Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Suriname

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SURINAME

Click here to go to these sections: 

AGRICULTURE

No information available.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.

Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.

To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:

| Suriname | All Countries | Home |

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

Within the limits of possibilities, the Ministry of Public Works and especially the Meteorological Service, has been promoting activities related to the National Action on Sustainable Development.
The National Council on Sustainable Development of Suriname will be established very soon.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The ratification of the Montreal Protocol and related amendments is in process, as is the ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Programmes and Projects

Various missions have been carried out to formulate country programmes. 

With the support of the Netherlands, a national inventory programme on emissions and Coastal Zone Management has been carried out between April 1997 and June 1998. 

Cooperation

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments were signed in 1998. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1996.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora was signed in 1981 and ratified in 1995.

CITES is regulated in the Game Law (animals) and Law on Forest Management (plants), and it is executed by the Forest Service, Nature Conservation Division (CITES Management Authority) and the Nature Protection Commission (CITES Scientific Authority). Parts of the Convention on Biological Diversity are covered by provisions in the Nature Preservation Law (under the Forest Service), the Game Law and the Law on Forest Management (both under the Ministry of Natural Resources, Forest Service), the Fish Protection Law and the Sea Fisheries Law (both under the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Fishery Service). Other agencies related to biodiversity are the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation, National Planning Bureau (e.g. coordination of a draft National Environmental Action Plan, NEAP), and Environmental Working Groups in several Ministries. The intention is to include a National Environmental Policy Board and an Environmental Management Agency in National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP).

The Nature Preservation Law of 1954 provides a possibility to establish reserves (now 13). Inventories of ecosystems of the interior will enlarge these figures for protected areas. The Game Law fully protects all mammals, birds, sea turtles and other species mentioned, except those that are designated as game, cage and predominately harmful species.

Programmes and Projects

A project on bioprospecting of medicinal plants started in 1994 and the second phase in 1995. Within the framework of a GEF project, preliminary regulations will be formulated for the contents of contracts and the sharing of results and benefits gained from the research, development and utilization of biological resources.

Status

Over 80% of the land surface (165,940 squared km) of Suriname is covered by tropical rainforests, while the very small human population (approximately 400,000) is concentrated in and around the capital, Paramaribo, and along the coast. The biological diversity is high: 185 mammal species, 668 bird species, 152 retile species, 95 amphibian species, 452 fish species, 6,135 plant species, (of which 5,075 Spermatophyte species) and 1,750 invertebrate species, while large areas of the interior (the Guyana Shield) still remain unknown for their flora, fauna, ecosystems and ecological realtions. Many inventories were concluded between 1900 and 1980 by foreign institutions, and most specimens collected were taken out of Suriname.

Cooperation

Suriname participates in the Special Environment Commission of the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty, the Caribbean Environmental Program (including activities of the Cartagena Convention), Conference of CITES, Wetlands Convention and the Convention on Biological Diversity, and has relations with several international agencies.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.

Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.

Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:

For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:

For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:

For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Status

There are no deserts or areas in danger of becoming deserts in Suriname.

Cooperation

The Government of Suriname has not signed the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa as of 17 June 1998.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

ENERGY

No information available.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for the forestry sector and gives policy guidance. The Forest Service is in charge of the management and control of the public forests. Other Ministries and institutions involved in forestry matters are: the Ministry of Trade and Industries with regard to the wood processing industry; the Jan Strake Training Center of the Forest Service for the training of lower level staff; and the Center for Agricultural Research of the University of Suriname for forestry research.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

In 1992, Suriname enacted a new Forest Management Act which is directed to sustainable management of forest resources. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Multi-annual Plan of the Government gives guidelines for forest policy and for the forestry programme. Initiatives for updating the forest policy have been undertaken by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and European Union. 

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

The Forest industry is organized in several associations. There are different assocations for loggers, saw millers, wood producers and wood exporters.

Programmes and Projects

Several plans and/or projects have been prepared or are under preparation to improve Suriname's capacity for the sustainable management of forests. 

Status

Forests are one of Suriname's most abundant natural resources with a high economic potential. In 1995, the value of the forest industry exports totaled approximately US$3.2 million. The value of the forest industry exports increased by more than 400% compared to the 1994 figure. Focusing on the total forest land of 14,855,800 ha (more than 80% of the total land area in Suriname) and the present area utilized for timber production (2,414,800 ha), the largest part of the forests are still preserved. The principles of sustainable development shall guide the decisions with regard to the expansion of the forest land area for production.

Almost the entire forest land in Surname is state-owned. The responsibility and authority regarding the state of forests is with the Government. Deforestation is negligible. During the last 10 years, less than 1% of the forest land of Suriname has been converted into other uses, primarily for mining purposes.

The forests are a substantial carbon dioxide sink and contribute to combating the intensification of the global greenhouse effect. The latest national forest inventories were carried out by the Forest Service with the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), with a total inventory area of 400,000 ha from 1070 to 1974 and an additional 80,000 ha from 1979-1982.

Cooperation

Assistance for institutional strengthening, capacity-building and policy formulation is given by the main partners with regard to forest development, namely the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), European Union, FAO and the Netherlands. Within the framework of the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty, several projects directed to sustainable use of natural environment are being undertaken.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

There are plans to establish a National Board of Water Management in addition to the Management Authority (Water) for the Multipurpose Corantijn Project in the north-western part of Suriname. Regional/international cooperation is undertaken under the Pan American Health Organization.

Status

Ninety percent of the population in Suriname is served by public waterworks, but the service level is not adequate. About 60% of the population is served by public sewerage, which is also inadequate. The waste water treatment in urban areas consists mainly of septic tanks and latrines.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

Click here to visit the Web Site of the Ramsar Convention.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

So far, land use planning has not been implemented in a coordinated way. The Land Service of the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for the granting all land issues and can provide various land titles and user rights to private and public entities. The decisions about the granting of land are based on the information available on prevailing soils, forests and geology. 

The National Planning Bureau of the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation is responsible for regional and physical planning. The Bureau is the coordinating body with regard to zoning and land use planning. The different Ministries are represented in an inter-departmental advisory council. The Planning Act of Suriname, which should guide these activities, originates from 1973, but has never been fully implemented.

Programmes and Projects

An Ecological Economic Zoning project will soon be taken up for an integrated planning of the use of land resources. An Environmental Management Agency will be responsible for monitoring the control and management of land use.

Research and Technologies

Suriname is in the process of introducing a new technology for land use planning, zoning and monitoring of land use, but will need substantial institutional support. 

Cooperation

Suriname cooperates within the framework of the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty with regard to strategy and technology and with financial assistance mainly from the European Union, IDB and the Netherlands.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

MOUNTAINS

Status

The mountain areas in Suriname are almost completely uninhabited and unexploited. The highest mountain top is only 1,280 m. 

Challenges

Foreign investors have shown interest in these areas for forestry and gold mining purposes. Developments in these sectors could cause environmental problems mostly related to increased erosion.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Forest Service under the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for the coordination of the management by relevant agencies of the coastal Multiple Management Areas (MUMAs). The Nature Conservation Division of the Forest Service is already the Suriname Administration Authority for the Wetlands Convention. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The legal basis for the protection of the sea is provided by the Sea Fisheries Law (with the possibility for fishing quotas) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In the coastal areas, there are four nature reserves and one Multiple Management Area (MUMA). The policy is to cover the whole estuarine zone by MUMAs and to formulate and implement management plans for these MUMAs. The latter is now being done for each part of this zone according to an order of priority which is related to the possible impact by agriculture (rice cultivation), crude oil exploitation, and aquaculture projects.

Cooperation

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) was signed on 10 December 1982.
Although Suriname has not yet ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, it has initiated with the assistance of the Dutch Government a project on sea-level rise.

Suriname also participates in the Amazon Cooperation Treaty, the Caribbean Environment Program (including the Cartagena Convention), MARPOL and the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change. Suriname and French Guyana will enlarge their cooperation with regard to nature conservation and the environment, especially in the coastal areas.

This information was provided by the Government of to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Suriname recognizes its responsibility with respect to sustainable development and is aware of its obligations to take the necessary precautions in time to prevent coming generations from disasters. Therefore, Suriname ratified the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) 73/78 with all its five Annexes in 1988, in order to prevent and fight pollution from ship-generated waste and other hazardous disposal. However, due to circumstances, only now does Suriname have the opportunity to prepare the necessary legislation to implement MARPOL. This will be done in cooperation with the Dutch ministry of Public Works under a programme which has already started. The existing legislation on water transport will also be updated during this work. The legal focus point in Suriname (an IMO project) is involved.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Surinamese Government and the Parliament are studying a proposal for the privatization of waste management in order to simplify and ensure the processing of waste. Preparations for the Maritime Authority are very advanced. The necessary facilities and other technical provisions resulting from the MARPOL Convention are to be provided by this authority.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

No information available.

กก

Hazardous Wastes

Cooperation

Relevant institutions in Suriname are engaged in the exchange of views on the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal which should ultimately lead to the ratification of the Convention.
The importance of the Basel Convention for the states in the Caribbean region is increasing due to the fact that the region is one of the most frequently chosen routes for the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.

This information was provided by the Government of Suriname to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: June 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

กก

Radioactive Wastes

No information available.


| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Suriname | All Countries | Home|