Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Uganda

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN UGANDA

Click here to go to these sections:

AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making

The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries is responsible for sustainable agriculture. The Dairy Act and the Veterinary Act were amended in 1989. Women and youth organizations, local communities and small farmers' organizations are involved in activities to address sustainable agriculture.

Strategies, policies and plans

Agricultural policy fully addresses sustainable agriculture and rural development issues, though policy is being further revised especially to include community participation in rural development. Working groups have been formed to address:

Main Programmes

Some programmes have already been established to address these issues.

Technology

Initial meetings were held to review land tenure and land-holding size, to collect data and establish databases, to strengthen land use and resource planning, to draw up land reclamation policy and establish programmes for degraded land, to increase food production, to make integrated pest management practices available to farmers, to maintain the integrated plant nutrition approach, to address soil productivity, to initiate the use of sound energy sources and to strengthen appropriate technology transfer and development.

A working group addresses the availability of know how and technology to farmers. Support is needed for training of local communities.

Financing

National and external funding has been secured in part. Additional funding is needed for community-based projects. The World Bank, EEC, UNDP, FAO and GTZ are active in sustainable agriculture projects. They support, inter alia, seed and plant breeding projects, plant protection services, animal breeding schemes, a milk processing project and a farming systems support project.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Uganda ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1988 and the London Amendment in 1994. It ratified The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1993. Within the Ministry of Natural Resources, the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) is responsible for Protection of the Atmosphere. NEMA is a full member of the National Coordination Mechanism for Sustainable Development. The most important legislation for this sector, the National Environment Management Statute, was reviewed in part in 1995. NGOs and the private sector have contributed to activities in promoting sustainable development.

Strategies, policies and plans

The Industrialisation Policy promotes the development of environmentally-friendly industries, and activities are being carried out to sensitize entrepreneurs on environmental issues. The Government promotes policies and programmes for energy efficiency, industrial pollution control, sound land-use practices, and management of toxic and other hazardous waste. Issues related to environmentally sound and efficient transportation are under consideration. A case study was carried out to identify and quantify ODS used in the country.

Status

Issues under the topic of energy-transport-industry are of medium or high priority, while the rehabilitation and modernization of power systems and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in energy production have very high priority. A review has been undertaken on new and renewable energy sources, especially hydropower, and a petroleum exploration programme has been carried out. Energy/emission-related taxes have not been introduced as first there is a need to set standards and formulate an energy policy. Activities aimed at a less polluting and safer transportation system have been addressed in part. There are no observations yet on emissions from transport. The transportation system is similar to that in other countries of the region. Achievements have been made in mass transport systems, but urban commuter services have to be addressed.

In 1992, a national inventory on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases was undertaken, including recommendations on follow-up actions. Concerning the phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting substances, Uganda follows the schedule for article 5 par.1 countries and will take advantage of the 10-year grace period for developing countries. From 1995 to 1997, the Government will receive US$ 64,515 through multilateral channels to address the issue of ozone-depleting substances.

Information

In the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control the Government has facilitated exchange of data and information at the national and international levels.

Cooperation

Uganda participates in the Global Climate Observing System with 30 observation stations (1990: 18 stations) but, due to lack of funds, the stations are not operating at optimum level. There are no observation stations to participate in the Global Ozone Observing System. Poorly maintained observation stations, lack of human resources and inadequate data processing facilities restrict work in this sector. Early detection systems, national capacity to predict changes and fluctuations and capacity-building in this field are rated "adequate". National capacity in the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution is rated "average". Lack of capacity restricts the establishment of early warning systems and there are no training opportunities in this area.

UN Organizations and IGOs have participated in various programme areas.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making

The following are responsible for biodiversity issues: the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Wildlife, Tourism and Antiquities. The National Environment Bill from 1994 refers to biodiversity issues. Local communities participate in tree planting programmes and are consulted in decision-making processes about policy issues regarding conservation.

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Uganda signed the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992 and ratified it in 1993. It ratified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in 1991.

Strategies, policies and plans

The Uganda Wildlife Authority has been created to undertake the management of wildlife resources. A National Wetland Policy has been formulated. Wildlife Policy has been revised, the National Forest Action Plan has been prepared; and the preparation of a National Biodiversity Strategy was initiated. A study has already been completed to identify costs, benefits and unmet needs in the field of biodiversity. National parks and game reserves and sanctuaries have been gazetted and forest conservation was re-emphasized to improve in situ protection. In the field of ex situ conservation, a tree seed project has been implemented aiming at the collection, processing, storage and distribution of high quality seeds. Information is being compiled on ecosystems to enhance conservation. Awareness is being raised in local communities on the importance of biodiversity conservation.

Status

Habitat destruction and over-harvesting have a moderate impact on biodiversity loss of flora and fauna. The inappropriate introduction of foreign plants also has moderate impact on the loss of flora.

A survey on biodiversity issues was carried out in 1992 and updated in 1994. Uganda has no access to biotechnologies. There is a lack of trained manpower and appropriate institutions in this field. Capacity has been developed through the GEF-funded East African Regional Project for the Protection of East African Biodiversity. A Biodiversity Data Bank has been put in place at Makerere University, Institute of Environment and Natural Resources.

Cooperation

An agreement was signed between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the protection of Lake Victoria. The GEF-funded regional biodiversity project "Institutional Support for the Protection of East African Biodiversity" has been completed.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa was signed by Uganda in 1994. A country case study was prepared as input to the inter-governmental negotiation committee of the convention to combat desertification. The Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries and the Ministry of Local Government are responsible for addressing desertification issues. Legislation was revised in 1995. NGOs, women organizations and youth groups participate in combatting desertification at the field level. At the national level, they have advisory status.

Strategies, policies and plans

There are three areas affected by desertification: the Karamoja Region, the Buruli-Luwero District and the Rakai District. Details have to be surveyed and more research is needed. A National Action Plan to Combat Drought and Desertification has been prepared, but external funding is needed for its implementation. The Action Plan calls, inter alia, for education measures and raising awareness on desertification issues. Farmers and herdsmen are encouraged to diversify economic activities and find alternative livelihoods. Herdsmen are encouraged to settle in one place, and dams are being constructed. Tree planting is generally encouraged. Health services are being improved. Quick maturing crop varieties are being developed and introduced in dryland areas to improve food availability. Transport and communication infrastructure are being improved in dryland areas.

Constraints

The staffing situation is rated "below par" at the central planning level and poor at the middle and field levels. There is a general shortage of trained staff and in particular a lack of management and planning skills and lack of early warning staff. Even trained staff lack in performance, due to inadequate funding.

An estimated US$ 20 million of local funding and US$ 70 million of external funding are needed until the year 2000 to implement the National Plan of Action to Combat Drought and Desertification.

Technology

In 1994, 42 meteorological and hydrological monitoring stations were in use. This coverage is rated adequate and has improved since 1990. Soil and land monitoring is rated poor, as there are only two monitoring stations working. The Makarere University and the Kawanda Research Station make soil analysis and samples, but there is no feedback and advice to land users yet. Grazing and improper farming are the most serious desertification factors; effects from fuelwood collection, improper land use and natural causes are rated moderate.

Cooperation

Several international organizations support the country's efforts to combat desertification, including CARE, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Union, the World Bank, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD). They have participated in reviewing national strategies and they have provided additional post-UNCED funding and human resources. Coordination of and cooperation between programmes could be improved.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

ENERGY

No information is available

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

FORESTS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Government supports the effective implementation of the Non-legally Binding Forest Principles. Within the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Forest Department is particularly responsible for deforestation issues. The Uganda National Parks and Game Department is also in charge since one third of all natural forests has been integrated into National Parks. The Forest Act from 1964 is under review. Mechanisms are being worked out to integrate local people in forest management and conservation, e.g. through the establishment of local natural resources management committees. Where this strategy has been tried, it has had the desired effect of reducing illegal activities in the reserved forests.

Strategies, policies and plans

In 1995, a National Forestry Action Plan was formulated. The Government has embraced the Man and Biosphere concept of zoning natural forests which promotes forest management for multiple use: 20% of the country's forests are to be designated as strict Nature Reserves; 30% are to be low intensity zone; and in the remaining 50%, sustainable harvesting and non-consumptive uses shall be permitted.

Main Programmes

A biological disease control programme was established to control an Arphid disease that broke out in plantations. Livestock and wildlife grazing does not pose a big threat to natural forests. Encroaching agriculture is the most "serious" cause for forest loss and damages; effects from logging and need for fuelwood are rated "moderate". Since 1990, more than 110 km2 of encroached forest have been replanted within an ongoing restoration programme. In addition, 20 km2 of Eucalyptus plantations have been restocked with the support of NORAD, since, during the time of political instability, more than 100 km2 had been degraded around major urban centres. Development of peri-urban forests to provide for wood resource needs of five urban centres have been accomplished. Reforestation of harvested coniferous plantations has been too little and almost insignificant due to financial and logistical constraints.

Major Groups

The formulation of the National Forestry Action Plan has involved seminars and workshops for local groups and opinion leaders. Local people are consulted in choosing tree species for planting, on the collection, storage and germination of indigenous tree species and in the planning of eco-tourism. The rights of local communities are being recognised. Participatory rural appraisals (PRA) are being carried out. Rights to medicinal plants, cultural ceremonies and other non-consumptive uses are being recognised and incorporated in longterm natural resource management strategies. Local knowledge and skills are being used in planning appropriate interventions around protected areas. NGOs support afforestation and reforestation projects.

Status

There is growing awareness of the need to further engage in afforestation, but, again, lack of funding and logistical problems have hampered any meaningful afforestation programme. Potential exists to establish more plantations in the reserved forest in the Savannah woodlands. This would reduce pressure on the natural forests. In recent years 7.48 km2 has been added to the area of softwood plantations. Most of the agro-based industries continue to establish sizeable plantations in order to become self sufficient in terms of fuelwood. Annual private afforestation is about 3 km2.

In 1990, an estimated 22.3 million m3 of fuelwood were used for commercial and industrial energy requirements. The Government encourages local farmers to plant woodlots and trees on farms for both fuelwood and environmental amelioration. Since 1990, efficient harvesting and processing of wood has been promoted. The Forest Department runs a demonstration sawmill, where sawmillers are trained in sustainable logging techniques. Efforts are also under way to promote the sustained harvesting of non-timber products. Nature-based tourism is popular in Uganda's forests and is still being promoted.

Forest extension officers have been posted at the district level. They have supporting staff at the county and sub-county levels. Staff in forest management increased from 60 in 1980 to 140 in 1990 and 150 in 1995. There are 90 trained foresters working in forest management and forest protection. Thirty foresters are graduating every year. The staffing situation is rated "adequate" at the central and middle planning levels, but "below par" at the field level. An in-service training programme in Natural Forest Conservation has been established to re-orient all cadres of forestry staff in the conservation and sustainable use of forest resources. Curricula for forestry courses at universities have been reviewed. Twenty technical staff have been trained in biological inventory techniques.

Fire presuppression measures are put in place around those forests prone to seasonal fires. Fire patrols are carried out during critical fire seasons. Prior to the 1970s all major plantation blocks had field telephone networks installed, together with fire watch towers. These have since collapsed. Although provision was made to reactivate the fire protection system, not much has been done and this remains a priority in the forestry sector.

Technology

Since 1992, a national biological inventory programme has been underway. Analysis of these data should lead to the establishment of a scientifically-based Nature Reserve network throughout the natural forests of Uganda. Surveys were initiated to establish the extent of natural forests outside the reserves. The studies should lead to a strategy of how to conserve non-gazetted forests. The Ministry of Natural Resources, in cooperation with Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), is carrying out a National Biomass Study.

A national timber inventory was carried out. A planning unit integrating the biomass studies, biological and timber inventories is to be established. The planning team shall have the mandate to carry out forest resource assessments, design appropriate planting programmes and plan, establish, and monitor the nature reserve network in natural forests.

Financing

Forestry contributions to the national GDP are about 20%. The national forestry budget was US$ 7 million in 1990 and US$ 5 million in 1994. Since 1988, about US$ 38 million has been allocated to the National Forestry Rehabilitation Project from different donors. The following organizations support forest projects in Uganda: World Bank, International Development Association (IDA), European Union (EU), Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), NORAD, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), CARE, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The GEF provides institutional support for protection of biodiversity and NORAD assists with the establishment of a GIS. Although Uganda has not ratified the International Tropical Timber Agreement, the Government has studied the agreement and fully supports it.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997
| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making

The National Wetlands Unit has several achievements, including:

Strategies, policies and plans

Uganda has made significant progress in this area:

Main Programmes

The Lake Victoria Environment Management Project is a 5-year regional project approved by the Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, and it is funded by the World Bank and GEF. It is aimed at sustainable utilization of Lake Victoria and its catchment area for the benefit of the riparian communities as well as the global community.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making

The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Ministry of Local Government are responsible for the integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources. The National Environmental Bill addresses this topic, and a draft bill on land tenure has been prepared.

Challenges

Most activities in land management have been addressed, but implementation is often hampered due to limited financial resources. Policies and policy instruments have been developed and are to be approved from parliament. Planning and management systems will be addressed at a later stage. Information centres have been set up to strengthen information systems and to raise awareness. Promotion of public participation is planned.

Scientific understanding of land-resources systems has been addressed and improved, but there is a lack of resources and trained human resources. Initial steps have been taken to improve technological capacity, institutions, education and training; further activities depend on the availability of financial resources.

Cooperation

Activities in land management are being supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammen Arbeit (GTZ). These organizations have participated in reviewing national programmes and strategies, but they have not provided additional funding or human resources since UNCED.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997
| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Ministry of Natural Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Local Government and the Ministry of Wildlife, Tourism and Antiquities are responsible for mountain development issues. Legislation referring to mountain development was revised in 1995. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are involved in conservation projects, in tree planting projects and in the promotion of sustainable agriculture in mountain areas.

Status

There are four important mountain areas in the country: the Rwenzori Mountains, Mount Elgon, Mount Muhavura and the Debesian-Moroto-Kadam Mountains. The most important rivers in these mountains are Semliki, Manafwa and Kagera. Land use plans or surveys are not available. All mountain areas are either vulnerable to or currently facing serious soil erosion, but detailed information on the areas affected is not available. Flooding and landslides have "significant" impact on mountain areas.

Special programmes for mountain areas have not been developed, but country-wide development and conservation programmes also cover mountain areas. There are no incentives in place for farmers to undertake conservation measures in mountain areas. Income in mountain areas is partly generated from tourism (mountaineering).

National Parks and animal reserves cover mountain areas. Controlled hunting areas have been established.

Constraints

There is a lack of all modern mountain survey and monitoring technology. Environmental monitoring (air quality, meteorology, hydrology, monitoring of forests, soils, crops and biological resources) is rated as poor.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed in 1982 and ratified in 1990.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on the status of ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Guidelines for the management of toxic and hazardous products are contained in the National Environment Statute No. 4 of 1995.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997
| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making

Main Programmes

There are several projects in the country which contain major sanitation or solid waste disposal components:

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal has not been signed.

Policies addressing the management of hazardous waste, including prevention of illegal international trade in hazardous waste, are entrenched in the National Environment Statute No. 4 of 1995. Draft Waste and Hazardous Waste Management Regulations from 1996, are in place and currently being reviewed.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997
| Uganda | All Countries | Home |

Radioactive Wastes

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The National Environment Statute, 1995, provides for sound use and safe disposal of radioactive materials.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Uganda | All Countries | Home |