Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Slovenia

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVENIA

Click here to go to these sections:

AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Recently, a new legislation has been adopted in Slovenia with the purpose of setting up a maximum limit and a critical warning system on dangerous substances in soil. This would be particularly important in soils used to produce foodstuffs. In this decree the soil is defined as a surface part of the lithosphere, which consists of mineral and organic substances, water, air and organisms. Concentrations of seven classes of pollutants have been determined: heavy metals, inorganic pollutants, aromatic compounds, polycyclic hydrocarbons, chlorinated organic, pesticides and others.

A Decree on the input of dangerous substances and fertilizers into soil was also adopted in Slovenia in November 1996, so as to regulate the input of fertilizers (both mineral and organic: manure or slurry) and heavy metals in soil. The decree defines the limit for amounts of heavy metals which may be added annually to soils, and the limit for amounts of plant nutrients which may be added annually to soils with manure or slurry (inorganic fertilizers not included).  In areas with shallow ground water used for water supply, the decree tries to narrow the imbalance between fertilizers input and crop uptake with the following measures:

Increased nitrate concentrations in groundwater, which have exceeded the limit, have been detected. The increased nitrate contents were ascribed to the intensive agricultural activity. Therefore, these measures are important to prevent the pollution of drinking water.  The decree also controls the use of sewage sludge in agriculture, and sets limits for concentrations of heavy metals in sludge. The use of sewage sludge is controlled by permission given by the ministry of environment.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

For the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Hydro-Meteorological Institute, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning is primarily responsible for the protection of the atmosphere but there is no National Coordinating Mechanism for Sustainable Development.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

National legislation to protect the atmosphere has been reviewed and partly revised.  Since 1992, 50 regulations have been adopted by the Ministry of Transport.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The Government promotes policies and programmes in the fields of "energy efficiency" and "environmentally sound and efficient transportation." The issues of "industrial pollution control," "sound land-use practices," "sound management of marine resources, " and "management of toxic and other hazardous waste" are under consideration. The Government has reviewed current energy supply mixes regarding energy balances but there are no energy or emission-related taxes in Slovenia. In order to have a less polluting and safer transport system; transportation technologies, impacts on the environment, and safety have been addressed comprehensively; while relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, and the establishment of mass transit systems have been partly addressed.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

In comparison with other countries of the region, Slovenia rates its current transportation system "superior" in terms of transportation technologies; "equal" in terms of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, the establishment of mass transit systems, and environmental quality; and "inferior" in terms of safety.

Challenges  

Slovenia is neither involved in the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and land-use practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations; nor does it supports the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. At the national level, early warning detection systems, capacity to predict changes and fluctuations, and capacity building and training to perform systematic observations and assessments are rated "poor."

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information

Studies on air pollution have been undertaken by the Scientific Community. NGOs have also participated in efforts to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making and to promote sustainable development. 

Research and Technologies 

The Government does not actively participate in strengthening the Global Observing System at the national level, and methodologies to identify threshold levels of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration have not been developed. However, one observation station for tropospheric ozone was established in 1995 as part of the Global Ozone Observation System.

In the energy-transport-environment interface, there are selective and limited ad hoc observations; with continuous measurements of SO2 and NOx particles in thermal power plants, some ad hoc measurements in industry, and yearly vehicle inspections. For energy production, use of safe technologies, research and development on appropriate methodologies, rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, development of new and renewable energy systems, and awareness-raising related to energy and fuel efficiency all have very high priority. In addition, use of safe transportation technologies has high priority. Medium priority areas for protecting the atmosphere include research and development on appropriate methodologies in industry, environmental impact assessment (EIA) within the energy production sector, EIA within industry as a whole, and environmental audits. Research and development for appropriate transport methodologies has low priority.

Financing   

In 1996, Slovenia received US$ 6,2 million through multilateral channels. The Slovenian Government encourages industry to develop safe technologies by granting loans from the ECO Fund. Two projects are under consideration: a) reduction of air pollution for Slovenia as a whole (Phare Subvention 400,000 ECU and Credit from the World Bank US$23,8 million); and b) the phase-out of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (Global Environment Fund US$6,2 million).

Cooperation

In order to phase-out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting substances, Slovenia has ratified the Vienna Convention, adopted the Montreal Protocol and the London, Copenhagen and Vienna Amendments. Slovenia agreed in 1992 to the European Union Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP).

In terms of transboundary atmospheric pollution, the Government rates the country's capacity for observation, assessment, and information exchange as "good;" and for research "poor". The Government has facilitated the exchange of data and information at both national and international levels. It has not established early warning and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution resulting from industrial accidents and natural disasters. However, training opportunities in the area of transboundary atmospheric pollution control have been provided.

The Slovenian Government has not taken any initiatives under the framework of the United Nations to convene regional conferences on transport and the environment. The United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations have participated in Slovenian efforts to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making, preventing stratospheric ozone depletion and transboundary atmospheric pollution.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Hydro-Meteorological Institute, click here.
Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

BIODIVERSITY

Cooperation  

The Convention on Biodiversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1996. In terms of status, 543 flora and 800 fauna are listed as threatened species.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Status   

Desertification and drought are presently not issues of major concern for Slovenia. However, this problem and the activity of the international community are being followed by the authorities and the professional public of Slovenia.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

ENERGY

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The Slovenian Government promotes policies and programmes in the fields of "energy efficiency." The Government has reviewed current energy supply mixes regarding energy balances but there are no energy or emission-related taxes in Slovenia.

In the energy-transport-environment interface, there are selective and limited ad hoc observations; with continuous measurements of SO2 and NOx particles in thermal power plants, some ad hoc measurements in industry, and yearly vehicle inspections. For energy production, use of safe technologies, research and development on appropriate methodologies, rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, development of new and renewable energy systems, and awareness-raising related to energy and fuel efficiency all have very high priority. Medium priority areas for protecting the atmosphere include environmental impact assessment (EIA) within the energy production sector and environmental audits.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Energy Department, click here.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Before the Government proposed the Forest Development Programme of Slovenia for adoption in the Parliament, all sectors within different ministries were invited to give their opinion and proposals. The co-ordination process lasted for several months. Other sectors are also invited to give their opinion in the process of adopting forest management plans on the regional and local level. Decisions concerning forest area and forest land are made in the participatory process where also the opinion of the Slovenian Forest Service (SFS) ) is taken into account.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

In 1993 a new Forest Act was adopted, which regulates the protection, cultivation, exploitation and use of the forests with the aim of ensuring their close-to-nature and multifunctional management. In addition to the long tradition of sustainable forest management in Slovenia, the documents signed at the UNCED in 1992 have had a considerable impact on the forest legislation.

Under the Forest Act, all forest owners are required to manage their forests in a sustainable fashion, and in accordance with forest management plans. They are entitled to co-financing of protection measures and silvicultural activities as well as other measures from the budget of the Republic of Slovenia. If ecological and/or social functions considerably affect or even determine the forest management method, the support the owners get from the budget is increased by 10-20%.

Customary and traditional rights, including the right to land and land tenure of indigenous people, local communities, forest dwellers and forest owners are generally respected in Slovenia since the new Constitution of 1991. Although the Restitution Act was adopted already in 1991, not all of the former owners have been returned their land yet. Some problems exist in relation to the hunting rights and land property, and there have been problems encountered between the traditional right of mountain pasturing and conservation of forests as well.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The Forest Development Programme of Slovenia (FDPS: national forest programme) was adopted by the Parliament according to the Forest Act in 1996, before the Final Report of the IPF was published. The FDPS is a part of the national strategy of sustainable forest management. The Programme acknowledges the Helsinki Resolutions, signed at the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe in 1993, as one of the most important international commitments and identifies sustainable forest management as the primary goal, including the maintenance of biological diversity and all ecological, social, and production functions. The guidelines of the Programme have to be incorporated into the forest management plans which are being made for all forests, irrespective of ownership (70% of forests are owned privately).

The Programme ensures sustainable management and protection of Slovenia's forests by a system forest management plans and permits. Although the forest area has been continually increasing and now covers 55 % of the country, it is only possible to clear forests on the basis of land-use plansMost important characteristics of the forest policy, based on the Forest Act, are:

In order to implement the forest policy the Government established the Forest Service in 1994, whose main tasks are: preparing forest management plans; assisting the owners when selecting trees for felling; preparing programs for incentives; providing programs and conducting education and training; and monitoring the state of the forest and forestry activities.

Integrated land management strategy is in the course of preparation and should be concluded in 2000. All relevant sectors are included in the strategy (plan) so the FDPS is taken into account as well. Specifically, the evaluation of forest functions, presented on adequate maps, is the core information with which the forest sector enters the coordination process of relevant sectors.

The Government is trying to facilitate the establishment of PEFC Slovenia, however, it has not succeeded in attracting sufficient private interest and interest of environmental NGOs. Since the forestry legislation is really stringent and the Government provides incentives and finances the Forest Service, it is not expected that forest certification could contribute a lot to sustainable forest management. On the other hand, many furniture-producing companies report that they were denied access to the international market due to the non-existence of forest certification in Slovenia.

Besides the investments in de-sulphurisation plants, the main strategy to stabilize forests is the enhancement of their resilience to make them structurally more diverse. The main task of forest management in this sense is to mimic natural structures and species composition.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

In spite of the rather unfavorable conditions in terms of unemployment (with the unemployment rate of above 12%), poverty in Slovenia has, due to quite an efficient social policy, not yet been regarded as a serious problem. However, it cannot be denied that certain social groups live on very low income and this has some impact on forests as well, especially in rural areas.

Forest owners, who usually own some agricultural land and may be grouped into low-income social category, usually tend to exploit their forests to the extent of their degradation. The wood from the forest is usually used for domestic purposes (fire-wood and some timber for construction). In the past, these people also gathered litter in the forest and in mountainous areas used forests also for grazing. However, this kind of impact has rather ended. Income from gathering different kinds of fruits, nuts, berries, herbs and mushrooms is still quite important for these people.

Another low-income social group that has traditionally searched income and living environment in the forests, are Gypsy families. Local communities are trying to allocate more appropriate areas for their settlements, but not without difficulties. Income from gathering of mushrooms and herbs is for these people even more important than for the small farmers group.

Programmes and Projects   

Slovenia has not participated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) process. However, it has signed all resolutions at the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe and has participated in the process of implementing the resolutions (follow-up process). The government has also carefully assessed the relevance of the IPF proposals for action Slovenia.

Major points and concrete steps in implementing the IPF proposals for action in Slovenia are as follows:

New actions could be taken in particular:

It is most important that close-to-nature forestry is promoted to ensure the overall biological diversity of forests. This is based on natural regeneration and moderate, small scale, interventions. A network of strictly protected forest reserves, many of them remaining untouched for more than one hundred years, has been established. These existing protected forests will be reconsidered in accordance with the new methodology for evaluating forest functions. Subsequently, a law on protection forests will be issued. In addition to the protection of threatened species, so-called eco-cells within the forest are being established. These represent small and unique habitats, preserved and managed for the enhancement of biological diversity.

Status   

Slovenia is one of the most densely forested countries in Europe. The forest covers 1.1 million hectares or 55% of the territory of Slovenia, and dominates as much as three-quarters of the landscape. Forest communities of indigenous tree species are well preserved. As much as 70% of the forest is private and 30% state owned.

The current volume of the growing stock, 211 cubic meters per hectare, is not low in comparison to many other European countries. However, it is the long-term goal of the Forest Development Programme of Slovenia that the volume should reach at least 300 cubic meters and that the proportion of large-diameter trees should increase. Accumulation of the growing stock will improve the general protection functions of forests and their resilience to disturbances. Together with restrictions of litter gathering, this will also have an impact on carbon storage.

Since all forests in Slovenia are managed according to management plans and guidelines, the appropriate balance between growth and removals is ensured. For the decade 1991-2000, only 57 % of growth of cut has been planned. In order to improve the quality of forests, silvicultural activities are subsidized by the state within the context of SFS planning. Among the non-wood forest products, mushrooms and game are most important. A decree that limits mushroom picking was adopted recently, while hunting is also strictly controlled.

Challenges  

Disturbances that diminish forest ecosystem health and vitality are a serious problem. Twenty to thirty percent of the timber loss in Slovenia is caused by air pollution or biotic and abiotic agents.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Clearly, the endeavour towards the protection of forests is not only oriented towards forests, but also towards people. In this context, the SFS provides information on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems for schoolchildren, public organizations, and other groups. In addition, forest nature trails are used to inform the public about forests and forest management principles.

Information   

Criteria and indicators are used as a reminder and a reference for policy development, although it has been found that nearly all indicators have already been covered within the existing legal/regulatory and institutional framework and in the FDPS. Descriptive indicators that have not yet been really thought of among decision makers are an especially valuable tool for adequate stakeholders to remind the Government of the issues that still have to be resolved in terms of sustainable forest management. Criteria and indicators are also of great help in the sense of sustaining the existing policy if it is already in line with the C&I. For reporting of the development of the forest sector in Slovenia, the degree of implementation of the regional forest management plans is used, more frequently than the C&I, where all activities needed for the balanced development of all forest functions are laid down.

TBFRA 2000, which includes most of the C&I, contains a lot of information for assessing sustainable forest management at the international level. One of the indicators which is used in Slovenia is the degree of authenticity that indicates how close is the structure and composition of actual forests in relation to potential natural forests. In this sense we think that on the international level the terms ‘natural forests’ and ‘semi-natural forests’ could be more clearly defined and further elaborated. Another international indicator could also be the existence of suitable maps of the evaluated forest functions, which are one of the basic tools for setting relevant site-specific objectives for sustainable forest management. Although in Slovenia clear-cutting as a method of forest management is not allowed and therefore no indicators exist, some measures for assessing the range of clear-cuts may be very indicative at the international level.

Forest management plans that are made for all forests, are public documents and are available to all potential users at the local departments of the Forest Service as well as at the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food. Until now, the Internet has not been used much to disseminate information, but this is the challenge for the future. First attempts in this direction are available at: http://www.sigov.si/zgs-sfs.

Research and Technologies   

The only forest product that is actually recycled in Slovenia is paper. Other wood products whose life-cycle has been concluded, are used for energy.

Discussion on the use of wooden biomass for energy has been quite vivid lately. There are also some subsidies from the budget as well as credits from the Eco-fund available for this purpose. However, the Government has not yet adopted a clear strategy in this field, nor has plans for the promotion of the use of forest products in place of products made of non-renewable materials. Nevertheless, one of important general instruments that discourage the use of fossil fuels is the introduction of a special CO2 tax that has been in place for several years.

Financing

No information available. 

Cooperation

Slovenia participates in the Pan-European Process. All documents that were signed at the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe, including criteria and indicators, were translated into Slovene and distributed to all interested parties, together with forest owners. 

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home|

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning is the government body responsible for coordinating water resource management and development, and policy at the national level. The State secretary for Water is the focal point within the Ministry. At the sub-national level there is the River basin authority as local party (division) of the Ministry of Environment and Pysical Panning.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning controls water resources registers and ground water balances. In a 1994 study, it was determined that, of 890 treated water resources, 417 are not protected by decree although this is technically feasible. In the 1996 programme of the Nature Protection Authority, it is expected that there will be acceptance of a uniform methodology for groundwater protection, acceptance of new decrees of groundwater protection zones, measures for groundwater protection, and, if necessary, renewal of accepted decrees. On the basis of the Environmental Protection Act, Slovenia will ensure more serious performance of accepted decrees. In the framework of performing this task, the country will consider the relevant European Union (EU) directives.

The general legislation and regulatory framework for water management is the Water Act of 1984. A new Water Act will be adopted in 1998. Specific legislation for use of water in agriculutre include: 

The following new legislation regarding quality of surface and ground water is in preparation and should be adopted by the end of 1998 or early 1999:

The Water Law establishes Water Reserves to protect areas where drinking water, thermal, mineral, and medicinal water are significant. Local Authorities define the protected areas and specific measures. The new Water Law will define the respective responsibilities of Local Authorities and the State with respect to water.

Approximately 30 % of water costs are recovered through pricing at present. With the New Water Act it is intended to settle the economic price of water for all users. At present there are also other incentives to encourage industry and other sectors to make more optimal use of water (ie. cofinancing BAT by the State).

A pricing policy for cost-recovery and equitable allocation of water will also be put in place with the adoption of the new Water Act and the Water strategy programme in 1998. The specific targets of the policy in the agricultural sector are the optimization of water resources and water use for irrigation; in the industrial sector: use of treated water, reuse of industry water, use of sources of less quality, economic price of water; for household use: economic price, losses reduction in water supply systems, optimization of use.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

In order to prevent pollution of freshwater supplies, the Slovenian government is applying the following measures:

The strategy to conserve freshwater is through the optimization of water use in all sectors. To increase the supplies, research is being undertaken into new sources of water as in the artificial enrichment of ground water sources. The private sector is being included in designing (expert work), constructing and co-financing, and eventually operating the infrastructure for supply and treatment of water.

In the agricultural sector the Hydrometeorological institute performs regular monitoring of water use and emissions into land; the Institute distributes the information on the quantity and the state of surface and groundwater streams. Soil monitoring is undertaken by the Biotechnical faculty, Department of Agriculture. In the household sector, regular monitoring of water use is performed by municipalities, while in the industrial sector the monitoring is undertaken by the water users themselves.  

The Persistant Organic Pullutants that are measured in water bodies of Slovenia are: PCB, fenolic, policyclic aromatic carbohydrats, and pesticides. The standards used to measure water are as follows:

Standards for drinking water of the RS :
1) Decree on good hygienic quality of drinking water (O.J. RS, st. 46/97)
2) For quality monitoring of surface water the methodology recommended by World organizations is used.

Standards for quality of surface water:
1) Decree on classification of surface waters and coastal sea (O.J. SFRJ, st. 6/78),
2) Decree on maximum allowed concentration of radionucleotides and dangerous substances in surface waters and coastal sea (O.J. SFRJ, st.8/78),

For evaluation of organic substances in water WHO Recommendations are used. There are no quality standards for concentration of Metals in sediments, although the data from natural containing of Metals in geological bases of carbonate sediments are used.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

NGOS are participating in the process of preparing strategy and programme documents. They will also be included in the decision-making process in the future, namely on the level of river basins, where the council of interested stakeholders and other water users will be established. These councils, to be established in the 8 mayor river basin districts, will be responsible for resolution of conflicts in the field of water management.

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

The capacity for treating waste water is 190 mio m3 / year (45%). The technological needs in this area include secondary and tertiary treatment. Seventy-five percent of urban sewerage is treated pre-treatment (mechanical treatment):12%- primary treatment: 48%- secondary treatment: 15%.77% of drinking water is distributed from public networks (treated), 14% from private wells, 5% from rain water reservoirs and 4% from other sources. Approximately 47% of the total amount of piped drinking-water is used by households, 39% by industry and the manufacturing sector, while 8% are supplied to livestock farms, 5% to the tourist industry and 1% to all other purposes.

Challenges  

The major constraints faced by the Government in reaching its objectives in the water sector is the lack of appropriate institutional capacity (development of national and local institutions), and the need for additional financial sources.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation

There is a policy for floods and droughts protection and recovery actions. Slovenia, as a member of Danube convention, is also adopting the international early warning system, which is already in operation.

Slovenia has a number of bilateral agreements with neighbouring countries such as Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia regarding shared water sources. It is also party to the Convention on cooperation for the protection and sustainable use of the Danube river, the Barcelona Convention and the Convention on the protection and use of transboundary water courses and international lakes.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 June 1998.

Hydrometeorological institute, Vojkova 1b, 1000 Ljubljana
For the Hydro-Meteorological Institute within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, click here.
For physical planning within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, click here.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home|

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The body primarily responsible for the integrated spatial planning and land management is the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. The Minister is also a member of the National Committee for Sustainable Development, which was formed in 1997. Decisions concerning integrated spatial planning and land management are made by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning after consulting other ministries involved. On the local level the municipalities and urban municipalities have the authority in taking land management decisions on local matters of public interest.

Sectoral coordination on planning and management of land resources is performed at national level and local level. Important instrument of coordination is National Spatial Plan of Slovenia. On local level the State supervision of Municipal Spatial Plans is opportunity for assuring the coordination on sustainable use of natural resources.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Planning in accordance with the Law on Spatial Planning is intended to promote coordination of national and also local activities and provide a basis for decisions concerning use and conservation of resources. Most relevant national legislation consists of legislation on integrated spatial planning, environmental protection, water management, nature protection, cultural heritage, forest management and agriculture. Since 1991 all mayor sectoral Acts were adopted or at least amended. A set of new legislative documents is still in preparation and incentive actions are being carried out during the period 1996-2000. Laws and regulations will be prepared for the management of spatial development and construction (including environmental aspects); real property ownership, taxation, etc. The Government intends to:

Slovenia has tradition and experiences in integrated spatial development planning and land management. The spatial plans on national and local levels, adopted in mid 80's, are still in force. In Slovenia in 1984, as a follow-up to the first Habitat Conference (Vancouver, 1976), which focused on social policy, the Law on Regional and Spatial Planning and the Law on Urban Planning of 1967 were replaced by new legislation on the system of spatial planning which is still in force. The spatial planning system was defined in three laws: (a) the Law on Spatial Planning; (b) the Law on Management of Settlements and Other Spatial Interventions; and (c) the Law on Construction. The Law on Spatial Planning (basic spatial planning law) defines spatial planning as an activity responsible for (i) the protection and rational use of natural resources; (ii) the development of different spatial activities, and (iii) land use co-ordination.

The Environmental Protection Act adopted in 1993 defined three main environmental protection instruments to be used in spatial planning: (a) environmental vulnerability studies; (b) comprehensive assessments of environmental impact; and (c) assessments of environmental impact. According to the Act, the environmental vulnerability study at the national and municipal levels should be the basis for spatial development. The study is based on a sub-division of the national territory into ecosystem areas. The study is two-fold; it contains an environmental burden study and an environmental sensitivity study. On the basis of the environmental vulnerability study, the National Assembly or local authorities will determine the level of environmental protection that all regional development plans, sectoral natural resource management plans, and rehabilitation programmes must take into account. Every four years this level should be re-examined, and amended or supplemented if necessary. Prior to the adoption of national and local spatial planning documents, the body responsible for their preparation must obtain a licence from the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. The Ministry grants a licence on the basis of a comprehensive environmental study to the party preparing the spatial planning documents. At the moment more detailed regulations on implementation of environmental vulnerability studies and comprehensive assessments of environmental impact have not been adopted yet, although both instrument are applied within the framework of most important spatial planning activities in Slovenia. On the other hand more detailed regulations on EIA were adopted at the end of 1996.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

Most important issues related to the planning and management of land resources have been covered by the National Government. Those issues are: development of policies, policy instruments, planning system and management system; developing information systems, promotion public participation, research activities, education and training, international and regional coordination and cooperation.

The land policy continues to depend on intervention by the State in the form of spatial planning acts and administrative procedures. As a precondition for a land market, there should be a unified land information system with information on land use and owners, registration of real estate and valuation of real property for transactions and for taxation. In the absence of such legislative and organizational framework in 1993, the Constitutional Court abolished the preferential right of the local authorities to purchase land parcels. Conditions were established for trade in land, which resulted in pressure to modify local spatial plans to favor individual housing construction, at the expense of other considerations, such as preservation of agricultural land, green areas in settlements and landscape characteristics. At present, the majority of private land transactions are not appropriately taxed. Integration with the European Union will require further liberalization of transactions in real property and adaptation of the related legislation to EU standards.

The comprehensive set of national policy objectives in spatial development will be defined in the upcoming draft of the Spatial Development Policy. Among the new objectives are:

For transport, the objective is to establish a modern inter-city transport infra-structure which could promote further polycentric development. For land administration the objective is to establish a modern land information system (cadastre and land registry) as a prerequisite for responsible management of natural resources, protection of the environment, taxation, promotion of the real estate market and investments. The resolution on strategic objectives in tourism development, adopted in 1995, states that tourism development should be based not on building new facilities but on modernizing the existing tourist infrastructure.

At the regional level, the objectives are:

  1. to promote an ecological, social and economic balance between cities and countryside, by improving the connections between cities and hinterland; and
  2. to co-ordinate the development of the regional settlements structure with the development of an integrated public transport system (all forms of transport).

At the local level, the objectives are:

  1. to promote the sustainable development of urban areas by improving land use and existing built and natural environment through renewal and modernization, preserving old city centers and their cultural heritage, confining sub-urbanization, re-using degraded and using vacant urban land;
  2. to introduce mixed land use, as opposed to previous practice of city zoning, which had negative environmental, social and economic effects and caused many urban areas to lose their identity;
  3. to develop public transport and encourage bicycling and walking; limiting private car traffic and setting up car parks outside the city center;
  4. in the management of cities, to give priority to efficient use of water and of energy for heating, including the use of solar energy, and to the use of environmentally friendly materials;
  5. to see the modernization of the existing housing stock as an important part in the investment structure for the housing sector to guarantee a suitable quality of the living environment in human settlements;
  6. to promote more comprehensive integration of housing policies with regional development and spatial planning policies.

Many of the above objectives were defined some ten years ago, but few have been achieved, because of inadequate instruments and the drastic socio-economic changes of the transition period. These objectives have been slightly modified to reflect new trends, such as sustainability concerns, and presented in the National Report of Slovenia to the Habitat II Conference (Istanbul, June 1996).

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

During last few years, the participation of the public went through very creative phases and became a strong influential force in the urban and spatial decision-making process. Public participation in the planning process is much more developed in Slovenia than in other countries in transition. However, after the disintegration of the former planning system, the links between researchers, governmental bodies and communities were partly changed with regard to procedural questions (public presentation of the draft decision, participation in discussion, public hearings, announcement of final decision). The law also stipulates that a person has the right to take part in a decision on granting a license for activity (i.e. the location permit), if the activity would encroach upon his rights. In the public participation process strong influence belong to the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). About 50 -60 NGOs in Slovenia are primarily devoted to environmental issues, operating on national or local level.

Programmes and Projects   

The transition process has contributed to a steady growth in regional disparities. The redistribution mechanisms of the former system, which regulated regional development, have ceased to exist, while new ones are not yet in place. Excessive disparities in the economic, social and environmental situation of individual regions will hinder sustainable development and require an active regional policy. This is of a particular concern in certain rural areas, old industrial areas and areas dominated by large industrial plants. Most of these areas have considerable economic, social and cultural potential, which could be exploited by encouraging local development on the basis of indigenous resources. To achieve this it is necessary to promote a favorable business environment in terms of such institutions as chambers of commerce, business promotion centers, and regional development agencies. In 1995, the first regional development agency of Slovenia was established in one of the old mining regions by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The purpose of the private institution was: (a) to develop regional economic activity; (b) create and support jobs; (c) support the regional restructuring of heavy industry; (d) to provide training and advisory services.

In rural areas, a good example are the programs of comprehensive countryside development and village renovation, carried out by the Center for Countryside Development and Village Renovation within the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food since 1991. The programs are based on the concept that the countryside and villages are uniform areas where the population, through different activities, maintains and cultivates the characteristics of individual landscapes and traditions.

Status   

With the state s independence and the introduction of a new political and socio-economic system in 1991, it is recognized that the basic regulations of spatial planning adopted in 1984 should be modified to meet new realities, and should be harmonized with European Union regulations and standards. The most important issues are: 

Challenges  

After 1991, the concern about macro-economic performance as well as the shift away from some social values led to stagnation in the quality of life and the development of human settlements. The growing social polarization and income differentiation are the major driving forces behind the process of unregulated spatial restructuring, which could result in social segregation, unbalanced regional development and deterioration of many urban and rural areas. During the transition, many problems surfaced, such as land speculation, unauthorized construction, underdevelopment of real estate market and taxation system, and the lack of investment. It is expected that in Slovenia, problems will grow considerably in old industrial and mining areas, which often characterize depressed regions with contaminated land. In the future, these areas could create greater and more specific problems than the underdeveloped and demographic problem areas in general.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

During the last few years the Land Cover GIS inventories were used in our country, derived from the satellite-scanned data (Source: Land cover GIS, Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia, 1997 and CORINE Land Cover Slovenia, Phare Programme, 1998). The establishment of sectoral inventories and information systems, according to the sectoral laws and regulations is currently undertaken. The exchange of information during the planning process (integrated planning process) becomes a very important part of the planning process (transparency of information) via the Internet.

The establishment of the land information system including the modernization of the land cadaster, registration of buildings and land registration is an urgent activity being implemented and expected to go on in the next few years.  The activity in establishing the indicators on environment and development for Slovenia, and the redefinition of existing spatial indicators are also being implemented. The promotion of the Spatial Plan of Slovenia can be accessed via the Internet on the home page of the National Spatial Planning Office. Also, promotion of the land-use plans at the local level is becoming very important, by providing information about existing plans and evaluation future changes on land-use.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation

No information available.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home|

MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Slovenian Parliament is responsible for decision-making in a national context. It is supported by a Permanent Committee, Working Groups on Protocols, and the Alpine Observation and Information System (SOIA). The main working areas are: population and culture, physical planning, preservation of fresh air, soil conservation, water management, nature conservation and landscape planning, mountain farming, mountain forest, tourism and free-time activities, traffic, energy, and waste management. Up to 3 persons within the Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning work permanently on the Alpine Convention. Employees from other Ministries contribute to specific working subjects or sectors.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

No information available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation

In November 1991, the countries sharing the Alps (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Switzerland, Slovenia) and the European Community signed the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention). This Convention represents a binding intergovernmental agreement to ensure the above countries establish common policies for the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine massif. Under the Convention, signed protocols have been developed to support sustainable mountain development in the following areas: Physical Planning and Sustainable Development; Nature Protection and the Conservation of Landscape; Mountain Farming; and Mountain Forests. The Ministerial "Alpine" Conference is the main decision-making structure for the Convention countries. Slovenia is the Chairing State for 1995 to 1997.

The international cooperation under the Convention is supported by several participating observers (NGOs, trans-national or regional associations, etc.).

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and Ministry of Economic Relations and Development are responsible for integrated coastal zone management.  In addition, the Ministries of: Environment and Physical planning; Defence (Civil Protection); and Transport and Communication (Maritime Directorate) are responsible for Marine environmental protection. Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources is dealt with in the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food.

An inter-ministerial body is being established, with following members, to steer sustainable development in coastal region and it includes the Ministries of: Environment and Physical planning; Economic Relations and Development;  Agriculture, Forestry and Food; Governmental Office of European Affairs; Local Communities; and Regional Chamber of Commerce. There is an Inter-ministerial Agreement on Co-operation concerning Protection, Rescue in cases of Emergency during Accidents due to Dangerous Substances. Slovenia also has an Advisory Board concerning the Barcelona Convention Informal Co-ordination.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Regarding the size of Slovenian part of the Adriatic, there are precise regulations on fishing on national level including limitations on fishing practices, gears, fishing locations, timing, and permissible fish size. All these aim to encourage sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources.  Fragile ecosystems in Slovenia include Posidonia oceanografica seagrass. Creation and adoption of regulative acts concerning protected areas (national parks, monuments and reserves) are in process. Slovenia is also developing management plans for protected areas.

Under the Slovenian Environment Protection Act, prior assessment of major activities with potentially significant adverse impact on the marine environment and the living standards of coastal population is mandatory for any proposed new development. In order to strengthen marine environmental protection, charges for water pollution have been introduced.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

Regarding the fact, that Slovenian coastal area is relatively small, the national policy on oceans is integrated in general national strategies and programmes, such as in the National Environmental Action Programme that was adopted by the Slovenian Government in December 1998. The document includes a special paragraph, related to the Slovenian coastal zone as sensitive area. The paragraph tackles primarily with the problem of co-operation between administrations on national and local level, calling for permanent institutional arrangement. Water protection, marine environmental protection sustainable use of resources, solid waste treatment, and nature protection are included in other paragraphs of National Environmental Action Programme.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

The private sector and small-scale fishermen, are ad hoc participants in national processes at both national and local levels.  Representatives of local authorities, business and industry (Regional Chamber of Commerce) are members of Steering Committee and Co-ordinating Group of Slovenian Coastal Zone Management Project. Scientific and technological community and Representatives of Agriculture are involved in sectoral group work within the framework of the project.

Programmes and Projects   

The integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is under implementation. Slovenian Coastal Zone Management Project is being upgraded into permanent activity concerning development, environmental protection and natural resource protection on Slovenian coastal zone. The Municipality of Koper, for example, is administrating planned land use, protected areas, and infrastructure for integrated coastal management purposes.

In addition to the National Environmental Action Programme, the following programmes are related to marine environment protection from both land-based and sea-based activities: National Programme of Action for the Protection of Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (in development), National Monitoring Programme for the Monitoring of Marine Environment, and National Intervention Plan in an Event of Pollution at Sea.

Major projects and activities related to sustainable development of marine and coastal areas in Slovenia include:

Status   

The major current uses of the coastal areas are:

The primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment are municipal waste waters, industrial effluents from metal manufacturing, lacquering, electroplating, food industry and non-point sources (agriculture and atmosphere).  The Slovenian Government promotes the primary treatment of municipal sewage discharged to rivers, and supports the establishment and improvement of regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge. However, sewage treatment facilities remain unfinished (under construction) due to a lack of funds, although efforts to resolve this issue are being initiated in some old municipals such as Koper, Izola, and Piran.

The primary sources of sea-based pollution of the marine environment are the harbour of Koper and marinas.  The Slovenian Government has appointed inspectors for the environment to identify major types of pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources through the chemical and biological analysis of water. Nevertheless, there are technology constraints hampering the identification of major types of pollution.

The impact of shipping on the sustainable management of coastal zones include light pollution by hydrocarbons, dredging and dumping for waterways (impact unknown), and potential introduction of alien species. Other coastal- and marine-based industries have great impact on reduction on natural coastline. They also cause local pollution problems, urban sprawl, traffic jams and degradation of landscape values.

Slovenian coast is naturally sensitive area thus the transboundary impacts are significant. The town of Triest has 300.000 inhabitants and mechanical, chemical, and food industry. Some 40 million tonnes cargo per year is handled through the port of Triest.  The percentage of the economy contributed by fishing is small. Total fish catch (including cephalopods and mussels) was 1,991 tonnes in 1995, and the total volume of mariculture was 64 tonnes.  The international Code of Conduct of Responsible Fishing will be incorporated in the ICZM programme of the Slovenian coastal region.

Challenges  

The priority constraints to implementing effective programmes include the lack of permanent co-ordinating mechanisms between local communities, central government and its agencies, business sector and civil society organisations, and the lack of integrated strategy for sustainable development of the Slovenian coastal zone. These constrains are, nevertheless, being tackled in the Slovenian Coastal Zone Management Project framework.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

A training course on Integrated Coastal Zone Management as an Instrument for Sustainable Development was organised in 1998. Participants included regional policy makers, civil servants and enterprises.  Awareness raising campaigns on sustainable development and oceans and seas include:

Information   

Following kinds of national information is available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in coastal areas related to the following areas: fishery and mariculture statistics, data from the monitoring of marine pollution, data on mineral resources (data base at the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Directorate for Mineral Resources), and data from regional prediction for sea-level rise (high tides is among the critical uncertainties).

The databases cover natural resources, cultural and socio-economic characteristics, activities and uses, habitats, protected areas, and sea grass beds in coastal zones. Marine degradation caused by land- and sea-based activities, estuaries, wetlands, and spawning and nursery areas are not inventoried. Only limited but regular assessments are made of the state of the environment of coastal and marine areas due to limited finances. Nevertheless, Slovenia is able to measure improvements and changes to the coastal and marine environment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used by the Hydro-meteorological Institute in Ljubljana and in Municipality of Koper.  The information is made available through brochures and reports such as Annual Statistical Review and Report on the Environment. More information can be found from:  Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning; Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia; and Hydro-meteorological Institute.  The coordination of national and regional observation programmes and the provision of forecasts need improvement.  The Slovenian Government participates in the development of socio-economic and environmental indicators, systematic observation systems, and mussel watch programmes.

Research and Technologies   

The determining factors for decision-making in the choice of technologies are related to technical regulations and standards, which are being harmonised with those of the EU.

Financing   

This sector is financed through the national budget, local community budget and by external assistance (EU funds, bilateral technical co-operation).  External funding support is received for the regional coastal water supply (Rizana Waterworks). In addition, the World Bank supports the Primoska Regional Water Supply.

Cooperation

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1995. With respect to marine environmental protection, Slovenia reported in 1997 that it finds the Barcelona and Marpol Conventions difficult to implement. 

Slovenia undergoes the process of accession to European Union. In this process Slovenia has adopted National Programme for the Adaption of the Acquis Communitaire (NPAA) which includes, inter alia, all EU environmental legislation, i.e. also those related to marine affairs and fisheries.

Slovenia is a Party to the following agreements:

Regional and sub-regional agreements:

Slovenia participates in the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Seas Programme for the Mediterranean (MEDPOL), the Fourth Framework Programme of the European Union on "Environment," and in the Alpine Observation of the Northern Adriatic (Adria) programme.

Other bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation includes:

Future international cooperation is needed to handle the transboundary effects of North Adriatic Ports and Navigation Lines, the regular disposal of waste from ships in the port of Koper, and the regular patrol of the Slovenian coast by an ecological boat.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 1999.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of the Environment, customs office, and the police have primary responsibilities for environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals. There is an official register of chemicals which are on market. This is in the form of an interactive computerized data bank, which is constantly up-dated. There is also an inventory of potentially toxic chemicals which are imported, and a register of pesticides on the domestic market (produced, imported and in use). Registration of household products, which contain potentially toxic substances began in 1996. This will be completed on a step-by-step basis, with the first step covering household insecticides.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home|

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

In July, 1996, the Government adopted a waste management strategy based on the Strategic Plan for Slovenia. This strategy is presently being implemented through the preparation of strategy papers at the national level by the Ministry of the Environment, and through the developments of local environmental action programs at the municipal level. A major role is played by state and local administrations, the Chamber of Commerce (which has established a special working group for waste management), industry, and environmental NGOs. The strategy is guided by waste management aspects of the European Union's Fifth Action Program for the Environment and the European Community.

The "polluter pays" principle is broadly applied within Slovenia. However, the prices in this field are relatively non-adjustable. Final adjustment to this principle is foreseen over a 5 - 10 year period.

Cooperation  

Exchange of information on waste management is regular practice with several countries. Occasionally there are an exchange of experts and other forms of cooperation to meet specific needs. Several experts participate in international educational programs, and some are recipients of scholarships from abroad.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal was ratified in 1992. The Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Economic Activities, the Chamber of Commerce, industry, and NGOs represent the major groups involved in hazardous waste management. In Slovenia, the survey and control of industrial waste is obligatory.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Capacity-building takes place through regular and active participation in the workshops convened under the Basel convention. Major international cooperation for hazardous wastes is established with neighboring countries; however, several other links also exist.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

Radioactive Waste

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The strategies in the field of nuclear waste management are approved by the national government. According to national legislation, the safe management of radioactive wastes is the responsibility of the operators of the nuclear installations. The operators are controlled by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Some specific nuclear waste matters are also the responsibility of the Ministries of: Health (Health Inspectorate); Defense (Administration for the Civil Defense and Rescue); and Interior. The Agency for Radioactive Waste Management was established by the government for the post operational management of spent fuel. This Agency is primarily responsible for the safe handling and management of the radioactive wastes after they are discharged from nuclear and other facilities.

Two significant documents on high level radioactive management were approved by the Slovenian Government in 1996: The Strategy on Spent Fuel Management and the Decommissioning Plan for the NPP Krsko facility. Both documents are to be revised every 3-5 years.  The final decision on the strategy for permanent nuclear spent fuel disposal and selection of site for this facility will be accepted in Slovenia by the year 2020. The options are the construction of repositories in Slovenia and/or Croatia. The disposal of the nuclear waste in other countries will also be considered. It is proposed to find the final solution to this problem by the year 2050.

The decision on long term spent fuel management is deferred. The decision whether to reprocess the spent fuel or to dispose it in a final repository has been postponed for several decades. In the interim, problems related to spent fuel management will be solved by the use or expansion of existing storage capacities, and the provision of additional capacities for intermediate storage. Problems will be solved for the NPP Krsko and RR TRIGA Mark II facilities separately.

The following is a listing of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste sites in Slovenia:  NPP Krsko: two-loop pressurized water reactor; installed power: 632 MW; start-up: 1981; supplier: Westinghouse Electric, USA; spent fuel storage capacity: 828 fuel assemblies; status: 442 fuel assemblies stored (as of 31 December 1995); intermediate-level waste storage capacity: 2240 m3; status: 1900 m3 occupied (as of 24 May 1996).

Reactor Center of the Institute Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana: wimming pool research reactor TRIGA Mark II; thermal power (steady): 250 kW; thermal power (pulse): 1800 MW; start-up: 1966; supplier: General Atomics, USA; spent fuel storage for TRIGA fuel capacity: 1000 fuel assemblies; status: 193 fuel assemblies stored (as of 31 December 1995); interim storage of low- and intermediate-level waste from medicine, industry and research organizations; capacity: 800 m3; status: 31 m3 occupied (as of 31 December 1995).

Zirovski Vrh Mine, Gorenja vas: (Uranium mine under decommissioning); in operation:1985-1990; lifetime production: 607,700 tons of ore, 452.5 tons (Uranium equivalent) of yellow cake; surface storage of 1,548,000 tons of mine waste, ore waste, and red mud; surface storage of 593,000 tons of mill tailings.  Zavratec by Idrija: temporary low- and intermediate-level non-licensed waste storage, containing 14 m3 of materials contaminated with 10 mCi of Radium-226. Planned to be relocated to interim storage next year.

Research and Technologies   

Research reactor TRIGA Mark II: In the Research Reactor Center there are two pools for the spent fuel. The capacities are sufficient to accommodate all spent fuel through the life span of the research reactor. The negotiations for the return of the spent fuel to the country of origin are nearly complete. Consequently, it is expected that part of the spent fuel will be re-exported into the USA in 1997. 

The radioactive waste generated in nuclear installations and other facilities in Slovenia are stored at the sites. The only exception are interim storage of low and intermediate-level waste from medicine, industry and research organizations, and the Zavratec by Idrija facility which is being relocated to the Institute Jozef Stefan.

Financing   

The financing of radioactive waste management in nuclear and other facilities is included in the costs of operation. Safe radioactive waste management is financed by the government following the cessation of operation or when the radioactive wastes are discharged from nuclear and other facilities. The only exception is the future decommissioning of the NPP Krsko facility where funds needed are collected through special additional costs, assessed to be 0.61 SIT per kWh, and added to the tariffs for the electricity generated.

Cooperation  

Slovenia, as part of the former Yugoslavia, initiated international agreements with Italy, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, and Poland. These agreement cover cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. After its independence, Slovenia has concluded additional agreements in the field of nuclear related matters with Hungary, Canada, Austria, and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, Energy Department, Ministry of Economic Affairs, click here.
For the Nuclear Safety Administration of the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, click here.


| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Slovenia | All Countries | Home |