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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA


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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making

The complexity of environmental problems means that many sectors of the government and society are involved in actions to address them. In Tanzania, the Office of the Vice President is responsible for the Environment. This Office, using the Division of Environment, is responsible for the development of policy options, and coordination of the broad-based environmental programmes and projects. It is also responsible for facilitating meaningful involvement of civil society in environmental activities. In particular, the office is charged with the duties and responsibilities of environmental research, environmental policy making, environmental planning, environmental monitoring, and environmental coordination of both national and international environmental issues. The strategic functions of the Office of the Vice President form the basis for the effective inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination, which, for example, has been underscored in the National Environment Policy and the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP).

The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) was established by an Act of Parliament in 1983 to advise Government in the field of environment. It serves as a think-tank for the Government, undertakes environmental information generation, assembly, and exchange. A number of activities supporting Agenda 21 implementation have been undertaken by NEMC including pollution prevention and control; environmental education and public awareness; and natural resource conservation and management. More specifically, the NEMC has sponsored the preparation of the national marine contingency plan; the inventory of destructive activities to the aquatic environment; a wetlands inventory and management strategy; an inventory of natural resources and environmental related projects; environmental impact assessment (EIA) reviews; and the assessment of community participation in natural resource management.

Apart from the Vice President's Office and NEMC, many government ministries have been undertaking activities relevant to the implementation of Agenda 21. The complexity and inter-relatedness of the environmental problems have necessitated the involvement of almost every sector in environmental protection. The Government institutions and ministries which have been more directly involved in the implementation of Agenda 21 are the Prime Minister's Office; the Planning Commission; the Ministry of Agriculture; the Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals; the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development; the Ministry of Education and Culture; the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education; the Ministry of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children; the Ministry of Industries and Trade; and the universities.

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The Constitution of the Republic of Tanzania was amended in 1984 to provide for the Bill of Rights. Article 14 of the Bill of Rights stipulates that every person has a right to life and to the protection of life by society. The High Court in a landmark ruling in the case of Festo Balegele v. Dar es Salaam City Council (Misc. Civil Case No. 90, 1991) interpreted this Article to mean that persons are entitled to a healthy environment, and held that the City's decision to locate the garbage dump near residential areas violated plaintiffs' constitutional rights to a healthy environment.

In addition, Article 9 of the Constitution requires the Government to ensure that national resources are harnessed, preserved, and applied toward the common good. Although this Article is part of the non-judicial "fundamental objective and directive principles of the state policy" provisions of the Constitution, it portrays the commitment of the Government to ensure sustainable development.

The bill to enact the Tanzania Investment Act, 1997 is under consideration by Parliament. The bill stipulates that one of the functions of the Investment Promotion Center (IPC) will be liaison with appropriate agencies to ensure investment projects use environmentally sound technologies and will restore, preserve, and protect the environment. Under this important step, IPC vets unscrupulous investors who may want to maximize profits at the expense of the environment.

The country's major sources of law include: the common law; principles of equity; statutes of general application; Islamic law in some instances; customary law; international conventions to which Tanzania is a party; constitutional law; and principal, subsidiary, and case law.

The management of the environment in Tanzania has been undertaken on the basis of a plethora of laws and regulations. Almost the whole corpus of environmental law is statutory based. Few cases have been decided on the basis of these laws. However, the common law of torts on nuisance and negligence are applicable in Tanzania. It should be noted, however, that much of the existing environmental legislation is outdated. Furthermore, since these laws are widely scattered, their enforcement (or non-enforcement) has often led to conflicts between different government departments, thus undermining their effectiveness. Legislation aimed at regulating the use and management of natural resources has evolved along sectoral lines, governing specific environmental media.

Agenda 21, in chapters 8, 38, 39, and 40, stresses the importance of enhancing local capacities for sustainable development in developing countries. National environmental legislation and related institutions form the nucleus in the building of capacity to grapple with the challenges of sustainable development. The first tangible result of NEAP has been the drafting of an environmental law and policy. In addition, and as mentioned earlier, a number of sector policies and legislation are currently under review.

One of the challenges facing Tanzania is taking necessary legislative steps to ensure sustainable development. Of late, the country's environment has been heavily affected by the influx of refugees from Rwanda, Burundi and Zaire. Again, important aspects like air pollution and environmental disaster preparedness are virtually unlegislated. The existing legal framework was not molded to absorb such challenges.

Chapter 8 of Agenda 21 on policy-making for sustainable development recognizes that country specific laws are among the major important instruments for transforming environment and development policies into action. This can be accomplished not only through "command and control" methods, but also by using a framework for economic planning and market instruments. Major constraints facing environmental management in Tanzania include the lack of capacity to enforce environmental laws and lack of working tools.

Tanzania has a number of other statutes sometimes referred to as environmental laws, but which are actually resource exploitation statutes. These include the Mining Act (1979), Fisheries Act (1974), Water Utilization and Control Act (1974), and the Forest Ordinance (1959). All these Acts are currently under review to reflect sustainable utilization of resources. The challenge ahead is to incorporate the requisite institutional machinery and enforcement authority, including effective judicial procedures and compliance with international agreements into these laws, and to ensure their periodic review. The government will also try to direct fiscal and economic policies to reflect environmental costs in the daily decision making processes.

A compilation and evaluation of sectoral environmental laws has been undertaken by the Division of Environment. A national workshop to initiate the formulation of a framework environmental legislation and review of sectoral laws was held in September 1995. The workshop proceedings have been prepared, as well as a project proposal to develop the framework and review. Efforts are underway to secure funds to support the preparation process with the Division of Environment now working on new comprehensive environmental legislation. Individual sectors have also taken the challenge of initiating reforms in policies and laws relating to sustainable development and environment. Examples in addition to those discussed above include: Marine and Coastal Areas; Land Management; Forest Ordinance, Cap. 389; and Forest Ordinance Rules.

Strategies, policies and plans

The National Environmental Policy provides a framework for making fundamental changes that are needed to bring environmental considerations into the mainstream of decision making in Tanzania. It also seeks to provide policy guidelines and plans and gives guidance to the determination of priority actions, for monitoring and regular review of policies, plans, and programmes. It further provides for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy analysis thus exploiting synergies among sectors and interest groups.

The overall objectives of the National Environmental Policy are, therefore, to ensure sustainable and equitable use of resources without degrading the environment or risking health or safety; to prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation, and air which constitute the essential life support systems; to conserve and enhance natural and man-made heritage, including the biological diversity of the unique ecosystems of Tanzania; to improve the condition and productivity of degraded areas including rural and urban settlements in order that all Tanzanians may live in safe, productive and aesthetically pleasing surroundings; to raise public awareness; to promote individual and community participation; and to promote international cooperation.

The National Environmental Policy also provides for the execution of a range of strategic functions using policy instruments such as environmental impact assessments, environmental legislation, economic instruments and environmental standards, and indicators. A framework is also provided for institutional arrangements and coordination. The role of major groups such as non-governmental and community based organizations, and the private sector is underscored. Capacity building and human resource development are emphasized.

The National Environmental Policy provides a unifying set of principles and objectives for an integrated and multi-sectoral approach addressing the totality of the environment. With the enunciation of the Policy, the main challenge is to ensure that all sectors and interest groups take priority actions in a mutually supportive manner. It is in this regard, therefore, that an action plan has been developed as a first step towards the incorporation of environmental concerns in the national development planning process. The NEAP seeks, among other things, to integrate the environmental policy and the conservation strategy into the planning process; involve stakeholders in environmental management; promote environmental education and public awareness; promote research and technology initiatives; evolve and strengthen a national environmental information system; promote environmental impact assessments; guide the development of a framework environmental legislation; and prepare a long term investment plan to address major environmental concerns.

Until recently, environmental issues were the responsibility of sectoral ministries. However, institutional structures and strategies are changing towards cross-sectoral coordination with the growing awareness of the importance, severity, cross cutting, and complex nature of environmental issues. In line with this new thinking, the government is currently reviewing all sectoral policies to ensure that they are consistent with current macro-economic reforms and national environmental policy. The underlying premises of the sectoral policy reviews are the need to balance accelerated economic growth with more efficient and sustainable use of the environment and natural resources; and the need to integrate environmental management into all sectors. The following is the status and progress in some key sectors.

The mining sector policy is aimed at creating an enabling environment for investors in the sector. Specifically, the government intends to revise the legal framework related to mining in order to increase consistency and transparency. In this regard the following legislation is being revised: the Mining Act of 1979; the Income Tax Act of 1973; and the Investment Promotion Act of 1991. The Model Mineral Agreement is also being reviewed and mineral licensing procedures streamlined. The divestiture of public mining companies and the re-organization of the State Mining Company (STAMICO) is underway. The environmental impacts of the mining sector are to be addressed through the Mining Sector Environmental Action Plan which will include provision for health, safety, and environmental regulations.

Agricultural sector development has been undertaken with the objective of increasing the production of food and cash crops in order to improve food security, generate foreign exchange, supply domestic industries with raw materials, and raise rural income levels to alleviate poverty. Short term policies in this sector have focused on removing price distortions and minimizing losses due to inefficiencies in marketing and in process industries respectively. Direct involvement and control of the agricultural sector by the government has been reduced. Research and extension services are being emphasized.

In 1995, a comprehensive wildlife sector review was completed. A number of recommendations were given and the government is making a concerted follow up. Some of the steps already taken include: the drafting of a policy on wildlife utilization and conservation, the drafting of a policy on tourist hunting and formation of a national committee on the issuance of hunting blocks. In addition, the National Parks Ordinance is being reviewed with technical assistance from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

The Government has reoriented policy reforms towards increased allocation of resources to the social sector. Basic social services including primary education, primary health care, nutrition, and rural water supply will benefit from this move. The government has also introduced cost sharing measures as a way of ensuring full participation by the beneficiaries in the sustainable provision of services. High priority is being accorded to the supply of water and sanitation services to rural and urban areas. However, success in this sector is hampered by the high investment, operational, and maintenance costs.

Tanzania is conscious of the possible widening of the income gap as the economy recovers and grows. This and other related issues are being addressed through consideration of the social dimensions of the structural adjustment programmes. Poverty alleviation is being addressed in the context of the national policy on poverty and related income generation programmes. The National Population Policy addresses the issue of population growth and sustainable development.

Urban services are still in a very poor state. There has been a rapid deterioration of the existing infrastructure and extensive erosion of the level of services available to the rapidly increasing urban population. It is the intention of the government to prepare an urban management service delivery and infrastructure investment policy aimed at creating an effective institutional and financial framework for operating a sustainable service delivery system in urban centers. Already municipalities have been given a greater voice in the management of infrastructure. In the water sector, this is being accomplished through the establishment of urban water and sanitation boards. At least six such boards are now operational.

In order to establish an efficient energy production, procurement, transportation, distribution and end-use system in an environmentally sound manner, the Government intends to exploit the abundant hydroelectric potential and to develop other indigenous energy sources such as natural gas, coal and petroleum in collaboration with the private sector. The power sector is being restructured. Private participation in investment in the Songo Songo natural gas project is a precursor to wider private sector participation in the energy sector.

Main Programmes

Rehabilitation of infrastructure has also been accorded high priority. The Integrated Roads Programme (IRP) has made remarkable progress towards the rehabilitation of major roads in the country. The Government intends to strengthen this activity through improvements to the organizational, management, and financial arrangements for this sector. Divestiture plans are underway for the regional transport companies and the Plant and Equipment Hire Company. Transportation sector competition is being promoted through the encouragement of private sector participation.

The Government of Tanzania has taken important strides to address environmental problems through policy, programme, and the legislative framework. In March 1993, the then Ministry of Tourism, Natural Resources and Environment held a workshop on the national programme and plan of action for the implementation of Agenda 21. One of the important resolutions of the workshop was the call for an evaluation and, where necessary, strengthening of the existing legal framework in order to implement all the proposed programmes in Agenda 21.

The following programme areas were identified as requiring an integrated legal framework: promotion of sustainable human settlement development; integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources; combating deforestation, desertification and drought; conservation of biodiversity; protection of quality and supply of fresh water resources; environmental pollution; protection of the atmosphere; and promoting the role of women in sustainable and equitable development.

Status

Sustainable natural resource management depends on enabling environmental law that provides a wide spectrum for different stakeholders to participate. It is now becoming increasingly apparent that the "centralization" of environmental management may not be the proper institutional arrangement. Most environmental problems have a bearing on where the majority of people live, whether in rural or urban areas. Local authorities, therefore, stand a better chance of managing the local environment by overseeing the planning processes, establishing local environmental policies and regulations, and enforcing them. Community-based natural resource management is cost effective and participatory in character. The Government, with assistance of the United States Aid for International Development (USAID), will support a five year project on Participatory Environment and Natural Resources Management which will explore the best ways of involving local stakeholders in managing the environment.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

The Vice President's office, through the Division of Environment, is implementing a capacity building project. Activities under the project include: preparation of national framework environmental legislation; preparation of environmental impact assessment guidelines; training of personnel; follow-up of activities in the implementation of international conventions; support for meetings and conferences; as well as purchase of office supplies and equipment. The project is being funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. (NORAD) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Cooperation

UNDP and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) are collaborating on the Joint Project on Environmental Law and Institutions in Africa. The project aims at the review and harmonization of legislation relating to Forestry, Wildlife, Environmental Impact Assessment, Management of Lake Victoria, Management of Hazardous Wastes, and the formulation of environmental standards. The project is being implemented at the sub-regional level involving the three East African states of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

In addition, the Inter-regional Water Law and Policy Advisory Programme involving four countries, namely, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Niger, and Uganda is funded by the Netherlands Government. A Review of the National Parks Legislation is funded by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), while a Review of the Land Legislation is funded by the Overseas Development Organization of the United Kingdom.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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MAJOR GROUPS

Women

Decision-Making

The Tanzanian Government through the Ministry of Women, Children and Community Development is keen to enhance women's participation in development and environmental management through credit provision, encouraging the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves, training on various development issues, and other activities.

Strategies, policies and plans

Agenda 21 recognizes the role of women in sustainable development. Chapter 24 deals with "Action for Women: Sustainable and Equitable Development". Governments are enjoined to implement the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for Women which emphasize the need for women to participate in ecosystem management and control of environmental degradation.

Status

In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the social position of women makes them closer to the environment than men. Since the division of labour (mostly in rural areas) is still gender-based, women perform chores like fuel wood collection, water fetching from distant places, hand-hoe cultivation, etc. Notwithstanding the importance of involving women in natural resource management, women continue to be inhibited by some traditions and by statutory provisions in Tanzania's laws. For example, some codified customary laws prevent a woman from inheriting land in the event of the death of her husband or father. The government through the Law Reform Commission is working to amend and/or repeal such discriminatory laws.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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Children and Youth

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Chapter 25 of Agenda 21 urges governments to make sure that by 2000, more than 50% of each country's youth have access to secondary education or equivalent vocational training. Towards this end, the government in 1996 enacted the Vocational Education and Training Authority Act through which a statutory fund was launched for purposes of supporting vocational training.

Status

Tanzania's employment in the formal sector depicts a downward trend falling from 12% in 1978 to 5.5% in 1995. Reasons for this fall include, among others, the fall in the Gross National Product, growth of the number of graduates, and shrinkage of the public sector.

Challenges

In Tanzania, youth make up a substantial part of the population and a significant part of its working population. There is a need therefore to involve them in major decisions. To this end, development plans should contain initiatives to provide the youth (and the general population) with a healthy environment, improved standards of living, education and employment opportunities.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Indigenous People

No information is available.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Non-Governmental Organizations

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

Tanzania embraces a wide spectrum of NGOs ranging from social welfare NGOs, developmental NGOs, educational NGOs, women and youth NGOs, and research NGOs. Most NGOs were formed after the Bill of Rights come into force in 1987. This Bill guaranteed the right to free association and freedom of speech. However, the regulatory framework for NGOs is based on the Societies Ordinance Cap. 337 of the Laws of Tanzania which was mainly meant to govern charitable organizations.

Status

Most of the NGOs are either registered as societies under the Ministry of Home Affairs or as companies limited by guarantee under the Registrar of Companies. Generally speaking, the smaller NGOs are community based and are continuously affected by problems of poor leadership and lack of financial resources. Donor dependence has also affected the functioning of most NGOs. Research NGOs are affiliated with universities and academic institutions.

In Tanzania, NGOs have been playing a very important role in managing the environment and spearheading development programmes. NGOs render technical support to community-based projects. They are familiar with community problems, needs, and solutions. They also assist communities in interpreting laws and regulations.

Chapter 27 of Agenda 21 underscores the vital role that NGOs play in participatory democracy and the diverse expertise they posses in fields important to sustainable development. Although most of the NGOs are doing a good job in spearheading development projects and environmental conservation activities, their functions remain largely uncoordinated. In addition, most NGOs lack the necessary capacity to manage their activities. Their capacity needs to be built and strengthened.

Some of the NGOs active in Tanzania are listed below, together with their location and activities:

1. Action Oriented

Tanzania Wildlife Conservation Society (TWCS): Dar es Salaam, awareness creation, anti-poaching, conservation activities, and general initiatives.
Malihai Clubs of Tanzania (MCT): Arusha, environmental education, information dissemination, and tree planting.
Lawyers' Environmental Action Team (LEAT): Dar es Salaam, environmental litigation, lobbying of environmental laws for enactment /amendment.
Tanzania Environmental Society (TESO): Dar es Saalam, environmental education and public awareness, soil conservation, afforestation, sustainable agriculture, land use, watershed management, networking, etc.
Journalists Environmental Association of Tanzania (JET): Dar es Salaam, dissemination of environmental news, investigation on environmental deterioration, etc.

2. Research Oriented

Centre for Energy, Environment, Science & Technology (CEEST): Dar es Salaam, research on energy, environmental science and technology issues, natural resource use and management, etc.
Economic & Social Research Foundation (ESRF): Dar es Salaam, research on economic, social and development issues.
Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA): Dar es Salaam, conducts research on the informal sector, employment trends, poverty alleviation, environment and development trends.

3. Community Based NGOs

Laramatak Development Organization: Monduli, community based conservation, pastoral rights, etc.
Nyambimbi Economic Group: Bariadi, afforestation, soil conservation, etc.
Tanzania Tree Planting Foundation: Handeni, tree planting and environmental conservation.
Pollution Control Association (POCA): Dar es Salaam, collection of garbage, manufacturing garbage collection facilities, etc.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Local Authorities

Status

Participatory Environmental Resource Management (PERM) is a US$10 million five year project whose objective is to strengthen environmental management through the encouragement of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Tanzania. The project will assist the government, NGOs, the private sector, and individuals to identify and implement CBNRM programmes based on indigenous knowledge, practices, and experience. Project implementation has started.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Workers and Trade Unions

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

The following conventions are relevant to workers and trade unions in Tanzania: the Convention Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment due to Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration, adopted in 1977, entered into force in Tanzania on May 30, 1984; the Convention Concerning Occupational Safety and Health, and the Working Environment, adopted in 1981; and the Convention Concerning Prevention and Control of Occupational Hazards Caused by Carcinogenic Substances and Agents, adopted in 1974.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Business and Industry

Decision-Making

The Government has appointed a Business Sector Advisory Committee on Economic Empowerment and Environmental Management. The Committee is made up of several businessmen. Some of the main tasks of the committee are to advise the government on policies related to poverty alleviation and environmental management; and the enabling environment necessary for the business community to participate effectively in economic empowerment and environmental management.

The Tanzania Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture (TCCIA) has formed a committee on natural resources and environment with the main objective of raising the awareness of the business community on environmental issues so as to integrate environmental responsibility in company policies. The government will work with the business community in drafting national procedures for environmental impact assessment; the evolution of national environmental standards; and in the implementation of international conventions, protocols, and other agreements to which Tanzania is a party.

Strategies, policies and plans

A national partnership is required if the goal of sustainable development is to be achieved. It is in recognition of this that promotion of responsible entrepreneurship was underscored in the National Plan for Agenda 21. One of the key stakeholders to contribute to responsible entrepreneurship is the business community.

In 1996, the Government of Tanzania launched the Sustainable Industrial Development Policy (SIDP) (1996-2020) with the main mission to contribute towards the achievement of the overall national long-term development goals as enshrined in the overall national vision, and to enhance sustainable development of the industrial sector. The main objectives of the policy are: human development; creation of employment opportunities; sustainable economic growth; environmental sustainability; and equitable development. The SIDP has underscored the role science and technology, and Research and Development (R&D) have played in the attainment of desired goals.

There is a very weak link between the few local R&D institutions and the productive sector in the country. Industrialists do not appreciate the role of R&D activities, and much R&D work is perceived as not addressing the actual needs of the productive sector. To address this situation, the following measures will be undertaken: a) strengthening existing scientific and technological institutions by providing them with adequate finances, expertise, infrastructure facilities, and schemes for retention of technical experts; b) rationalization and synchronization of R&D institutions; and c) articulation of areas for collaboration between manufacturers and the local R&D network.

Main Programmes

In the industry-sector, a number of sustainable development initiatives have been initiated in Tanzania. These include, for example, the development of sustainable industrial development policy; reducing pollutants by adding effluent treatment and scrubbing units to existing processes in the chemical industry; and establishing a Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania (CPCT).

The substitution of deleterious technologies by environmentally friendly technologies involves huge capital investments. Therefore, most operators of industry in Tanzania have opted for add-on technologies and optimizing existing processes.

The chemical industry in Tanzania has started to identify and reduce pollutants by adding effluent treatment and scrubbing units to existing processes in recognition of the dangers of releasing pollutants into the atmosphere. A few operators have succeeded in optimizing operations in order to reduce fugitive emissions and waste generations. The introduction of membrane separation to replace mercury-based techniques in the calor-alkali industry represents one example. Some firms have been able to substitute dangerous organic chemicals and trichloroethylene with less hazardous alternatives.

The Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania (CPCT), established in October 1995, is part of the world-wide United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs) project. UNIDO and UNEP have joined forces to help promote cleaner production in developing countries where the economy is in transition over a period of five years.

The main objective of the CPCT is to facilitate the transfer of technical information, know-how, and cleaner technology from developed and developing countries to industrial enterprises and environmental management agencies in Tanzania, in order to incorporate cleaner production techniques and technologies in industrial pollution reduction programmes. CPCT is a semi-autonomous body within the Tanzania Industry Research and Development Organization (TIRDO) and is managed by experienced national professionals. The Centre, under the Director, is governed by an Advisory Board comprising of members from the Government, industry, academia, R&D institutions, NGOs, and TIRDO. The Advisory Board guides the Centre in the preparation of its strategic and annual work plans, oversees the programme accomplishments and financial expenditures, gives guidance in policy, and provides advisory dialogue with the Government and industry.

CPCT serves a coordinating and catalytic role for cleaner production in the country through four major activities:

  1. collection and dissemination of information on cleaner production to its stakeholders which include industry, government agencies, NGOs, R&D institutions, and academia;
  2. supporting the demonstration of cleaner production techniques and technologies in industry;
  3. training industry personnel and government officials on this new area of environmental management; and
  4. advising policy makers on the promotion of cleaner production.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Scientific and Technical Community

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

Recognizing the importance of science and its potential impact on sustainable development, the government of Tanzania has put in place a Higher Education Policy to provide the direction and guidance to stakeholders and service providers. The policy has placed emphasis on the teaching of basic sciences and the development of corresponding skills.

With regard to environmental sciences, the policy singles out the following subjects for inclusion in the national curriculum: the study and prediction of climatic and global change as a result of human activity on the environment; environmental pollution including water and air pollution with the disposal of toxic and radioactive wastes; disaster management; energy conservation; environmental conservation and enrichment; the effects of chemicals, drugs, pharmaceutical, fertilizers, etc. on the environment; and biodiversity and genetic engineering.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Farmers

No information is available.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making

Strategies, policies and plans

Recognizing the importance of science and its potential impact on sustainable development, the government of Tanzania has put in place a Higher Education Policy to provide the direction and guidance to stakeholders and service providers. The policy has placed emphasis on the teaching of basic sciences and the development of corresponding skills.

With regard to environmental sciences, the policy singles out the following subjects for inclusion in the national curriculum: the study and prediction of climatic and global change as a result of human activity on the environment; environmental pollution including water and air pollution with the disposal of toxic and radioactive wastes; disaster management; energy conservation; environmental conservation and enrichment; the effects of chemicals, drugs, pharmaceutical, fertilizers, etc. on the environment; and biodiversity and genetic engineering.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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INFORMATION

Status

Tanzania, like many other developing countries, has a large amount of data on natural resources and environment. However, most of the data are scattered and exist in different formats. This makes it difficult to compare, extrapolate, or up-date information--a serious draw-back for proper environmental planning and/or monitoring. Moreover, there has been little or no coordination among the various agencies working in the same area and this has resulted in duplication of data collection and a waste of resources.

In light of these problems, Tanzania has decided to establish specialized information centres to address sector specific and general needs. The Tanzania Natural Resources Information Centre (TANRIC), with the mandate to collect and manage natural resources and environmental data, was established in 1994. TANRIC is part of the Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) of the University of Dar es Salaam. The Centre was established with funding from the World Bank as a component of the Forest Resource Management Project. The project is being implemented by the University of Dar es Salaam in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, and the Soil Survey and Land Research Centre of Cranfield University in the United Kingdom.

TANRIC is made up of the following components: a computerized information system (TANRIS) consisting of a data base of information on organizations working in the environment and natural resources, a bibliography, a population module, an expertise profile data base, a meteorology data base, and a geographic information system (GIS) catalogue; a reference library; and a GIS unit.

Other nodes of the information system on environment and sustainable development include a biodiversity reference centre at the University of Dar es Salaam library, the centre for information on agriculture at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, the environment information centre at the National Environment Management Council (NEMC), and the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making

Legislation, regulations and policy instruments

International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral chapters. This is a listing of major agreements and conventions relevant to Agenda 21 in Tanzania, but not covered elsewhere:

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxic Weapons and on their Destruction, adopted in 1971.

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, adopted in 1977.

International Tropical Timber Agreement, adopted in 1983.

This information was provided by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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