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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

An all-Russian conference on combating violations of environmental law was held in May 1996. It adopted a very important resolution, the implementation of which will lead to a considerable reduction in such offences. This resolution requires the Ministry of the Environment to prepare and submit to the Government a draft federal coordination plan for combatting violations of environmental law for the period 1997-2001.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Following the United Nations Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 the Russian Federation adopted a series of very important documents on environmental protection and use of natural resources, including:

The Government's Plan of Action for Environmental Protection for 1994-1995, which includes some 100 very important environmental measures (Governmental Decree No. 496 of 18 May 1994).

Governmental Decree No. 155 of 19 February 1996 confirming the Government's Plan of Action for Environmental Protection and Use of Natural Resources for 1996-1997. This plan contains 56 very important measures, including: four bills, 41 special-purpose federal programmes, 25 of which are for implementation, six regulatory instruments, and five other documents. This plan represents the second stage of the implementation of the fundamental provisions of the State strategy confirmed by Presidential Decree No. 236 of 4 February 1994 on State strategy of the Russian Federation for environmental protection and sustainable development.

By Order No. 217 of 24 February 1994 the Government instructed the Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of the Environment, other relevant ministries and offices, with the participation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the executive organs of members of the Russian Federation to develop a draft Concept of the Transition of the Russian Federation to Sustainable Development. In compliance with this instruction the Ministry of the Economy created a working group to prepare the document and a commission to coordinate the work. The Ministry of the Environment and the Federal Environment Fund announced a competition, for which 30 different concepts were submitted by various collectives and individual scientists. Eight of these concepts were selected by the competition commission for use in the preparation of the summary document. The draft Concept was considered at the first all-Russian Congress on the Conservation of Nature, during the preparations for which in January-May 1995 the draft Concept was discussed at local conferences in 87 members of the Russian Federation. The final version of the Concept for the Transition of the Russian Federation to Sustainable Development was confirmed by a Presidential Decree of 1 April 1996. This Decree ordered the production of a draft State Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Russian Federation. The Ministry of the Economy, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Science were nominated as the lead agencies in this undertaking.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status 

On 10-11 April 1996 the Ministry held an international seminar, at Golitsino, Moscow region, on the consideration and introduction of a programme of action on environmental protection for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. A package of documents, including the decisions of the seminar, was sent to 115 agencies for use in their work.

Challenges

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available 

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies 

No information is available

Financing 

Financing for these activities comes from the federal budget, budgets of members of the Russian Federation, resources of enterprises and extra-budgetary sources.

Cooperation

There are bilateral and multilateral agreements on environmental protection and the use of natural resources.



* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

To access the Web Site of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, click here:
For Russia's Environmental Protection Strategy, click here:
For the Archives of the Ministry of Nature (in Russian), click here:
To access the Human Development Report for Russia, click here:
For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Government has recently drawn up a number of State programmes and drafted laws to improve the status of women and expand the involvement of public organizations, including women's organizations, in the decision-making process.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Policies and strategies are being drawn up for achievement of equality in all aspects of society.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status 

The percentage of women in government grew from 0.3% in 1992 to 2.9% in 1996, but in parliament declined from 9% in 1992 to 7.3% in 1996. Although the representation of women in Government, Parliament and managerial posts is still insufficient, there has been a considerable increase in the activity of women's organizations. Machinery is being developed to accord greater attention to the interests of women in State sustainable development policy and to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Challenges

The shortage of funds for the implementation of State programmes often obstructs measures designed to improve the status of women, with a resulting increase of unemployment amongst women, deterioration of the health system, etc.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Curricula and educational material are being revised with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing 

No information is available

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed on 17 July 1980 and ratified on 19 December 1980 by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (in force for the Russian Federation as the successor State of the USSR).

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on WomenWatch in the Russian Federation, click here:
For information on the concept for improving the status of women in the Russian Feferation, click here:

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Over the past five years activities have been carried out to improve the situation of young people and develop a dialogue between youth organizations and the Government. The Government adopted the Youth of Russia and Children of Russia programmes. A State committee on youth affairs has been created and it is making some efforts to increase the involvement of young people in the State decision-making process. However, there was hardly any representation of youth in the State Commission of the Russian Federation to Develop the Concept of Sustainable Development, and there has been little involvement of young people in the discussion of many State documents relating to the environment and sustainable development. At the same time there is a desire for cooperation on the part both of the State and of youth organizations, so that there is some justification for thinking that such cooperation will be developed in the future.

Young people accounted for 42 per cent of total unemployed in 1992 and 34 per cent in 1996.

Among the most important for youth issues are:

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The goal of ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training has been reached.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Indigenous people participate in national policies as advisors. In recent years a legislative framework has been created for more active participation of indigenous peoples in the taking of decisions affecting the development of their lands. However, only time will tell how this legislation will be implemented in practice. They are involved in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level but not yet sufficiently.

Programmes and Projects 

The post-Rio period has seen the development of State programmes to improve the lives of indigenous peoples, for example the programme Economic and Social Development of the Indigenous Peoples of the North up to 2000. The indigenous peoples inhabiting this territory were actively involved in the programme's development. The Association of Indigenous and Minority Peoples of the North was given consultative status in the State Committee on Questions of the North. With the support of the Russian Government this Association has become a permanent participant in the Arctic Council.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available
 
Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

There is no permanent machinery for dialogue, although some efforts are being made. A consultative council of NGO leaders has been set up under the Ministry of the Environment, and NGO representatives are sometimes included in official delegations to major international negotiations and in State commissions drafting important documents connected with sustainable development.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available

Status 

Recent years have seen the adoption of a number of laws which will enable NGOs to play a more active role in the decision-making process. However, no mechanisms for implementing these laws have been established. Mechanisms do not exist yet to allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and effectively although some efforts are being made to grant NGOs consultative status. NGOs inputs are ad hoc. Some work is being done in the area of reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.  However, NGO activity has increased noticeably since Rio, and in society at large and in State organs there is a steadily growing realization of the importance of the NGO role in achieving sustainable development. The development of a dialogue and cooperation between State organs and NGOs is proceeding, but not yet on a systematic basis.

Challenges

The lack of supplementary legislation and the lack of democratic traditions in society, as well as the defects of the system for dissemination of information, impede the more active involvement of NGOs in the decision-making process.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

At present virtually all regions are developing local plans for sustainable development, and some of them are receiving assistance from international or overseas organizations (World Bank, United States Agency for International Development (USAID)). The State provides methodological support, developing the strategy for Russia's transition to sustainable development. The Government support local agenda 21 initiatives but very weakly.

In the post-Rio period there has been much discussion in Russia of questions of sustainable development, and the Concept of Russia's transition to sustainable development has been established. The content of this Concept is taken into account in the development of national, local and regional plans for socio-economic development and in the adoption of economic and other decisions at all levels. Individual sustainable development plans are being drawn up in a number of regions.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Relevant ILO Conventions have been ratified and workers take some part in National Agenda 21 discussions and implementation. In the post-UNCED period workers' trade unions have begun to take a more active part in Agenda 21 discussions. However, the country's serious economic problems (unemployment, inflation, late payment of wages, decline of workers' living standards) mean that the problems of sustainable development are relegated to the background.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available


Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

State policies on reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste are in the development stage.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available    

Status 

since Rio leading businessmen have begun to take a greater interest in the development of State sustainable development policy and have themselves begun to take initiatives to air the principles of sustainable development in business circles. A few large- and small- and medium-sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies.

Challenges

UNCED brought about some increase in the interest of business in problems of the environment and sustainable development. In spite of a number of positive examples in this area, the economic crisis and the decline in industrial activity have confronted most enterprises with the problem of survival, so that the problems of the environment and sustainable development are not yet priorities for them.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available

Information 

Publicity is given to positive examples in this area (Schmidheiny's book Changing Course: a Global Business Perspective on Development and the Environment has been translated into Russian) and a number of other publications have been issued, including Russian Green Pages containing information about companies which are actually taking environmental considerations into account in their production processes or are facilitating the solution of environmental problems by other means. A number of conferences have been held, including a special section on business and the environment at the All-Union Congress on Environmental Protection.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available

Status 

Some efforts are being made at developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and development (in particular, a number of conferences have been held).

Challenges

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Although on the whole society's awareness of the importance of the problems of protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development is still not sufficient, by means of the kinds of activity mentioned above, scientific and technical circles have been promoting the dissemination of these ideas among the general public and decision-makers, and this activity has facilitated Russia's transition to sustainable development.

Information

There is some effort in improving the exchange of knowledge and concerns between the S&T community and the general public. A number of popular publications have been produced, articles have been published in the mass information media, and conferences and seminars have been held, in particular for young people.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Farmers take little part in the development of sustainable development policies. Despite the fact that farmers' associations and State organs have done some work on the dissemination of information about the sustainable development of agriculture, this has not been enough to motivate farmers to make rational use of natural resources and introduce efficient farming practices.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The work of both the Government Commission on the Environment and Resource Management and the Government Commission on Policy in the Field of Science and Technology has application for the science sector.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government of the Russian Federation has prepared and approved a draft Concept for Reforming Russian Science for the Period 1998-2000. The implementation of the Concept will make it possible to create a mobile, dynamic scientific and technical complex capable of meeting the demands of the times.

In accordance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation on State support for the development of science and scientific and technical products (1995), the decision of the Government Commission on Policy in the Field of Science and Technology and the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on a Doctrine for the Development of Russian Science (1996), priority areas for the development of science and technology, as well as a list of critical technologies at the federal level, have been developed and approved, taking into account the sustainable development of the Russian Federation.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available

Information 

There has recently been a substantial expansion of the infrastructure of the National Network of Computer Telecommunications for Science and Education. Thus, the number of regions whose scientific and educational organizations gained access to the network of high-speed computer communications channels increased threefold. Overall, there were approximately 100,000 users working in the National Network. Thirty regional centres of the Russian Federation, from Petrozavodsk to Vladivostok, are linked to the network. At present, the Siberian and Ural divisions of the Russian Academy of Sciences have direct links to the support network. Direct links are also being established for Tomsk, Omsk, Irkutsk and other major scientific centres.

In accordance with a decision of the Government of the Russian Federation, work is being carried out with the Soros Foundation to link 32 regional universities to the Internet. The infrastructure created under the inter-agency programme is being used for this purpose. As of today, 17 university Internet centres have been opened. In Moscow, a fibre-optical support network with an information-transfer rate of 100 megabits/second has been set up; over 50 leading scientific educational organizations, as well as academic towns in the Moscow region, have links to that network.

Within the framework of the National Network, a number of international computer channels through, inter alia, Hamburg, Munich, Bonn and Helsinki have been established for access to European academic networks and the Internet. An agreement has been reached on linking the Russian scientific and educational network (Rbnet) to the American super-high-speed VDNS research net, which is the prototype and scientific "testing ground" for Internet-2.

Research and Technologies 

Research specifically related to water management includes the following programmes:

The implementation of federal target-oriented programmes is the responsibility of the scientific research establishments that are part of the system of the federal executive bodies and the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Financing 

Research is funded from the federal budget (in 1997, allocations under the section "Basic research and support for scientific and technical progress" amounted to 11,290 billion roubles), budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation and extra budgetary funds.

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * *

This information is based on the Russian Federation's submission to the fifth and sixth sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 31 July 1998.

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level

Agenda 21 Chapters

Very good

Good

Some good data but many gaps

Poor

2. International cooperation and trade    

x

 
3. Combating poverty    

x

 
4. Changing consumption patterns  

x

   
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability    

x

 
6. Human health    

x

 
7. Human settlements    

x

 
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making    

x

 
9. Protection of the atmosphere    

x

 
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources  

x

   
11. Combating deforestation  

x

   
12. Combating desertification and drought    

x

 
13. Sustainable mountain development    

x

 
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development    

x

 
15. Conservation of biological diversity  

x

   
16. Biotechnology  

x

   
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources    

x

 
18. Freshwater resources    

x

 
19. Toxic chemicals    

x

 
20. Hazardous wastes    

x

 
21. Solid wastes    

x

 
22. Radioactive wastes    

x

 
24. Women in sustainable development    

x

 
25. Children and youth    

x

 
26. Indigenous people    

x

 
27. Non-governmental organizations  

x

   
28. Local authorities    

x

 
29. Workers and trade unions    

x

 
30. Business and industry  

x

   
31. Scientific and technological community  

x

   
32. Farmers    

x

 
33. Financial resources and mechanisms    

x

 
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building  

x

   
35. Science for sustainable development  

x

   
36. Education, public awareness and training  

x

   
37. International cooperation for capacity-building  

x

   
38. International institutional arrangements  

x

   
39. International legal instruments  

x

   
40. Information for decision-making    

x

 

 

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.


* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For an assessment of environmental information in Russia, click here:


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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Under the auspices of international legal instruments the Russian Federation is working on the implementation of more than 20 agreements.

The priority in this area of activity is fulfilment of Russia's obligations under the following international instruments:

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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