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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SINGAPORE

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Singapore has included elements of the Regional action Plan for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development into policy planning and management.

 

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Legal and regulatory frameworks on air and water pollution, solid waste disposal are reviewed regularly. Market based and economic instruments are used to promote use of energy efficient equipment.

Singapore has included elements of the Regional action Plan for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development into policy planning and management.

Information 

Singapore sends trade and investment data/information to the UN Statistical Office, the World Trade Organisation, the International Monetary Fund, Word Custom Organisation and Food and Agriculture Organisation. These organisations may publish a variety of statistical reports based on country inputs, Singore does not keep track of all (the same can be said for any websites where such data can be found).

Singapore’s economic data can be found in various government websites. The Ministry of Trade and Industry’s website is at www.gov.sg/mti. The Trade Development Board (TDB)’s website is at www.tdb.gov.sg, and the Economic Development Board’s website is at www.sedb.com.sg

Cooperation

Singapore supports e.g. the following regional institutions: COBSEA’s Trustfund and UN Environment Fund.

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This information is based on Singapore’s submission to the 7th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 1999.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Ministry of the Environment (ENV) works closely with industry, trade associations and business groups to carry out waste minimisation audit, set up recycling plants and divert waste for recycling. ENV also provides low rental land in the dumping ground area for setting up recycling plant. ENV assists hotels, hospitals, schools and offices to set up waste recycling scheme.

ENV encourages the setting up of environmental committees by trade associations to spearhead and co-ordinate waste minimisation and other environmental efforts. The Singapore Confederation of Industries and Singapore Hotel Association have formed environmental committees to spearhead their environmental programmes.

The Economic Development Board (EDB) provides tax incentives and financial assistance schemes to encourage the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and the installation of energy-efficient equipment.

The Singapore Productivity and Standards Board (PSB) promotes waste minimisation through the promotion of Green Productivity.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Waste Minimisation Unit of the Ministry of the Environment administers the GreenLabel Scheme which was introduced in May 1992. It decides on the product categories and solicits suggestions from industries and the public. In addition, it processes and approves applications for the GreenLabel. An Advisory Committee comprising representatives from private sector organisations, academic institutions and government agencies sets the criteria to grant the right for a product to display the GreenLabel.

The Green Labeling Scheme helps consumers to identify environmentally friendly products and enable them to exercise their choices more objectively in order to influence producers and suppliers to take into account the protection of the environment when producing goods. The Scheme applies to most products, excepts foods, drinks and pharmaceuticals. It does not apply to services and processes.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The Singapore Green Plan outlines the policy addressing the concerns of sustainable consumption. The Singapore Green Plan aims to reduce domestic and trade waste from a per capita rate of 1.1 kg per day (1991) to 0.9 kg per day by the year 2000.

Challenges

The priority constraints related to sustainable consumption and production in Singapore are the weak secondary markets for recycled products and the limited land available for waste disposal and recycling. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The annual Clean and Green Week campaign often includes efforts to raise the awareness of issues related to sustainable consumption.

The government has also worked closely with the retail sector to promote minimal packaging for consumer products and introduce programmes to educate consumers to be less wasteful in their consumption patterns.

The Consumers Association of Singapore is the main consumers grouping that aims to look after the interests of consumers. The Singapore Environment Council acts as an umbrella organisation for environmental NGOs in Singapore and seeks to promote environmentally responsible behaviour among the population.

Information 

Click here to access the Ministry of the Environment of Singapore

The information about GreenLabel products is available in ENV’s Resource Conservation Bulletin, Make GreenLabel Your Choice pamphlet and the ENV website.

Click here for more information on the Greenlabel scheme

Click here for more information on the Greenlabel products

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 This information is based on Singapore's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

To combat poverty the policy of Singapore tries to build and keep the economy strong and healthy so that the population can be provided with housing, education and jobs. This has helped to keep poverty away.

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This information is based on Singapore’s submission to the 8th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: October 1999.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Asia and and the Pacific from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Ministry of the Environment as well as the National Science and Technology Board (NSTB) under the Ministry of Trade and Industry are responsible for the promotion and transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

There is a National Policy promoting Science and Technology in Singapore. The National Policy, called the National Science and Technology Plan 2000, covers many technological areas of which ESTs is one.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

Women, children and youth: NSTB actively encourages our young to develop an interest in science and technology which encompasses environmental technology.

Status

Electronics and Chemical sectors at the two most important sectors in Singapore.

NSTB actively promotes the research and development of ESTs in the public and private sector through the offering of our grant scheme. It also meets both the suppliers and end-users of environmental technologies regularly to understand their technology needs.

NSTB works closely with the Singapore Association of Environmental Companies in Singapore by having dialogue sessions with them to understand their technology needs.

Challenges

One of the main constraints is to get companies to see advantages in using ESTs.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

ETI regularly conducts seminars on ESTs for industries. Examples of such seminars included:

The Productivity and Standards Board also actively promotes the adoption of ISO 14000 by industry.

Information

The NSTB produces sectoral reports once every two to three years on status of Environmental Technology cluster in Singapore.

Click here to access the Environmental Technology Institute: 

Research and Technologies 

Among the major recent activities has been the establishment of a research institute, the Environmental Technology Institute (ETI) to work with both public and private institutions on R&D related to environmental technologies. Organisation responsible for overseeing ETI is NSTB. Another major activity is grant schemes for companies doing research and development in various technologies, of which EFT is one. Organisation responsible for administrating the grant scheme is NSTB.

Business and Industry are encouraged to do research and development in ESTs through NSTB’s grant schemes.

The ETI would identify relevant technologies applicable to the industry and would then work with industry to implement these technologies.

Technology centres at NUS, NTU and ETI are all easily accessible to public and private institutions.

Financing 

Scientific and Technology Community: research and development in ETSs are also partially supported by NSTB. For example, NSTB has provided seed funding for the Environmental Technology Enterprise at the National University of Singapore and the Water Resources Centre at the Nanyang Technological University as well as full funding for the Environmental Technology Institute. NSTB has also provided monetary support for environmental technology projects at the Productivity and Standards Board.

The NSTB obtains its budget from the Ministry of Trade and Industry to promote Science and Technology development in Singapore. Environmental technology is one area the NSTB is actively promoting.

Cooperation

NSTB is an active participant on environmental technology projects under the APEC umbrella.

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This information is based on Singapore's submission to the 7th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

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Biotechnology

There is no information on this topic for Singapore.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

No information is available

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

The Ministry of Communications is responsible for the transportation and communications issues in Singapore. The Ministry's policies are executed by an autonomous department and five statutory boards. They are the Meteorological Service Department, the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS), the Land Transport Authority (LTA), the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA), the Public Transport Council (PTC) and the Telecommunication Authority of Singapore (TAS).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Land Transport Authority of Singapore (LTA) Act provided LTA regulatory powers for its functions and matters under its purview. The LTA Act and the Street Works Act allows LTA to plan, design, construct, manage and maintain roads in Singapore. The LTA Act and the Rapid Transit Systems Act allows LTA to plan, design, construct, manage, operate and maintain the railway, and also to approve and regulate the operation of the railway. The Parking Places Act allows LTA to provide parking places for motor vehicles, and to license and regulate the use of parking places.

The Road Traffic Act is the main legislation governing the registration and use of vehicles. Detail specification on vehicle standards, construction and inspection are spelt in the following rules enacted under the Road Traffic Acts:

Singapore does not have a vehicle manufacturing industry. The rules, standards and guidelines are derived mainly from those of the more technologically advanced vehicle manufacturing countries such as Japan, the USA and the EC countries. To ensure that the rules and standards can keep up with new vehicle technologies, we monitor closely the legislation, regulations and standards of the above-mentioned countries. They are:

Some of the internationally recognised standards promulgated under the Road Traffic (Construction & Use) Rules are:

Singapore legislation and regulations relating to air transport include:

The legislation and regulations listed above give effect to the Chicago Convention, the Tokyo Convention, Hagne Convention, Montreal Convention and Warsaw Convention.

Singapore legislation and regulations relating to maritime transport include:

The regulations set by the MPA on maritime safety and prevention of marine pollution are in accordance with the provisions of international maritime conventions to which Singapore is party.

For the telecommunications industry, they are regulated by the Telecommunications Authority of Singapore Act. The TAS Act, passed in 1992, defines TAS' role in the licensing, regulation, promotion and development of telecommunication and postal systems and services.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

The Mission of the Ministry of Communications is to bring about cost effective world class transportation and communications services and gateways to enhance Singapore’s economic competitiveness and quality of life. In order to achieve this mission, the following strategies are adopted by various statutory boards.

A four-pronged strategy in land transport policies covers:

In the area of air transport, CAAS adopts:

In the maritime transport, the mission of the MPA is to safeguard Singapore's strategic maritime interests, and to promote Singapore as a world-class port and an international maritime centre. As such, their policies/strategies are:

For telecommunications, the strategies of the TAS are:

Singapore has the following plans for enhancing transport services in the medium-term:

Concerning land transports, Singapore is now working towards the completion of two further extensions to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network. These are the Changi Airport Line (CAL) scheduled for completion in 2001 and the North-East MRT Line (NEL) scheduled for completion in 2002. Singapore is also embarked on the construction of Light Rapid Transit (LRT) Systems in public housing estates to serve as feeders to the MRT network. The first LRT project, the Bukit Panjang LRT, is scheduled for completion in 1999. Sengkang LRT and Punggol LRT are scheduled for completion in 2002 and 2004 respectively, in tandem with the development of the new towns.

A Medium Rapid Transit System is also being planned to serve Singapore's new commercial centre at the Marina area. This system, to be called the Marina Line, is scheduled for completion in 2004. The rapid transit network will be effectively doubled to 160 km on the completion of these projects.

The infrastructural plans for air transport in the medium-term include the redevelopment of an existing Cargo Agent Building.

For improving internal telecommunications facilities in the short- and medium-term, the TAS has teamed up with the National Computer Board, National Science and Technology Board, Economic Development Board and the Singapore Broadcasting Authority to launch Singapore ONE, a nationwide broadband multimedia network initiative. TAS is currently driving the infrastructure development of Singapore ONE. Singapore ONE’s application will revolutionise the business, leisure, education and day-to-day living in Singapore and is consistent with the plans to become a fully intelligent island.

Singapore is fully integrated in the international telecommunications network.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement 

Industry and other relevant interest groups such as non-governmental organisations, workers’ unions, etc are consulted for major policy changes, whenever possible. The public is also encouraged to provide their feedback through the community feedback forums. In the case of land transport, members appointed to sit on the Public Transport Council, which approves changes to public transport fares, come from various sectors of the community - community leaders, public transport operators, academic and government. For telecommunications, to gather feedback from the industry and consumers, TAS established the 13-member Telecommunication Users Committee (TUC) on 24 June 1996 which comprises representatives from key industry groups.

Programmes and Projects 

In the area of land transport, Singapore seeks to provide quality public transport choices, build a comprehensive road network and harness technology to maximise its capacity and manage the demand for road usage. To meet these needs, programmes as listed below have been identified.

Quality Public Transport Choices

In the area of Rapid Transit Systems, Singapore is constructing the NEL, CAL, BP LRT, SKG LRT, PGL LRT and the Marina Line. After the completion of these projects, the rrail network will have roughly doubled.

Commuters can expect more premier bus services to provide higher grade of services, and better and more commuter facilities to provide a seamless point-to-point journey regardless of the weather.

Taxis will continue to provide car-like services, and bridge the gap between private transport, and bus and rail transport. Since the deregulation of taxi fares, taxi operators will have the flexibility to offer a wider variety of services, and use differential pricing to address the shortage of taxis during peak hours. The taxi operators have also used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the radiophone service to better match demand and supply of taxis.

LTA has also embarked on a programme to work with the public transport operators to implement an integrated Travel Information System (TIS). When completed in about 3-4 years' time, it will provide passengers with real-time information on the various public transport systems through the Internet, multi-media kiosks and telephone hotlines. In this way, commuters will be able to make better-informed decisions about public transport, based on real-time information accessible from convenient locations of their choice.

Building of a comprehensive road network and harnessing technology to maximise its capacity

To ensure that we have a comprehensive road network, about S$2 billion will be invested over the next five years to expand the road network by another 300 lane-km.

As land is scarce in Singapore, we also need to tap on technology to maximise it capacity. With the Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System (EMAS), we are able to monitor traffic along expressways and detect incidents automatically so that emergency assistance can be dispatched quickly to remove sources of congestion. The system was launched on the Central Expressway (CTE) in March 1998 and will be extended to other expressways and major arterial roads over the next five years.

Managing the demand for road usage

From 1 Sep 98, we have successfully completed the automation of the manual Area Licensing Scheme (ALS) and Road Pricing Scheme (RPS) using the Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system. The ERP system gives us the flexibility to vary the charges based on the level of congestion on the roads. The plan is to extend the ERP to chokepoints on other expressways and major arterial roads over the next one to two years. This will be done in phases to allow motorists to adjust to the ERP system and change their travel patterns. ERP will eventually be the key usage restraint measure to influence motorists' behaviour on timing, route and mode of travel.

In the area of air transport, we seek to deliver efficient and quality service to customers.

Efficient and Quality Service

To encourage efficient and quality service, the Quality Service Management programme involves frontline staff from various airport agencies. Activities under this programme aim to create awareness about the importance of quality service through publicity campaigns, train frontline staff to provide good service and reward those who deliver quality service through award and incentive programmes.

In the area of maritime transport, we seek to maintain Singapore’s position as a leading hub port and to develop Singapore into a premier international maritime centre.

Port and Marine Services

The Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) was corporatised in October 1997 to free PSA from its statutory functions in order to concentrate on its commercial terminal operations. PSA has now become a pure service provider who can be more customer-oriented and provide value-for-money service with even more speed, quality and reliability. We will continue with the plans to liberalise the port and marine services in Singapore.

The main needs identified for the sector of telecommunications and the various programmes adopted to achieve them are as follows:

Stimulating competition and placing competition safeguards

TAS aims to stimulate competition in the telecommunication industry so as to bring about efficiency in the industry and to provide a wider choice of quality and competitively priced services for consumers. At the same time, TAS recognises the need to ensure a level playing field for new entrants.

To prevent anti-competitive practices, TAS has developed fair interconnection charging principles, transparent arbitration procedures and regular financial reporting mechanisms.

TAS had recently awarded a new license to StarHub Private Limited for the provision of public basic telecommunications services (PBTS) from 1 April 2000. Currently, Singapore Telecom (SingTel) has monopoly rights for the provision of PBTS up to 31 March 2000.

StarHub was issued its PBTS license on 5 May 98, giving it about two years to roll out its network. TAS also intends to license additional players for the start of commercial services in 2002. Further competition can be either facilities-based or services-based.

Developing infrastructure and networks

TAS is responsible for the long-term planning and development of Singapore's telecommunication and postal infrastructure. It seeks to upgrade infrastructure in anticipation of the needs of a strong and vibrant info-communications industry. In support of this cause, the Singapore ONE initiative attempts to put in place a national broadband information infrastructure.

Status 

Air Transport

Singapore is linked to nearly 130 cities in over 50 countries by over 3000 weekly scheduled flights. Air services are provided by over 60 airlines, of which 2 are local carriers.

Maritime Transport

The Port of Singapore is the focal point for some 400 shipping lines with links to some 750 ports in 130 countries worldwide. While port and terminal operations in Singapore are run by local corporations, other port and maritime services are provided by a mixture of local and foreign companies.

Telecommunications

Singapore is fully integrated in the international telecommunications network. There are four analogue and four fibre-optic submarine cables linking Singapore directly to 33 countries. In addition, Singapore, together with 90 other international telecommunication administrations in Southeast Asia, Middle East and Western Europe signed the construction and maintenance agreement in Jun 97 to implement a new sub-sea, digital lightwave superhighway known as the SEA-ME-WE 3 cable system. Singapore also has earth stations to access Intelsat, Inmarsat, Apstar, Palapa, AsiaSat, PanAmSat and other satellites to provide international telecommunication services.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

National telecommunications facilities are adequate in Singapore.

The officers of the Ministry of Communications attend conferences and seminars worldwide to scour the world for best practices that we can adapt to the Singapore's context. For example, LTA officers attended the American Public Transit Association (APTA) Conference and other seminars organised by international organisations such as APEC and ASEAN. Ministry of Communications also sends officers for postgraduate studies on transport planning.

The statutory boards also organise conferences, seminars and workshops to train, inform and update policy makers/industry representatives on the latest developments in their respective industries. For example, seminars and workshops organised by CAAS at its Aviation Academy are open to personnel of the relevant industries.

The main channel to raises awareness of issues related to sustainable development in transportation and communications is through media and public relations campaigns.

Information 

Relevant information on transport and telecommunications are available electronically at the Ministry’s and the respective Statutory Boards’ web sites. Some of the information is also published for sale to the public eg. Air Transport Statistics by CAAS.

Statistics are also gathered by the Department of Statistics (DOS) and the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) and these are also available electronically at their respective web sites.

Links to the websites of the various organisations:

Land Transport Authority:
Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore:
Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore: 
Telecommunication Authority of Singapore: 
Department of Statistics: 
Urban Redevelopment Authority: 

Research and Technologies 

Singapore is generally supportive of using new systems/implementing solutions that use environmentally-sound technologies.

Decisions related to the choice of technologies are determined by suitability of the technology, cost effectiveness and efficiency.

Financing 

This sector is usually internally funded through operational surpluses.

Cooperation

Singapore participates in various regional fora (ASEAN, APEC, WTO) which are aimed at improving air and maritime transport services and for reducing their costs. These fora are generally useful and have greatly facilitated regional cooperation in transport.

Singapore is a Party to the following agreements:

Air Transport

Maritime Transport

Air Transport

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This information is based on Singapore's submission to the 7th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

Singapore Tourism Board (STB) is responsible for sustainable tourism at the national level. Other agencies responsible for the planning and management of sustainable resources in Singapore include the Urban Redevelopment Board (URA), National Parks Board (NParks), and the National Heritage Board (NHB).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

Under the Singapore Tourism Board, sustainable tourism comes under the larger strategic framework called the Tourism 21 blueprint. STB’s development strategies address sustaining cultural and social responsibility and conservation of the national heritage. The Tourism 21 specifically addresses the creation of thematic zones, community-based tourism development and development of nature-based tourism.

In recognition of the limited natural vegetation resources in Singapore, the Nature Conservation Working Committee of the Singapore Green Plan decided that eco-tourism should not be indiscriminately promoted. Thus, STB’s marketing efforts have focused on the niche market. Targets include the cultivation of the educational market segment. This will ultimately lead to the cultivation of a new generation of visitors with better appreciation of nature and culture.

Programmes and Projects 

The STB has identified the following areas as major programmes in effect to promote sustainable tourism:

Training programmes include tour guides courses, and marketing programmes an educational market segment.

Eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are promoted by low impact tour activities in farms, and by a programme as well as nature-based activities for the Sungei Buloh nature reserve and Pulau Ubin.

There is no legislation to ensure sustainable tourism.

Inter-governmental alliance is a key component in increasing synergy in government’s efforts. Thus local authorities are involved in the decision-making. Also business and industry are involved.

Status 

Based on a study done by WEFA in conjunction with WTTC, tourism is a true economic driver in Singapore, where it is expected to generate 12 percent of gross domestic product and 9.5 percent of employment in 1996. The outlook for the next decade is equally strong with the industry expected to grow 55.5 percent in size (real term) to S$41.8 billion (nominal) of gross output. Also by 2006, Singapore’s travel and tourism is expected to increase by 41,000 jobs, equivalent to 9.9 percent of total employment.

Visitor arrivals into Singapore have been increasing at an average annual growth of 8.6 percent over the 1986-1996 period, from 3,191,058 in 1986 to 7,292,521 in 1996. However, the regional currency turmoil and economic slowdown in the later half of 1997 had adversely affected arrivals. In 1997, arrivals declined to about 7.2 million, a decline of 1.3 percent after 13 years of continuous growth, due to regional economic crisis and haze.

Tourism development has played a positive impact on sustainable tourism pertaining to the revitalisation and preservation of Singapore’s cultural heritage to residents and visitors. Specific examples can be seen from the continuous product reformulation of heritage areas such as Chinatown, Little India, Kampong Glam etc. New conservation developments include agro-tourism conservation, Chijmes Heritage Gallery, opening of Asian Civilisation Museums 1 & 2 (to showcase Asian arts and culture) and identification of a Heritage Trail.

Examples of activities which are geared both to sustainable tourism and to eco-tourism and nature-based tourism include:

Challenges

Singapore has managed to balance national development yet preserve a natural heritage for present and future generations of inhabitants and visitors. However, capacity building is still needed and there is further scope to promote nature-based activities in these areas in a sensitive manner.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Singapore Confederation of Industries and Singapore Hotel Association have formed environmental committees to spearhead their environmental programmes.

STB provides a training programme called Exploring the Nature Trails of Singapore for tour guides that teaches them about the flora and fauna in Singapore. This training involves bringing the guides round to the more touristic natural areas in Singapore (eg Fort Canning, Botanic Gardens, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Sungei Buloh and Pulau Ubin.

There is on going effort by authorities like STB, Nparks and the National Arts Council to generate traffic and number of visitors to the nature areas. Activities include NPark’s Concert in the Park, Ballet under the Stars programme and using Fort Canning Park as the venue for Singapore’s Festival of Arts. Such programmes have led to increasing visitors and awareness of nature area in Singapore.

The visitor centres at Sungei Buloh, Pulau Ubin and Bukit Timah showcase exhibit and information on area’s natural environment, flora, fauna and natural habitats. Information on educating visitors’ respect for the natural environment is also available at the Visitor Centres in printed. The National Parks Board has produced several leaflets on its parks and nature-reserve areas such as Sungei Buloh and Pulau Ubin. In STB’s marketing brochures, Singapore's "clean and green" reputation has been highlighted. STB also stresses that Singapore is a gateway to a culturally diverse region that is rich in flora and fauna.

Information 

Brochures published by the National Parks Board and the Singapore Tourism Board address sustainable tourism.

Mapping and inventorying of natural resources and ecosystem characteristics in tourist areas is carried out by the National Parks Board.

System on monitoring the frequency of visitors is planned to be put in place.

Research and Technologies 

Although environmental management systems and ISO 14001 are initiatives that STB would like Singapore hotels to embrace, at present we do not keep track of hotels with such system in place. However, many hotels have on their own initiative embarked on environmentally friendly programmes such as water and energy conservation and waste minimisation. These hotels include, among others, the Inter-Continental Singapore which received a Distinction Award at the prestigious Green Globe Achievement Awards in 1998.

Cooperation

The Sungei Buloh Nature Park was highlighted by APEC as a model sustainable tourism product in Singapore.

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This information is based on Singapore's submission to the 7th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

Click here to access Singapore’s National Parks


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