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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN UGANDA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making

Local Authorities and the Ministry of Gender and Community Development are full members of the National Mechanism for Sustainable Development while the Wildlife Clubs of Uganda, the Natural Resources Management Forum and the Uganda Red Cross Society are advisory members. Major Groups have not been represented in the National Delegation to the CSD for lack of financial resources. If funding can be secured, the Government wants to include Major Groups in the Delegation to the CSD 1997. In addition local authorities have not yet developed technical competence in environmental management and policy formulation. Lack of funding is one of the main constraints to sustainable development activities.

Strategies, policies and plans

A National Environmental Action Plan was developed which provides a broad framework for integrating environmental concerns into the national development planning process. The following steps have been completed:

Uganda is actively involved in several initiatives aimed at implementing UNCED agreements which have a profound positive impact on the lives of its people. These include:

Actions aimed at food security, including the national food strategy which is under discussion, and the Farming Systems Support Programme;

The National Tropical Forest Action Plan is being formulated to enhance the role of forestry in national and local development;

The National Action Plan for Water Resource Development and Management has been developed and a water policy has been formulated;

The initiation of the national environment action process led to the formulation of a comprehensive National Environment Management Policy and the enactment of a National Environment Statute 1995 which created the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) which is overseeing the implementation of Uganda's NEAP, whose main goal is to ensure sustainable development through sound management of the environment;

Mechanisms for the empowerment and involvement of marginalised sections or groups of the community which have been put in place.

Challenges and constraints

With a view to integrating sustainable development aspects, about 90% of the national legislation has been reviewed since UNCED and 10% of it has been revised. Among the constraints found when implementing international legal instruments are lack of staff resources, lack of technical expertise and lack of funding. Capacity-building in environmental management is on-going at the district level. There is an urgent need for further capacity-building activities.

Uganda is, however, facing constraints in implementing Agenda 21, including:

Agenda 21 is complex and its publication has been slow and inadequate to elicit the full response; Financial resources to fund Agenda 21 programmes are inadequate; Accessing funds from International Organisations is a complex and long process and the country has limited capacity to access these international sources, for example, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF); Institutional structures such as NEMA are just emerging and lack the capacity to initiate and implement programmes; Conflicting national policies and priorities also create problems, for example, the ever-rising electricity tariffs in light of decreasing biomass resources

Information

A National Environment Information Centre has been established. Its mandate is to provide accurate, timely and up-to-date information to policy and decision-makers.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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MAJOR GROUPS

Women

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 30 July 1980 and ratified on 22 July 1985. The Ministry of Gender and Community Development was created and strengthened to look after the interests of women, youth and children. National councils responsible for each of these groups have been put in place to promote their roles and views in national development.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Children and Youth

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

In 1993, a national strategy for children was developed and a national council for children created.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Indigenous People

No information is available.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Non-governmental Organizations

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

Major Groups have participated in the design and implementation of national sustainable development projects and policies, so they contribute to the National Environment Action Plan, to Wetlands Policy, the Water Action Plan and developing strategies for natural resources and environmental information collection, analysis, dissemination and use. Occasionally, Major Groups participate in environmental impact assessments at the local and national levels. The decentralisation of Environment and Natural Resources Management is an innovative approach to put local authorities in the forefront of sustainable development. Local and national major groups' contribution to sustainable development is essential; contributions of regional and international major groups are constructive and helpful.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Local Auhorities

Status

The Government gives financial and technical support to local authorities. Local communities are actively involved in development planning, especially in forestry matters and in the management of protected areas.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Workes and Unions

No information is available.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Business and Industry

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Enterprises are currently being required to include environmental concerns in their programmes and investments, for instance, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are required by law.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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Scientific and Technological Community

No information is available.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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Farmers

Status

Through the Uganda Farmers Association, farmers are mobilized and exposed to the promotion of sustainable farming practices and technologies.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making

The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology are responsible for science activities. The Uganda National Council for Science and Technology Statute No. 1 from 1990, which is the relevant legislation, is presently being reviewed. Makerere University and the Mbarara University of Science and Technology both are advisory members for decision-making for environment and development at the national level.

Constraints

Constraints have been found in linking policy makers and researchers. Migration of scientists to other countries and from the science sector to more lucrative professions is a serious problem and arises due to low salaries, lack of research facilities and limited advancement. Funding for scientific research in the field of environment and development was US$ 600,000 in 1980 and is now about US$ 4 million per annum.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

INFORMATION

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

Within the National Environment Action Plan a National Environment Management Policy for Uganda has been developed which addresses policy issues including information for sustainable development. The National Environment Information Centre has the mandate to provide up-to-date information on the environment for development planning. The centre has developed an environment database (e-mail address: NEIC@Mukla.gn.apc.org), and it develops District Environmental Profiles and a National State of Environment Report. A User's Needs Assessment was carried out in 1990; an inventory of available data on the environment was carried out in 1993. Data are being collected on the physical environment in general and on natural and renewable resources, in particular. Sector- and project-specific data are collected. Traditional sources of information are being used. Special information is needed in the areas of toxicology, health and safety and environmental standards criteria. Main external sources for information on sustainable development are the World Bank, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Resources Institute, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) (on health and safety).

Main Programmes

The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and the National Environment Information Centre are in charge of developing indicators for sustainable development. In cooperation with the World Resources Institute a program has been drawn up to develop and use such indicators, but no work has been done until now because of lack of funds.

The National Environment Information Centre can access remote sensing data.

Constraints

Telecommunication infrastructure is inadequate: there are few computers available in the country, and access to international telecommunication lines is limited. The insufficient number of trained personnel and high costs of telecommunication are further constraints in this field.


Availability of Sustainable Development Information at the National Level:

Agenda 21 Chapters

Very good

Good

Some good data but many gaps

Poor

2. International cooperation and trade   X    
3. Combating poverty       X
4. Changing consumption patterns       X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability   X    
6. Human health   X    
7. Human settlements     X  
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making     X  
9. Protection of the atmosphere     X  
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources     X  
11. Combating deforestation   X    
12. Combating desertification and drought   X    
13. Sustainable mountain development     X  
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development   X    
15. Conservation of biological diversity   X    
16. Biotechnology       X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources       X
18. Freshwater resources     X  
19. Toxic chemicals       X
20. Hazardous wastes       X
21. Solid wastes       X
22. Radioactive wastes       X
23. Women in sustainable development     X  
24. Children and youth     X  
25. Indigenous people       X
26. Non-governmental organizations   X    
27. Local authorities   X    
28. Workers and trade unions     X  
29. Business and industry   X    
30. Scientific and technological community     X  
31. Farmers     X  
32. Financial resources and mechanisms     X  
33. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building     X  
34. Science for sustainable development     X  
35. Education, public awareness and training     X  
36. International cooperation for capacity-building     X  
37. International institutional arrangements     X  
38. International legal instruments   X    
39. Information for decision-making   X    

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Status

Signing and ratification of international agreements is done through an established administrative and legal process. Several inter-ministerial committees have been established to coordinate the implementation of International Conventions. Negotiations at an international level could be simplified by facilitating national consultative processes and by employing consultants to put together the different views which could be discussed once or twice in an international forum. The UN should provide financial and technical support to this consultative process and to the international meetings.

This information is based on Uganda's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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