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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SWEDEN

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

In order to facilitate and give advice on the Agenda 21 activities in Sweden, the Government has established a National Agenda 21 committee with participation from parliamentarians, NGOs, the corporate sector and the scientific community.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Government Bill "Environmental Quality Objectives", proposed in the spring of 1998 states the ways in which the environmental policy should be conducted to achieve this overall objective. The Bill represents further developments and presents in greater detail the work already done on ecologically sustainable development. Two other Government bills presented in the autumn of 1997 and spring of 1998 , together with the present environmental bill, constitute important components of the integrated efforts to achieve sustainable development. They relate, for example, to energy, transport, regional transport, regional policy, employment, consumer policy, housing policy, agriculture and architecture and design.

Furthermore, the Government has presented a new Environmental Code to parliament. The Environmental Code comprises coordinated, stringent and broader environmental legislation with a view to promote a sustainable development. Sweden has introduced an Environmental Code whereby a closer integration of different aspects of environmental legislation is achieved. The Code enters into force on 1 January 1999 and amalgamates regulations on the environment and health, introduces rules specifically for agriculture and forestry, defines responsibility for environmental damage and enhances the procedural status of environmental organizations. A large number of previously separate items of environmental legislation are thereby integrated into a coherent framework so that the guiding principles are applicable to all sectors covered by the Code as well as the new instruments relating to environmental quality norms and action programmes for specific areas. The Act concerning the Management of Natural Resources is incorporated into the Environmental Code, establishing a closer link between land-use and environmental issues and augmenting the possibilities of achieving coordinated and cross-sectoral assessments.

In addition, the Government stated in the 1998 Spring Fiscal Policy Bill that work on adapting Sweden to ecologically sustainability should continue and proposed increased appropriations for the environment. The Government considers that the new Environmental Code together with the new national environmental quality goals will increase the scope for and stimulate interest in voluntary measures, particularly in industry for improving the environment.

The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) was introduced in Sweden, as in the rest of the EU, in 1995, to improve and evaluate environmental management in industry and to keep the general public informed of its progress. A commission has been appointed to clarify the environmental activities that give rise to financial risks and the information that is required to make financial assessments of environmental risks. The investigation was due to give its report by the end of 1996.

No major constraints have been found in the implementation of international legal instruments in the field of sustainable development. There is an established administrative and legal process for the signing and ratification of international agreements. Swedish experts are taking part in the framing of an EU directive on EIAs for decisions of a more strategic character.

Environment Impact Assessments (EIAs) have primarily so far been used for projects and not for policies or programmes. Work is in progress to systematically include EIAs at an early stage of the political process, such as in the government's bill "Municipal comprehensive planning" under the Planning and Building Act. Sweden has proposed several national rules on EIAs, e.g. for detailed development plans and for railways. A number of national institutions are to report with proposals for provisions and legislation on EIAs in their sector, such as agriculture and forestry. The Environmental Protection Agency has issued general recommendations in its report "EIAs in the Environment Protection and Nature Conservation Acts." According to the report EIA should in the future include an analysis of health impacts as well as of impacts on the environment. Such comprehensive assessments are preferably to be carried out in advance of project planning as well as for planning purposes in general.

Sweden is considered a leading nation in the use of environmental taxes and charges, which on the whole have been positive. The Tax Change Committee is currently investigating the extent to which further environmental issues can be incorporated into the taxation system. The Committee is analyzing the socio-economic effects of energy and environment taxes and investigating the possibilities of simultaneously increasing the revenue from environment-related taxes, and reducing that from other taxes, such as the tax on labour. The Committee will give its report by the end of 1996.

The Government has charged a special commissioner to propose a method on how environmental considerations should be taken in the field of Swedish Standardization. The Environmental Protection Agency is working on a study of the environmental integration into a number of sectoral agencies.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The Swedish Government has long-term sustainable development very high on the political agenda. The overall objective is to stimulate economic and social development within the framework of the environment's carrying capacity, based on the principles formulated in the Rio-declaration and Agenda 21. The Government has formulated general environmental guidelines for development in Sweden within the various areas and sectors of society, which have been endorsed by the Swedish Parliament, the Riksdag. The Rio documents were presented to Parliament, in Swedish, already in October, 1992.

The overall environmental policy objective is to hand over to the next generation a society in which the main environmental problems have been solved. Internationally, Sweden should be a driving force and a model of ecologically sustainable development. 

Work is also being undertaken to develop environmental management systems among central authorities. A pilot project is to take place during 1997 comprising about twenty authorities. The authorities are due to make an environmental investigation, environmental policy and action programme for further environmental integration according to the policy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

The establishment of NGOs in developing countries is being supported, as are the environmental aspects of development cooperation with other NGOs. Sweden is also working actively on environmental issues through its representatives in development banks as well as in other UN agencies.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

National Decision-Making Structure
1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: YES
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: YES
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD YES
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: YES
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: YES

National Instruments and Programmes
1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: YES
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: Currently being developed
3. Ecolabel Regulations: YES
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: YES
5. Green Accounting Program: YES
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. National World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Development or State of the Environment: YES
http://Agenda21.se

Policies, Programmes and Legislation
1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: YES
3. Atmosphere: YES
4. Land Use Planning: YES
5. Forest and Deforestation: YES
6. Desertification and Drought: YES
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: YES
8. Sustainable Agriculture: YES
9. Biological Diversity: YES
10. Biotechnology:
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: YES
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: YES
15. Solid Wastes: YES
16. Radioactive Wastes: YES
17. Energy: YES
18. Transport: YES
19. Sustainable Tourism: YES

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

Regarding assistance to developing countries, in 1995 Sweden was the second leading DAC member with respect to ODA/GNP ratio at 0.89 per cent and was the eighth largest in absolute terms with US$ 2 billion in disbursements. Sweden has since 1988 had a policy objective of all development assistance to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment. Environmental Impact Assessments have been compulsory for all development projects since 1991.

After UNCED a working group was set up to develop general principles, guidelines and working methods to integrate the decisions at UNCED into the framework of Swedish development cooperation. In the report entitled Sustainable Aid: Swedish Development Assistance after UNCED, the group put forward recommendations, which the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) has used as a basis to work out its Plan of Action for Sustainable Development.

In July 1996 the Swedish Government also reported to the parliament the policies within the international development cooperation regarding sustainable development.

The main element of the policy for sustainable development is the focus on poverty reduction. Certain sectors are identified as particularly important to achieve sustainable development, including fresh water, agriculture and forestry, marine environment, urban environment and energy. Support to capacity-building, education and institutional support are core priorities, as well as support to democratic institutions and an increased attention to the role of women in development.

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1998.

Government Report 1997/98:13 Ecological sustainability

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The contributions of local and national representatives of major groups to sustainable development at the national level are considered essential, with regional and international major groups being considered quite helpful and constructive. In general, Sweden proposes to enhance the transparency and open discussion processes, financial support and participation of representatives of major groups in official delegations. The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, the organization Q2000 and representatives from trade unions, industry, the scientific community and local authorities are full members of the National Sustainable Development Coordination Mechanism.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Major Groups participate in environmental impact assessments at the local and national levels, contributing to the design of sustainable development policies and programmes and participating in project implementation. Representatives of major groups have been included in the Swedish delegations to sessions of the CSD. They participated in HABITAT II, and were represented on the Swedish delegation to the UN General Assembly. Sweden continues consultations with all representatives of major groups on issues linked to sustainable development.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

Policies or strategies have been completed for achievement of equality in all aspects of society. From 1992 to 1996 the proportion of women decision makers increased in government from 38 to 50%; in parliament from 32 to 40%; and in local government from 34 to 41%.

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Curricula and educational material already promote gender-relevant knowledge. 

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 7 March 1980 and ratified on 2 July 1980.

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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For information on national plans of action in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, click here:

 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

The role of children and youth in the national process is advisory. The goal set in Agenda 21 of ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training, will be reached. Local authorities, youth organizations and NGOs receive US$ 1 million a year and technical support.

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Governmental Bill 1992/93:32 proposes that a special governmental authority, the Sametinget, be established to promote the vitality of the Sami culture, and to decide on the allocation of state subsidies and other funds to the Sami people. The Sametinget is to promote the Sami language, to disseminate information on the Sami people, to participate in physical planning and to ensure that Sami interests are taken into account, including reindeer herding, land and water utilization.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

A process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments is in place. Indigenous people are fully involved in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

Mechanisms exist already promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation and NGO inputs are important. Sweden held consultations with Greenpeace concerning toxic chemicals and cooperates with the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in carrying out a global water survey.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Sweden's 288 local authorities play a very important role in environmental protection work and in the work towards long-term sustainable development. Each municipal government must see to it that industry, traffic, waste management and energy use take health and environmental consideration into account. Their environment and public health committees as well as their building committees bear the main responsibility for local environmental matters.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

Government supports local Agenda 21 initiatives and has allocated approximately US$ 1.5 million to support local Agenda 21 activities through the Environmental Protection Agency in the form of grants to local authorities and NGOs.

The Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and representatives of the country administrations, among others, recently (1996) embarked on an evaluation of work by the county administrations on their environmental strategies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

All Swedish local authorities have begun work on developing and implementing local Agenda 21 initiatives. About half of the local authorities have Agenda 21 coordinators, and are organizing seminars, courses and practical counselling activities for the general public. The local authorities are also working with businesses and NGOs, as well as with various projects such as public awareness campaigns, environmental audits and green accounting. Main issues have so far concentrated on waste management, water and sewage treatment and consumption. Traffic, energy, nature conservation, construction and toxic chemicals are also being addressed. Two thirds of the local authorities have environmental criteria for municipal purchasing. Ninety percent of the local authorities have in one way or another provided information to the public, and 40 per cent have given information designed for women and youth.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

There is full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of Agenda 21.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status

No information available  

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

Relevant ILO Conventions have been ratified.

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

An Ecocycle Commission was established by the Swedish Government in 1993 in order to pursue and co-ordinate work on ecocyclic issues. The Commission has the mandate to formulate a strategy for the transition to an ecocyclic society in which producers are responsible for their goods. This involves, i.a., determining priority areas for action in the light of natural resource management and the risk of damage to the environment and also formulating objectives and timetables for applying the principle of producer responsibility. The Commission has submitted draft legislation on producer responsibility for tyres, cars, building materials and electronics to the Government. Producer responsibility is already implemented for packaging, recyclable paper and tyres.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Federation of Swedish Industries supports the principles concerning the responsibility of industry in environmental management, stressing the importance of cooperation between the government and industry as well as the crucial importance of international environmental action, particularly in the Baltic Region. Sweden has adopted regulations on environmental management and audits based on programmes of voluntary participation by industry to improve and assess their own environmental actions and to make information generally available. This regulation would be consistent with that which came into effect in the European Union in 1993 and would require certain environmental action to be conducted by the companies which choose to participate in the programme. Small- and medium-sized companies can be given extra support to be able to participate. No statistical figures of the number or percent of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable development policies are available.

Eco-labeling is an important tool in encouraging environmentally sound practices by industry (see other information in Economic Aspects).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

There are governmental policies requiring increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

The Environmental Protection Agency has embarked on a ten-year programme to review emissions from environmentally hazardous operations at industrial sites. The Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Industry and Trade set up a special working committee and convened a conference in 1996 to identify key areas in which instruments of environmental policy and industry policy can be developed and coordinated. In September 1996 the Ministry of Industry and Trade appointed a delegation which should develop a strategy for promoting environmental technology. The Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA) has carried out a survey of Sweden's environmental industry. The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) was introduced in Sweden, as in the rest of the EU, in 1995, to improve and evaluate environmental management in industry and to keep the general public informed of its progress. A commission has been appointed to clarify the environmental activities that give rise to financial risks and the information that is required to make financial assessments of environmental risks. The investigation was due to give its report by the end of 1996. Other monitoring, assessment and information dissemination bodies include the Swedish Eco-Management Council, the Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation, the National Board for Industrial and Technical Development and the Environmental Protection Agency. The Swedish Eco-Management Council is now in progress to extend EMAS to nonindustrial sectors as transportation , forestry, construction and real estate management to begin with.

Status 

Recycling targets and levels achieved (%) in Sweden, 1997 and 1994 are as follows:

Type of material Recycling target, 1/1 1997 Estimated level achieved 1994
Beer/soft drink bottles 95 97
Wine/spirits bottles filled in Sweden(r) 90 84
Other types of glass (m) 70 56
Corrugated cardboard (m) 65 74
Other board and cardboard (m) 30 <5
Aluminium cans (r) 90 91
Other aluminium(m) 50 <5
Refillable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles(r) 90 85
Recyclable PET bottles (m) 90 85

r = reuse, m = reuse or material recycling, PET = Swedish abbreviation for PETP

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

 

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

The scientific community has already established ways in which to address the general public and deal with sustainable development.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available  

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997,

 

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Federation of Swedish Farmers stands behind the general Swedish environmental goals for agricultural policy as well as other goals concerning an increased environmental focus of agricultural research and development, reduced use of animal antibiotics and improved animal welfare.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

No information available  

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Education and Science is the body primarily responsible for education and research, natural and social sciences and related legislation. There are also a number of institutions to facilitate dialogue among the scientific community, the Government and the public at large with respect to issues related to sustainable development, including the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research, the Stockholm Environmental Institute(SEI), the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering (IVA) and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL). Environmental research within universities has been given a high importance, particularly the fields of biological diversity and climate. The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and the Swedish Council for Forestry and Agriculture Research (SJFR) have, for example, changed their overall objectives to be more in line with the decisions of the Rio Conference.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

Representatives from the science community often participate on boards and committees for sustainable development, both on the local and the national levels. Regarding IVL, this research institute is based on the idea that government and industry share the cost of environmental research activities within a particular framework. In this way the Swedish government supports IVL through the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, while industry is represented by an association of various companies and branches of industry. IVL also receives support for research via grants from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technological Development, the Swedish Work Environmental Fund and other grant-awarding agencies.

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

Environmental issues have recently received increased emphasis in higher education. The Government Research Bill for the period 1997 - 99, which was presented to the Parliament in September 1996, gives priority to research on environmentally toxic substances, climate, biodiversity and protection against radioactivity. Resources are also allocated to research on class-related disease patterns, i.e. inequality in health. Sweden will also actively support the establishment of international research networks for global issues such as food supply, energy, health and environment. The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) focuses on international strategic environment research in areas such as climate and energy, environmental technology, biotechnology, and water-related issues. Science related to water is perused in most Swedish universities, many of which are specializing in a specific water area, such as sewage treatment, nutrients and water as a resource. At the University of Link`ping, there is a cross-sectoral science program specifically focusing on water issues, bringing together other disciplines under the water theme.

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Measures have been taken to encourage education and research in the areas of science and technology. Plans have been developed giving particular attention to equal opportunity and encouraging more woman students in the areas of science and technology.

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

An increasing number of scientific institutions in Sweden are addressing how to create more sustainable production and consumption patterns. For example, many studies are carried out on the so-called Ecological Rucksack approach and the Environmental Space concept. Some work is also done with regard to the Factor 10 approach.

Financing 

Sweden has supported research at a large number of universities and research institutions at the national, regional and international levels. The Swedish Agency for Research and Environmental Cooperation (SAREC) allocated approx. US$ 23 million in 1993 to such organizations.The Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA) began its work in 1995. In 1993, the government and parliament decided to use "wage-earner funds" to advance the development possibilities of environmental research. These funds are being managed by the MISTRA.

Cooperation

Swedish scientists have been active in the EUs Environment and Climate program. Swedish researchers have been particularly successful in the fields of global changes, external environment, and environmental protection in the areas of health and social sciences.

The joint section for environmental research at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Göteborg is one example of many university departments and colleges organizing themselves for inter-disciplinary efforts to address complex environmental problems.

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1998

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Statistics Sweden is responsible for the work on indicators for sustainable development.  The Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for environmental monitoring activities, including defining conditions to effectively meet targets previously set.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available  

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

 Representatives of major groups are not involved in the work of indicators for sustainable development.

Programmes and Projects 

Environmental monitoring activities during 1995/1996 have included nationwide inventories of metals (cadmium in particular) in soil and crops, lakes and watercourses. The lake inventory is a joint Nordic undertaking with the objective to determine the extent of acidification in Nordic water bodies. The inventory will be used as a basis of international negotiations on this subject. Sweden is taking the lead in the moss inventory, part of the 30 European country project to determine the presence of heavy metals in humus and moss. A great deal of data and information collected in the course of Sweden's environmental monitoring are reported to various international conventions and organizations. The Environmental Data Centre in Kiruna uses satellite data for environmental monitoring, and was designated a European Topic Center for land coverage in 1996.

Status 

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level

Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor
2. International cooperation and trade
3. Combating poverty X
4. Changing consumption patterns
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability X
6. Human health X
7. Human settlements X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making
9. Protection of the atmosphere
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources X
11. Combating deforestation
12. Combating desertification and drought
13. Sustainable mountain development
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development
15. Conservation of biological diversity
16. Biotechnology
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources
18. Freshwater resources
19. Toxic chemicals
20. Hazardous wastes
21. Solid wastes
22. Radioactive wastes
24. Women in sustainable development
25. Children and youth X
26. Indigenous people
27. Non-governmental organizations
28. Local authorities
29. Workers and trade unions
30. Business and industry
31. Scientific and technological community
32. Farmers
33. Financial resources and mechanisms
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building
35. Science for sustainable development X
36. Education, public awareness and training X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building
38. International institutional arrangements
39. International legal instruments
40. Information for decision-making

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

Networks of computers are generally available throughout both the public and private sectors, with access to international information services. Sweden also has access to remote sensing data.

The Environmental Protection Agency has been commissioned to present a comprehensive annual report on environmental policy work in Sweden, with reference to the hundred or more national objectives adopted by the Swedish Parliament (Riksdag).

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available  

Cooperation

Within the OECD programme for indicators, Sweden contributes to the development of sustainable development indicators at the regional and national levels. No work has been done to carry out indicators at the local level. An overall policy/framework for information for decision-making has not been established. Official statistics, data and information compiled by local authorities and by regional and central agencies are the main sources of information on sustainable development.

The CSD process of developing indicators is seen as a difficult task, but one of major importance for national development.

A great deal of data and information is communicated to various international conventions and organizations, including the European Environmental Agency.

 

 

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

No information available

Status 

Sweden has a firm commitment to the development of international legal instruments aiming at sustainable development on the assumption that such instruments should contain precise and concrete obligations with implementation mechanisms and allow for follow-up measures.

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information available

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

 The following agreements and conventions are relevant to sustainable development and either predate the Rio conference or are yet to enter into force:

* * *

This information is based on Sweden's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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