the reforms in Uzbekistan is to build a democratic State based on the rule of law and a civil society with a sustainable socially oriented market economy. The Government's economic strategy is currently aimed at solving three basic problems: halting the decline in production; achieving macroeconomic stabilization as the basis for economic growth; and creating the conditions for sustainable economic growth.

The work of achieving the national goals for the establishment of rational consumption structures is conducted within the framework of specific decision making procedures, which include the education of public opinion, enactment of legislation, and preparation and adoption of governmental decisions. Securing the long-term interests of society includes national security, political sovereignty, and sustainable socioeconomic development.

Status 

A decent standard of living for the people is achieved by means of a worthy contribution by each individual to social development, the protection and redevelopment of the land in which he or she lives, and preservation of the traditions of national culture. The economic restructuring is designed to secure the full and rational use of Uzbekistan's natural resource and manpower potential, reduce resource consumption in the gross domestic product, introduce new high-technology production methods, and improve the structure of consumption.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

In Uzbekistan, consumption capacity-building is predetermined by the need to solve, as the first step, the acute economic and social problems with strict observance during the transitional period of justified environmental constraints on economic activity. At the same time, action will be taken to guarantee political, economic, and social human rights, with particular importance attached to maintaining and improving the state of the environment as the human habitat.

Cooperation

The following main areas of activity are recognized for the development of international cooperation related to the conservation, protection, and restoration of the Earth's ecosystem: preservation of biodiversity, protection of the ozone layer, prevention of anthropogenic climate change, combating desertification and drought, protection of forests and reforestation, development and improvement of the network of specially protected natural areas, and solution of global environmental problems, including the problem of the shrinking Aral Sea.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

In the Republic of Uzbekistan, state monitoring of the environment, natural resource use, atmospheric pollution, and environmental protection problems fall under the responsibility of the State Environmental Protection Committee and the Principle Hydrometeorlogical Office.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The foundation for financing sustainable protection of nature is based on the Government budget. Sustainable finance resources for the implementation of nature protection activities are determined by the complex realization of legislative and normative acts aimed at reducing negative effects on the environment.

Ecological tax was introduced in the Republic in accordance with the previously adopted Taxation Code in 1997. The clause provides means to local authorities to exercise command in funding and implementing actions aimed towards the improvement of the social situation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

Since the independence, the Government of Uzbekistan has set a high priority on finding solutions to social problems. The National Action Plan on nature protection defines the issue of drinking water supply as the primary task in the field. As a consequence, overseas investments are forwarded into concrete actions towards developing and improving material and technical resources. Meanwhile, ecological issues are considered as an integral part of accomplishing the Programs and Projects.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

The micro-credit project provides credits to poor families to stimulate business activities of the population. Rural inhabitants have been provided with highly productive lands and low-interest credits for farming management.

Programmes and Projects 

Budgetary resources for environmental protection are allotted to environmental monitoring activities, and organization and maintenance of reserves and national parks. The State budget also makes provisions for coastal-protection and flood-prevention works; repair of dams; cleaning of reservoirs; maintenance of pumping stations and hydrological installations; and for the building, maintenance, protection, and rehabilitation of water facilities and sources to ensure good-quality water supply for household and business consumers. The State finances a specified volume of work to resolve the crisis in the Aral Sea Basin. The federal budget also allocates resources for the elaboration of regional plans and programs of environmental protection.

Resources for environmental protection measures are allocated directly by the enterprises using the natural resources and polluting the environment. The resources of local and national environmental protection funds are used to finance individual measures for the construction and re-equipment of environmental protection facilities and the conduct of scientific research and planning studies of an environmental nature.

Status 

In the Republic as a whole, environmental actions amounting to more than 14 billion soms (local currency) were carried out in 1998, by the ministries, institutions, organisations and other economic entities.

Financing 

Financial resources forwarded to environment protection actions are derived from the following sources:

In 1997, the total amount of funding from all sources for all environmental protection measures in Uzbekistan amounted to 2.5 billion som.

Cooperation

International organizations provide the country with micro-credit projects.

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This information was provided by the Government of Uzbekistan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: November 1999.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally-Sound Technology

Status 

In Uzbekistan, the aim is to integrate the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) with overseas countries. The development of telecommunications in the Republic is based on modern equipment and technology. The organization on a self-funding basis of an inter-State environmental information telecommunications system will include arrangements for the collection and exchange of environmental information, and will facilitate the preparation and distribution of annual reports on the environment and environmental protection activities in the member countries of CIS. It will also help expand environmental education in Uzbekistan and develop cooperation with international environmental organizations.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

 

Biotechnology

Status 

The problem of environmentally sound management of biotechnology is becoming a critical one for Uzbekistan. It is a matter of utmost urgency for the country to create a legal and regulatory framework for biotechnology. Biotechnology is primarily used against agricultural pests and plant diseases. This approach is being used on 5.6 million ha approximately. The biological method of protecting forests against pests and diseases is being used on more than 20,000 ha.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

With a view to creating a system for the management and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes, Uzbekistan is working on the creation and improvement of a legal and regulatory framework for dealing with these matters. A bill on Industrial and Consumer Wastes has been prepared.

Status 

In Uzbekistan, an employment programme is being prepared to accelerate the industrialization of the economy and to make fuller use of the country's natural resource potential. This will use the manpower resources of rural areas and encourage the establishment of a sustainable system of human settlements.

At present, the most pressing problems in the establishment of sustainable human settlements are connected with the creation of an efficient job system and the development of the industrial and social infrastructures. Positive developments in these areas would ensure maximum satisfaction of the people's social needs and create the conditions for attracting production investments to the countryside. In view of the shortage of land and water resources, there is a need to create additional jobs by organizing small- and medium-sized enterprises in the countryside and in the district centres primarily for the processing of agricultural products and other local raw materials.

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This information was provided by the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on industry from the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics, click here:

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TRANSPORT

No information available.

For information on transport and communication from the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics, click here:

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

No information available.



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