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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVENIA

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Sustainable consumption and production patterns are dealt with in the Ministries of: Environment and Physical Planning; Economic Affairs - Agency for Rational Use of Energy; and Tourism and Small Enterprise. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Transport and Communications are also involved in resolving these issues. Slovenia also has an Office for Consumers Protection dealing with protection of consumer rights. At the local level, the municipalities are responsible for sustainable consumption and production issues.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

By signing the European Agreement, Slovenia accepted the foundations of the environmental protection policy of the EU, and committed itself to establish instruments for its enforcement. This demands active monitoring of the adoption of new environmental protection requirements within the EU and the incorporation of these requirements into the Slovene legal system. It also requires upgrading of the institutional system for putting these requirements into practice.

Promotion of sustainable consumption and production is partly included in the Environmental Protection Act (Official Gazette RS, N. 32/93, 1/96) that has different regulations on air, water, soil and nature protection. It is also included in National Environment Protection Programme (Official Gazette RS, N. 83/99).

New legislation has been introduced in the field of ozone depleting substances, the Basel Convention regulation on the movement of waste, and radiation issues, in response to the possible negative impacts of trade on environment.  Specific legislation or regulation as an inducement to foreign direct investment has not yet been approved at the time being.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

There is no national strategy for sustainable consumption or production patterns. These measures are included in the National Environment Protection Programme, which was adopted by The National Assembly in 1999 (Official Gazette RS, N. 83/99).

Sustainable patterns of production and consumption are also incorporated in the Waste Management Strategy, Energy Strategy (efficient energy use) and Resolution on Strategic Goals in Tourism. These strategies cover increasing energy and material efficiency in production processes; reducing wastes from production and promoting recycling; promoting use of new and renewable sources of energy; using environmentally sound technologies for sustainable production; reducing wasteful consumption; and increasing awareness for sustainable consumption.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

Changes in consumption and production patterns are considered under the auspices of the governmental Council of Sustainable Development, formed in September 1997 (Official Gazette RS, N. 59/97). It is a consultative body to the Government of the Republic of Slovenia with the following tasks:

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

Slovenia as a relatively small country can develop successfully only as an open, outward-oriented economy. This implies not only the growing importance of international trade in goods and services but also the comprehensive internationalization of the Slovene economy. With its development pattern and its economic and legal systems, Slovenia is speeding its adjustment to developed countries, endeavoring to join the European Union on an equal footing with other aspiring countries in order to achieve more rapid economic growth and to catch up with developed European countries. The European integration processes of Slovenia is determined by developmental, civilizational and cultural patterns, as well as by its history and tradition.

Enterprises that have not managed to comply with the international market demands have either ruined or are being reconstructed. Consequently, unemployment increased and social purse had to defray the cost. Poverty in its literal meaning is not observed. There is, however, a certain part of population that lives hard; the state relief fund is relatively efficient for the present. Successful parts of industrial production follow the international course (with certain delay). There is a tendency of development and creation of new jobs in the sphere of small and medium business.

In many enterprises money invested in everyday environment protection is still considered as redundant costs instead of a long-term investment for better future state in the free market. Systematic care for environment is characteristic in companies that are pressed to compete for the international market share. Due to the export oriented industry the number of such firms has been increased.

Challenges  

The environment pollution from industrial sector is still substantial in Slovenia. Pollution is attributed to the noxious substances and energy emissions, accident risks and consequences of the use of natural resources. Such industrial activity in Slovenia is related to thermo-power plants, metallurgy, and the chemical and cellulose and paper industries. There is no national strategy for ecological sustainable industrial development except the guidelines described in National Environment Protection Programme (Official Gazette RS, N. 83/99).

In spite of the relatively out-of-date technology in comparison with the modern industrial countries the situation has improved in the last years. Decrease of industrial production and structural changes contributed mostly to the improvements of the situation. Construction of purifying plants and introduction of modern, environmentally sound technologies have not played significant role.

Slovenia abandoned all underground mineral mines. There are only two brown coal and one lignite mines left. There are still many surface mining sites that degrade environment.  No major changes have been recorded in recent years of local or national environmental problems due to export-induced increases in production.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

Information related to trade, investment and economic growth is available through several sources. Potential users can be provided with paper and electronic publications and reports made by governmental bodies, NGOs, independent institutes and other organizations. Corresponding information can be easily accessed via the Internet. Below is the list of major data sources on the Internet:

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

No information available.

Cooperation

As far as regards the questions related to the sustainable development, Slovenia’s problems and tasks are to some extent similar to those in neighboring and other nearby countries, and to some extent a reflection of the country’s own special features and its political and economic heritage. Slovenia is involved into the wide-spread and rich cooperation in several fields in specific regions, topics and projects. Danube River Basin, Adriatic Sea, and the Alps are only some of the geographical frames for such cooperation.

Slovenia had requested full membership in the OECD. In order to ensure the maximum advantage of the opportunity to include Slovene representatives in the activity of the working groups of the OECD’s Environment Policy Committee, the request for the status as an observer in EPOC has been deposited, as well. In a few years, Slovenia will have concluded its period of transition into the group of developed countries. The contribution to the second replenishment of the GEF Trust Fund in 1998 was one of the steps which will gradually place Slovenia alongside other developed countries in the international community and in this way promote it as a competent partner in the process of ensuring sustainable development in the world.

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

For the Ministry of Economic Relations and Development, click here.
For Exports and Imports, click here.

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TRADE

No information available.

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

For the Ministry of Economic Relations and Development, click here.
For Exports and Imports, click here.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Sustainable consumption and production patterns are dealt with in the Ministries of: the Environment and Physical Planning; Economic Affairs - Agency for Rational Use of Energy; and Tourism and Small Enterprise. Slovenia also has an Office for Consumers Protection dealing with protection of consumer rights and. An overall sustainable development body, the governmental Council of Sustainable Development is being formed.  At the local level, the municipalities are responsible for sustainable consumption and production issues.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Promotion of sustainable consumption and production is partly is included in the Environmental Protection Act that has different regulations on air, water, soil and nature protection. Some of these are in preparation phase.  Some industrial companies have established Environmental Management System (EMS). Nine companies have got certificates of conformity to the ISO 14001 standard already. Many firms have planned to implement this system. The implementation of EMS system and use of environmental standards are voluntary actions of industry.

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia promotes the environmental principles of the Business Charter for Sustainable Development. The Standards and Metrology Institution of Slovenia has technical committees dealing with standards on environmental issues. A series of EN and ISO standards is already adopted as Slovene standards. Representatives of industry take part to these committees.

Guidelines for consumers have been issued by local authorities, municipalities, especially for household waste management. The guidelines for energy saving and conservation have been established by Ministry of Economic Affairs and some other guidelines or recommendations have come from different industrial sectors at Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia.  Brochures such as "Green consumer, Ecology at homee" with guidelines for consumer behavior, to save natural resources were issued by and NGO Consumer association.

In January 1997 the Government passed the Carbon Dioxide Emission Tax reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the use of non-renewable natural resources. The CO2 tax is an indirect taxation of the consumption of fossil fuels and the burning of flammable burning organic material, except for wood used for heating, fuels made from biomass and use of biogas which is generated in cleaning equipment or at waste dumping sites.

With this new regulation the users of liquid, gaseous and solid fuels for heating, turbines and motor vehicles will be taxed relative to the amount of CO2 released in the burning process. Revenues from this new tax will be used to fund national environmental projects in particular the improvement of cleaner fuel production. Increase in fuel prices due to CO2 tax is expected to reduce fuel consumption, which is rather high in Slovenia, and stimulate shift towards less carbon containing fuels. Still reduction is not likely to be substantial, given the small increase of the overall price.

In 1995, a regulation introducing a wastewater tax was adopted. The tax is proportional to the pollution loads of the wastewater. It is set to cover both investment and operating costs for a technology-reducing pollution loads of effluents to permitted levels. Charges for water use are depending upon type of usage. The objective of levying these charges is to encourage efficiency in water use. These charges can be considered as a first step to tax resources and thus increase the efficiency of their use.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

There is no national strategy for sustainable consumption or production patterns. These measures are included in the National Environmental Action Programme (NEAP), which was adopted by the Slovenian Government in 1998.  Sustainable patterns of production and consumption are also incorporated in the Waste Management Strategy, Energy Strategy (efficient energy use) and Resolution on Strategic Goals in Tourism.  These strategies cover increasing energy and material efficiency in production processes; reducing wastes from production and promoting recycling; promoting use of new and renewable sources of energy; using environmentally sound technologies for sustainable production; reducing wasteful consumption; and increasing awareness for sustainable consumption.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

Business and industry, scientific community and NGOs were involved in preparation of the National Environmental Action Programme.  NGOs participated in a public tender for co-financing projects for non-governmental organisations with subject of changing consumption patterns.

Programmes and Projects   

Examples of projects and activities that have had significant impacts in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns include:

A pilot project on adoption of EMS and another on eco labelling was carried out some years ago.

The project on phasing out ozone depleting substances has just been finished. The project on recovery and reclamation of ozone depleting refrigerants is under way.

A research project on packaging waste management is planned for next year (in frame of DISAE 110 programme) where industry will take advisory and attending role.

The Energy Advising Network for house holds project was initiated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. Its aim is to encourage the effective use of energy and thus to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to decrease the emissions of harmful substances into the air at the same time. In order to achieve this goal, an energy advising network throughout Slovenia was developed. At present, there are 23 energy advising offices where citizens are given advises in this respect free of charge. The main task of this project is to advise people of energy efficiency use and possible energy savings in households. There is a big response of the consumers to this action, especially because subvention for energy efficiency measures in households are produced. By means of this project a very good co-operation with the municipalities has been established.

The project includes following activities:

Results achieved in 1996:

Projects of the Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning:

Project of the Ministry for Economic Affairs (energy) - Development of a Concept for Heating, in cooperation with some Municipalities.

Project of the ECO-found (Environmental Development Found of the Republic of Slovenia) - Promotion of using friendly renewable sources of energy use for individuals and enterprise.

Status 

The efficiency in the usage of energy and water and their usage trend is shown in the following tables:

Usage of final energy (TFC) per capita

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
TFC/cap.(GJ/cap) 85 80 75 77 78 83 90

Usage of final energy (TFC) per GDP

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
TFC/BDP 232 238 236 240 218 234  

Energy efficiency

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
TFC/TPES 0.680 0.683 0.680 0.665 0.680 0.649 0.672

Source: Energy Institute

Water use (million m3 per year)

  1980 1985 1990 1994 1995
Surface water          
Public water supply (with springs) 104.9 123.5 129.9 119 121.5
manufacturing industry 104 65 77 47 50.1
agriculture 0.2 3.9 2.9 3.2 4.5
TOTAL surface water without electricity production 209.1 192.4 209.8 169.2 176.1
electricity production 65942 66210 59461 65087 61242
           
Groundwater          
Public water supply 99 121 132 147 138
electricity production 19 15 1 6 0.3
manufacturing industry 42 39 32 23 21
agriculture 0 0 1 0.2 0.3
TOTAL Groundwater 160 176 166 153.2 159.6

Source: Statistical office of Republic of Slovenia

Challenges  

The major constraint to implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production is that the Ministry of the Environment does not have enough employees. It also has a very limited budget to plan and implement such programmes.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning with the Nature Protection Authority and Ministry for Economic Affairs with its Agency for Rational Use of Energy carry out different education ands awareness raising programmes. Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia also organise workshops, conferences, public discussions, working groups and press conferences, often in cooperation with the Ministry of the Environment. NGOs, university, institutes and Slovene Consumer’s Association carry out many relevant programs, too.  Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning is running the first communication campaign on household waste management.  There is an arrangement with the national television on making common programme within the current communication campaign on household waste management.

Information   

To assist both decision-makers and industry managers to plan and implement appropriate policies and programmes Slovenia has publications, which have information concerning the environment:

Click here to access the Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning

Slovenia has selected some indicators related to consumption and production patterns, but they are still in developing phase.

Research and Technologies   

Usually industries on environmentally sound technologies promote themselves with different representations such as workshops, seminars, fairs and publications.  Activities in the framework of Technology Development Department at Chamber of Commerce and Industry include:

Financing   

Activities on changing consumption and production patterns are mainly financed by the national budget and to small extent by the private sector.

Cooperation  

No information available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 1999.

For the Office for Consumer Protection, click here.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

In recent years, a number of economic instruments aimed at environmental protection have been adopted. Till recently some of them have been introduced, specially waste water charge and CO2 tax. In the near future, Slovenia plans to introduce more modern mechanisms, primarily economic instruments for financing environmental protection. This is an active area being conducted in accordance with European Union guidelines. A landfill tax is planned to be introduced in mid 2000.

In January 1997 the Government passed the Carbon Dioxide Emission Tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the use of non-renewable natural resources. The CO2 tax is an indirect taxation of the consumption of fossil fuels and the burning of flammable burning organic materials, except for: wood used for heating, fuels made from biomass, use of biogas which is generated in cleaning equipment or at waste dumping sites.

With this new regulation the users of liquid, gaseous and solid fuels for heating, turbines and motor vehicles will be taxed relative to the amount of CO2 released in the burning process. Revenues from this new tax will be used to fund national environmental projects in particular, the improvement of cleaner fuel production.

The amount levied is based on the level of carbon in certain fuels. The current tax per kilogram of emitted CO2 is about 2% of the fuel sales price and it will be introduced gradually. It is in force for all liquid fuels, but for coal used for electricity production taxation will take effect on January 1, 2004. For the incineration of organic compounds, it came into force as of January 1, 1998.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

Subsidies to environmental infrastructure projects are in line with sustainable development guidelines and the European legislation directives.  Policies are in preparation to make foreign direct investment (FDI) more environmentally friendly.  As laid down in the Act on Environment protection anyone who causes any type of pollution of the environment has to cover all the costs of environmental cleanup; meaning that this regulation brings forward the Polluter Pays Principle. The environmental protection costs include regular costs of environmental protection, the costs of compensation for the devaluation of the environment and costs of health damages. The law also allows introduction of environmental taxes and charges and refunds at the local level.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

No information available.

Programmes and Projects   

In May 1999, the Ministry for Environment prepared the National Programme for Adoption of the Acquis for next medium term, in line with Agenda 2000. It includes implementation plans on the basis of EU directives in the field of environment and is based on a directive specific legal, institutional and financial analysis. Identified are first assumptions of funding needed for implementation of Investments Heavy Directives such as Urban Waste Water directive, Framework Air directive and other daughter directives as well as Landfill and IPPC directive.

Status   

Implementation actions to meet objectives laid down in the National Environmental Action Plan (which has been adopted by the Slovene Parliament in September 1999) pointed out 250 MEUR (50 billion Slovene tolars) costs of implementing EU legislation needed yearly up to 2003. Starting with the phase of EU legislation transposition, Slovenia is entering into the phase of implementation of EU legislation. To meet these requirements huge financing sources will be needed: first estimation indicated that 2,7 BEUR is needed in order to completely implement Environmental Acquis. The figure represents nearly 1,5 % yearly Slovene GDP, which calls for huge increase of funding needed as currently expenditures to environmental sector in Slovenia are estimated at less than 0,5 % Slovene GDP. Out of that more than 45 % is needed in water sector and 35 % in waste sector. On top of that, 80 % of implementation lies within the responsibility of the public sector; but in water sector 70 % of total investments refer to municipal investments.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information 

Information related to financing sustainable development is made available to potential users via the Internet at http://sigov2.sigov.si/mop/index/htm and www.ekosklad.si

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

The following sources of funding for the implementation of programmes and investments to meet objectives laid down in National Environmental Action Plan can be foreseen at present:

Cooperation

EU grant sources:

* * * 

 This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

For the Ministry of Economic Relations and Development, click here.
For the National Development Fund, click here.
For information on participating States in the Global Environment Fund, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally-Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Within the framework of the Environment for Europe process, Slovenia has commenced activities to establish a Clean Environmental Center. The Center supports restructuring the economy towards an environmentally sound orientation, including the interrelationship between long-term resource reservations and burdens on the environment. In addition, Slovenia has developed a network for an environmental information system.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

There are a number of incentives to encourage the use of ESTs such as:

Existing legislation to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) is compatible with EU regulations, but not especially with a view to promoting investments related to the transfer of ESTs. ESTs are most urgently needed in the thermo power plants, metallurgy, textile and leather industries and for waste management;

There are technology fairs every two years in Slovenia which bring together stakeholders so as to promote and improve the selection and transfer of ESTs. This is also done through the Agency for the Effective use of Energy (renewable and alternative sources of energy).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

No information available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information available.

Status   

No information available.

Challenges  

No information available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information available.

Information   

No information available.

Research and Technologies   

No information available.

Financing   

An investment co-financing scheme is being developed under the EcoFund to support the implementation of the NEAP and the accession process. Phare co-financing will focus on the industrial/corporate sector and will, therefore, allow the EcoFund to increase its exposure in this sector by financing projects identified as NEAP priorities. An initial 5 Million ECU are foreseen for investment support; with a first tranche of 2.5 Million ECU released in 1997, and the second tranche to be released in 1998 conditional on the successful implementation of the initial tranche. In addition, loans are granted under an Environmental Protection Development Fund to support environmentally-sound technology transfer.

There are yearly tenders of the Ministry of Science and Technology for research in the field of Environment. There are also grants for participation of inventors in fairs. There are policies to promote environmentally sound farming and for the sustainable exploitation of forests.

Cooperation

No information available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 June 1998.

 

Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

Currently, biotechnology legislation is being prepared and is in first draft. The law of genetic technology will regulate the legal and ethical use of recombinant DNA technology in Slovenia. It will cover health care, agro- and food technology, and environmental aspects, together with the scientific use of biotechnology. The law will also provide measures related to ecological accidents, trade, fields experiments, and the manipulation and use of genetically modified organisms.

The law will regulate the use of genetically modified organisms in a liberal way, not to obstruct development. At the same time, the law will prevent experiments (genetic diagnostic; genetic manipulation with various materials, both plants, animals) which pose potential danger for humans and the environment. The draft law has been prepared in accordance with the Directives and Standards established by the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The principal threats to human health or the sustainable use of natural resources associated with industrial activity in Slovenia are related to thermo power plants, metallurgy, and the chemical and cellulose and paper industries. There is, however, no national policy or strategy for ecologically sustainable industrial development as yet, only a description of the situation in National environmental programme (NEP).  The issue of "industrial pollution control," including the "management of toxic and other hazardous waste," is under consideration by the Slovenian Government.

In the energy- transport-environment interface, there are selective and limited ad hoc observations; with continuous measurements of SO2 and NOx particles in thermal power plants, some ad hoc measurements in industry, and yearly vehicle inspections. For energy production, use of safe technologies, research and development on appropriate methodologies, rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, development of new and renewable energy systems, and awareness-raising related to energy and fuel efficiency all have very high priority. Medium priority areas for protecting the atmosphere include research and development on appropriate methodologies in industry, environmental impact assessment (EIA) within the energy production sector, EIA within industry as a whole, and environmental audits.

The Slovenian Government encourages industry to develop safe technologies by granting loans from the ECO Fund. Two projects are under consideration: a) reduction of air pollution for Slovenia as a whole (Phare Subvention 400,000 ECU and Credit from the World Bank US$23,8 million); and b) the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting substances (Global Environment Fund US$6,2 million).

Industry uses only ca 40 % of freshwater, so water supply is not a constraint to industrial development. Pollution of freshwater is one of the main problems, however.

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 June 1998.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The Government promotes policies and programmes in the field of "environmentally sound and efficient transportation." In order to have a less polluting and safer transport system; transportation technologies, impacts on the environment, and safety have been addressed comprehensively; while relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, and the establishment of mass transit systems have been partly addressed. Since 1992, 50 regulations have been adopted by the Ministry of Transport.

In the energy-transport-environment interface, there are some ad hoc measurements in industry, and yearly vehicle inspections. Use of safe transportation technologies has a high priority. Research and development for appropriate transport methodologies has low priority.

Status   

In comparison with other countries of the region, Slovenia rates its current transportation system "superior" in terms of transportation technologies; "equal" in terms of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative systems, the establishment of mass transit systems, and environmental quality; and "inferior" in terms of safety. The Slovenian Government has not taken any initiatives under the framework of the United Nations to convene regional conferences on transport and the environment.

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This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning and Ministry of small enterprises and tourism are the responsible bodies for sustainable tourism in Slovenia. At the local level, the Municipalities are responsible.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

The following instruments seek to ensure sustainable tourism:

The conditions for any physical development of tourism industry are designed by laws or local and national plans (mandatory). The tourism industry is aware that the competitiveness of tourist products and offers bases on sustainability .The quality and competitiveness of the Slovenian tourist products, are adequately understood with the promotional logo and the slogan: "Slovenia, the green piece of Europe" (voluntary).  These are understood as a consumer protection, as a modern approach to the tourist markets.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The Tourism Development Strategy was adopted in Parliament in 1995, and it bases on sustainable development approach. The Long Term Spatial Plan of the Republic in Slovenia was adopted in 1986 and modified in 1989.  The main objectives of the Tourism Development Strategy are:

The development of tourism towards sustainability is monitored by the provisions of the relevant legislation.  Deterrents exist to check, control and penalise damaging environmental practices on the part of business.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement   

Programmes and Projects   

Campaigns to promote sustainable tourist products and Promotional activities of civil associations.

Status   

Tourism is important for the Slovenian economy. It provides employment (employment rate 6 %); and it represents 3 % of the GDP. It also povides benefits in terms of budget, commerce and life quality.

Tourism sector has grown in Slovenia approximately over the past ten years from 2.6 – 3.5 % of the GDP.

Tourism is seen important for evaluating cultural heritage, life quality, social or human relations. All the products are integrated in sustainable tourism, meaning the natural or urban areas. But there are also protected areas (national and regional parks).

Challenges  

The major constraints to pursuing sustainable tourism are globalisation of tourist products and growing traffic.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The training programs on sustainable tourism are an integrative part of education, which is obligatory for the personnel in hotel industry and tourist agencies. Other training is organised by Local tourist organisations, designing a tourist offer.  The following awareness campaigns on sustainable tourism are directed to consumers:

Tourist satisfaction is measured by standardised questionnaire at the national level. Hotels and information offices measure the satisfaction of particular services. Both questionnaires include questions about sustainability.  There are brochures that promote "living with the nature and culture" ideology and are directed to specifically attracting environmentally conscious tourists.

Information   

Decision-makers have access to all the information in tourism promotional brochures and to all material to promote national measures and laws.  Mapping and inventorying of natural resources and ecosystem characteristics has carried out for all the country, not only for tourist areas. More information on sustainable tourism in Slovenia can be found in Slovenian Tourist Board.  The following issues, among others, are measured in Slovenia (indicators): waters, spa waters, climate, traffic pollution and limits of chemical product in agriculture and food.

Research and Technologies   

New technology is used to promote public means of transportation (from road to railway, from car to public means of transport).  Environmental management systems are applied in hotels and other tourist establishments mainly because of economy reasons.

Financing   

Activities in this area are financed by local and national budgets.

Cooperation

Cooperation with Local Authorities or private sector in promoting sustainable tourism takes place through communicating with local and national tourist organisations (board).

* * * 

This information was provided by the Government of Slovenia to the 7th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: February 1999.


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