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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Decision-making in Syria is the responsibility of the Ministries of Environment, Economy, Finance, Agriculture, Irrigation, Industry, Information, Justice, and Planning; Remote Sensing; the Scientific Research Center and the Information Center.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In order to integrate environment and development in decision-making, Syria concentrates on the following activities:

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

No information available.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In the strategy of the Ministry of Environment, there is a plan to build their capacity and use it as much as possible in raising public awareness and sharing in minimizing negative impacts on the environment. The Union also has a plan to establish a Friend of the Environment Community in 1997.
The goal set in Agenda 21 of ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training will be reached by the year 2000.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

The role of children and youth in the national Agenda 21 process is advisory and on an ad hoc basis. 

Status

In Syria, there are about 1.25 million youths organized in Thoura Youth Union. 

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

In Syria, indigenous people are involved in decision-making through local administration: they have representatives in the Executive Councils of the Governorates. They act as advisers in national policies on ad hoc basis and are fully involved in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Mechanisms already exist, and inputs from NGOs such as union organizations, vocational syndicates, and associations are considered important in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Government supports local agenda 21 initiatives.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Youth and women's unions are represented in the Consultative Committee set up for implementing Agenda 21 in Syria.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans 

There are governmental policies both encouraging the reuse and reduction of waste per unit and requiring recycling. A treatment plant for tanneries and for industrial liquid waste has been built.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

The scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development. The Environmental Research Center has been established.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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FARMERS

Capacity-Building, Education, Training, and Awareness-Raising

There are plans to increase farmers' awareness and participation through farmers' unions. Particular attention will be paid to the ways in which pesticides and fertilizers are used and to protecting natural resources by using efficient irrigation systems.

This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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SCIENCE

Constraints

There is much national expertise, but the inability to keep qualified persons in Syria for financial reasons causes a lack of experience in some fields.

Research and Technologies 

Research is done by the Universities in Syria, and in 1996, 150 million s.p. was earmarked for scientific research. Some of this research can be done for the promotion of sustainable development and as guides for preventing environmental degradation. The final assessment for these research activities (e.g., in number, qualities, areas), has not yet been specified. 


This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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INFORMATION

<Availability of sustainable development information at the national level>

Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor
2 International cooperation and trade
3 Combating poverty X
4 Changing consumption patterns X
5 Demographic dynamics and sustainability X
6 Human health X X
7 Human settlements X
8 Integrating E & D in decision-making X
9 Protection of the atmosphere X
10 Integrated planning and management of land X
11 Combating deforestation X
12 Combating desertification and drought X
13 Sustainable mountain development
14 Sustainable agriculture and rural development X
15 Conservation of biological diversity X
16 Biotechnology X
17 Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living X
18 Freshwater resources X
19 Toxic chemicals X
20 Hazardous wastes X
21 Solid wastes X
22 Radioactive wastes X
24 Women in sustainable development X
25 Children and youth X
26 Indigenous people
27 Non-governmental organizations X
28 Local authorities X
29 Workers and trade unions X
30 Business and industry X
31 Scientific and technological community X
32 Farmers X
33 Financial resources and mechanisms X
34 Technology, cooperation and capacity-building X
35 Science for sustainable development X
36 Education, public awareness and training
37 International cooperation for capacity-building X
38 International institutional arrangements X
39 International legal instruments
40 Information for decision-making X


This information is based on Syria's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Information is not available.


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