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NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Russia is a party to multilateral agreements on the conservation of nature (conventions on climate change, biological diversity, protection of the ozone layer, etc.), which take into account the special situation of developing countries in carrying out the provisions of the agreements. Russia is also a fully fledged participant in the activities of international organizations such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Centre on Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (ecologically sound foreign trade) etc., whose programmes of work include tackling the environmental and sustainable development problems of the developing countries.

 

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This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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TRADE

No information is available.

 

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation is responsible for sustainable consumption of natural resources ( minerals, water etc.).

At the local and provincial levels, the following are responsible in respect of natural resources consumption:

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In the sphere of natural resources there has been adopted more than a dozen legislative acts enhancing the effective use of natural resources. Examples include:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

National goals with regard to the formation of rational consumption structures are to be attained within the framework of specific decision-making procedures, which include the education of public opinion, enactment of legislation, preparation and adoption of decisions of the President and Government of the Russian Federation and decisions of other federal executive organs and executive and legislative organs of members of the Russian Federation.

The National Strategy of Transition to Sustainable Development (in Russia) based on the Act of the President of the Russian Federation N 440 of 1996 has been developed by joint efforts of different governmental ministries and is at present at final stage of approval.

The Ministry of Natural Resources has developed the Concept of the State Policy in the sphere of consumption, conservation and study of natural resources of the Russian Federation in 1997, which was approved by the Government at the initial stage, and now is going through the process of amendment. This concept is based on a strategic objective - the achievement of the optimal reproduction rate of the natural resources, the inexhaustible pattern of the natural capital use in the interests of future generations, the creation of prerequisites for the sustainable development.

This objective can be achieved:

Under the auspices of the Ministry of Natural Resources the Concept of the State Policy of Sustainable Water Use in 1998 has been developed and is going through a discussion now.

The principles which are being used in a long-term Strategy of Sustainable Water Use and applied to establishment of organisational, planning and financing mechanisms of its implementation include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

The Concept of the Federal programme, The Drinking Water Supply for the Population of Russia, was approved by the Russian Government on the 6th of March 1998 (the Government Act No. 292) . It was developed to cope with the critical water supply situation in Russia.

The principal objectives of the Programme:

The objectives are supposed to be achieved through:

It is planned to be implemented through 3 stages:

Specific issues, which these strategies address, include:

Status 

The total volume of water intake from water objects amounts to 90,2 km3. Actually consumed are 70,2 km3, including industrial consumption, 38,4 km3 (54,7 %), municipal consumption, 13,6 km3 (19,4%), and irrigation, 13,6 km3 (13%).

Water losses in the process of water transportation amounts to 7,7 km3. Losses due to the wear of water facilities is 20% of water consumption. Water losses in municipal water works amount to 5 mln m3 . The leakage of water in dwellings water facilities is 20 % of consumed water.

Forty percent of water treatment facilities with natural water intake have no sewage equipment. At present the rate of recycled water in the country is 77%, which can vary in the subjects of Federation by 0-95%.

In the framework of the public housing system at the local level, reform research programs are underway for use of alternative methods of resources supply (energy, water) which are to decrease loss of resources and ineffective consumption. Tariff experiments are under implementation at the local level to optimize the consumption of resources by householders. Despite contradictory results of these experiments they are still being carrying on.

Challenges

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

There is a program of consumption education for general education and higher school, under implementation since 1995. (Act of the President 1761, October 26,1993 and the Law of the Russian Federation, Protection of consumers` rights).

The Ministry of Education approved school programs, prepared by the International Confederation of consumers' societies and other organizations, which include "green" consumption issues. General education school programs in 20 Russian regions provide study of green consumption issues by including "basis for consumption education" in their school programs. The Federal standard, "consumption knowledge in education," which includes sustainable consumption issues, is being elaborated.

Programs on ecology for general education and higher school, which include sustainable consumption issues, are widespread.

Public consumers' societies devote much more attention now to sustainable consumption issues in their awareness activities. Goods undergo ecological expertise and comparative consumer tests (power intensity, water consumption, and waste utilization). Consumer societies carry on an explanatory campaign on ecological labeling, and they are involved in cooperation with the media on ecological aspects of consumption. All the facts mentioned represent only the first steps. There is now a comprehensive programme, but stable cooperation of consumers and ecological societies does not exist.

Information 

The state policy is aimed at development of the comprehensive and highly accessible informational system on natural resources.

Research and Technologies 

Russian consumers rights protection societies participated in «Consumers' International» on evaluation of effectiveness of ecological labelling. The results made it clear that ecological labelling used by Russian producers as well as importers does not provide reliable ecological information for consumers. Sometimes it even leads to delusion. Several publications in media were devoted to this problem.

Separate efforts are being taken to elaborate ecological labelling at regions level, in particular in Moscow. Such programmes are still under elaboration.

Financing 

The development of the economic and financial mechanism includes:

Cooperation

Russia has boundaries with 14 states and accordingly jointly used water objects. These relations are regulated based on bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements in the sphere of use and conservation of water objects (with Finland, Estonia, the Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, etc.). Under these agreements the joint management of water resources, monitoring, and water protection measures are undertaken.

Similar agreements are under preparation with Azerbaijan and China.

 

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This information is based on Russia's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Monitoring of the condition of the environment, use of natural resources, and atmospheric pollution, and the solution of other environmental protection problems are the responsibility of the State Environmental Protection Committee, the Federal Forestry Service, the Ministry of Natural Resources, and the federal hydrometeorology and cartography services.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

A new version of the basic regulatory and normative document "Instructional and methodical recommendations for the collection of payment for pollution of the natural environment" has been prepared. A federal coefficient for indexing payments (for 1997) to up to 42 times the base standard amount of payment has been developed, approved and brought to the attention of local territorial executive government organs and environmental protection bodies. In addition, "Recommendations for determining maximum charges for pollution of the environment" have been prepared and approved while new proposals on the inclusion of a separate section in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, entitled "Environmental taxes", have been prepared.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

In addition, the federal budget provides resources for the implementation of special-purpose federal programmes for improvement of the environment in specific regions and cities of the Russian Federation (Programme for Improvement of the Environmental Situation and Protection of Human Health in the Tula Region for 1993-1998, Special-purpose Federal Programme of Urgent Measures to Improve the State of the Environment, the Public Health Situation and Human Health in Bratsk, Irkutsk Region, Comprehensive Federal Programme on the Protection of Lake Baikal and Rational Use of the Natural Resources of its Basin, etc.).

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

The relevant expenditures are identified in a separate section of the federal budget entitled Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources, Hydrometeorology, Cartography and Geodesy. These resources are intended for the conduct of State environmental monitoring activities, the organization and maintenance of reserves and national parks under the special-purpose federal programme of support for State nature reserves and national parks up to 2000, and the implementation of the special-purpose programmes on Russia's forests and protection of forests against fires.

At present, expenditures under the federal budget are presented in accordance with the budget classification by ministries and offices, and expenditures on environmental protection measures are also indicated, as part of their total expenditures, for the ministries and offices whose activities may pollute the environment or involve use of natural resources.

The federal budget makes allocations for the implementation of the special-purpose programme on the development of the hydrometeorological services of the national economy in 1994, 1995 and up to 2000, which covers the provision of hydrometeorological services for the national economy and the public, the defence of the Russian Federation, hydrometeorological monitoring and the provision of information to the national economy about the emergence of dangerous natural hydrometeorological phenomena.

The federal budget allocates resources for topographical-geodesic and cartographic work, remote sounding of the earth, the demarcation of the frontiers of the Russian Federation and the correct use of geographical names, and also for the implementation of the special-purpose federal programmes on development of seismological observations and forecasting of earthquakes for 1995-2000 and for the introduction of advanced technology in the cartographic and geodesic services of the Russian Federation.

Provision is made for use of the resources of the Federal Environment Fund, which have been incorporated in the federal budget since 1995, to finance additional measures for the construction and re-equipment of environmental protection facilities, the conduct of scientific research and design work connected with the environment, and the preservation of natural monuments.

The law on the federal budget for 1996 confirmed resources totalling 2,131.5 billion roubles for protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, cartography and geodesy. In 1996, in view of the strained situation of federal budget revenues, financing was provided basically under the protected sections of the budget (wages and extra charges, transfers, etc.), which were expected to be fully funded in 1996. It is proposed that a total of 1,973.6 billion roubles (taking into account reciprocal write-offs), or 90 per cent of the plan, will be earmarked from the federal budget. The draft federal budget for 1997, which has been confirmed in second reading by the State Duma, contains expenditures totalling 2,710.5 billion roubles for protection of the environment and natural resources, hydrometeorology, cartography and geodesy.

Allocations are also made for coastal-protection and flood-prevention works, repair of dams, dredging of river deltas, cleaning of reservoirs, and maintenance of pumping stations and hydrological installations, and for other measures connected with the maintenance, protection and rehabilitation of natural water sources and for the maintenance by these means of a good-quality water supply for household and business consumers.

Cooperation  

No information is available

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This information is based on the Russian Federation's submission to the fifth and sixth sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 31 July 1998.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available 

Status 

The development of computer telecommunications in Russia using modern equipment and technology with a view to integration in the world information community began in the late 1980s.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available

Information 

Through the Inter-departmental Programme on the Creation of a National Network of Computer Telecommunications for Science and Higher Education, which is under implementation, a national computer network is being built as a local distribution branched system which includes an inter-urban network linking the regional user networks and facilitating the exchange of information among Russian users as well as access to international communications networks.

At present Russia has two complementary data transfer systems using different technologies - X.25 and TSR/IR. Both these systems have their own areas of application, but for a number of reasons the most popular in the international scientific community is the Internet technology. The programme is designed to establish in Russia the nucleus (cluster) of a future Russian network of the Internet type on the basis of overseas experience. The national computer network will be created with the help of broad international scientific and technological cooperation.

Research and Technologies 

The creation of an efficient system for reciprocal access by the leading national scientific research and academic centres to the information technology resources built up in Russia and abroad (data banks and bases, information systems, super-computers) is a very important component of the measures taken to maintain the capacity of Russia's science and education system and to create favourable conditions for entry into the international scientific community. The national network of computer telecommunications for science and higher education is a logical virtual network composed in most cases of "real" standard computer networks.

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

No information is available

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This information is based on the Russian Federation's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 31 July 1998.

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Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In 1996, the Russian Federation adopted the Federal Act on State Regulation in the Field of Genetic Engineering. The Act covers both basic research and development in the field of genetic engineering and the pilot production of recombinant products and the goal-directed introduction of genetically modified organisms into the environment in order to optimize agrarian processes, for medical purposes, in export and import, the transfer of technologies, and so forth.

The Act is based on:

In 1997, with a view to implementing the Federal Act on State Regulation in the Field of Genetic Engineering, the Government of the Russian Federation established the Inter-Agency Commission on Genetic Engineering (a body similar to the national committees on biological safety recommended by international normative legal instruments, including the Convention on Biological Diversity). The objective of the Inter-Agency Commission on Genetic Engineering is to implement the Federal Act.

Specific targets with particular reference to time-bound targets are:

Legislation to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) includesThe Federal Act on Information, Information Science and Protection of Information, and the Federal Act on Participation in the International Exchange of Information.

Mechanisms for the further implementation of the Federal Act on State Regulation in the Field of Genetic Engineering include development of a biological safety infrastructure in the field of genetic engineering and development of a notification and standardization system, and norms for responsibility and compensation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The problem of the environmentally sound use of biotechnology is becoming all the more urgent for Russia in view of the fairly intensive development of biotechnology in the country's scientific institutions, the extension of the range of recombined products used for various purposes, and the need to ensure the safety of transboundary technology transfers and of genetically modified organisms and/or their products. In this connection the creation of a legal and regulatory framework for biodiversity has become an urgent national priority. Further work on Russia's legal and regulatory framework for biotechnology will seek to harmonize it with the existing regulations (at the national and world levels) and with international agreements.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on the Russian Federation's submission to the fifth and sixth sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 31 July 1998.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

National policy or strategy for ecologically sustainable industrial development is an integral part of the Russian Federation's State Sustainable Development Strategy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development resulted in the business sector's increased interest in environmental and sustainable development problems. In spite of a number of positive examples in this field, the economic crisis and the industrial recession have threatened the existence of most enterprises, and environmental protection and sustainable development are for the time being not priority areas for them. However, since the Rio Conference, progressive representatives of business have become more and more involved in the development of a State policy in the field of sustainable development, and have themselves begun to take the initiative to promote the principles of sustainable development among business circles.

The principal threats to human health or the sustainable use of natural resources associated with industrial activity are associated with transport, the metallurgical industry, oil-prospecting and the oil-refining industry, energy (lead pollution, radioactive wastes, sulphuric acid discharges).

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on the Russian Federation's submission to the sixth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: 31 July 1998.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation is responsible for decision-making concerning all kinds of transport except railroads. Its responsibilities include:

The Ministry of Railway Transport of the Russian Federation has been set up to:

The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade is responsible for formulating and conducting national governmental economic and social policies, economic development and its effective management in order to provide progress in social and economic spheres.

The Committee on Standardization, Certification and Metrology is responsible for setting standards concerning environmental issues of in transport sphere, of fuel and oil, their certification, and maintenance.

The Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology of the Russian Federation is responsible for development programs in auto- and shipbuilding industries.

The Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation and other governmental executives participate in formulating and conducting energy policy of the Russian Federation. It provides the country with energy and fuel according to its needs, organizes and controls safe and rational usage of energy. Also, the Ministry conducts a national governmental energy research policy, works out projects and sets up companies in fuel and energy complex. Its responsibilities also include suggesting appropriate tariffs, prices and grants for energy resources and other products of the industry.

The Government of the Russian Federation has special committees headed by Vice-presidents of the country. They coordinate ministries and other agencies in formulating transport policy, improving legal system of the transport industry. These committees include: Transport Committee, Road Safety Committee and Inter-department Committee on Airways.

Decision-making at the national level sometimes needs coordination and cooperation between federal and local departments and agencies, therefore special inter-ministry committees and working groups are often created. Decisions and documents projects are later passed on to the controlling executives and legal authorities.

Russian Federation is a federal State with very actively developing local authorities. Therefore the problems of delegating the authorities to national, regional and local authorities are tackled in federal laws and legal documents that regulate executives.

The following responsibilities are given to the regional authorities:

The problems listed above are tackled by special departments (boards, agencies) in the regions of the Russian Federation and its cities. Legal executives might also set up unitary or municipal companies.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Presently there is no federal law regulating transport industry, which could provide environmentally safe work of the transport system. However, there are laws that control and provide frameworks for decision-making. These laws include:

Almost all the laws mentioned above were introduced after the Rio Summit (1992) and reflect problems of environmental protection, life safety and health care, and maximizing energy efficiency.  Also very important for the transport industry are the two following Decisions of the President of the Russian Federation:

The following laws are now being worked out:

Unfortunately, most of the laws do not contain concrete chapters concerning transport and activities connected with it, but there are other laws and strategies that do not directly regulate transport but cover related areas.  Moreover, these laws need further development, such as extra decisions, federal Acts. Another problem is that most documents are out of date and do not meet present standards.

Serious restrictions on air pollution are to be taken with a new Federal Law “Atmosphere protection” approved in 1999. All means of transport are under obligation to control their emission according to the existing technical standards. Presently new legal acts and standards are being worked out to regulate the inspection procedure in auto transport system, railways, airways, sea and river transport systems, and also for agricultural and road-constructing equipment.

Emission Standards

There is a special system of emission standards for wheeled vehicles (cars, motorbikes, agricultural and road-construction equipment, diesel locomotive, sea- and river power plants) in Russia.   As auto transport is the biggest pollutant, its ecological standards are the most improved ones.

Since 1987 Russia has been the member of Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used of Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions.

In 1998 the UN/ECE Rules in certification of new car models were accepted in Russia (as national standards). However, all the requests on the amendments for ecological Rules UN/ECE (R49 and R83, which set requests with levels EURO 3 and EURO 4), are not used in the Russian auto transport certificate system.

Taking into account the present economic situation in Russia and inability of Russian car manufactures to produce cars according to the recent requests on the amendments for Rules UN/ECE, the Committee on Standardization, Certification and Metrology (Gosstandard) has approved the national introduction schedule of amendments, approved earlier (table 1). The time lag between European standards and Russian schedule is from 6 to 8 years. The introduction schedule of requests Rules UN/ECE No83-05A (EURO3) for cars with net weight 3,5 tons or less, EURO 3 for cars with net weight more than 3,5 tons are not defined in the Russian certification system.

Table 1

Application period of Ecological Rules UN/ECE and their introduction schedule in Russia

Rules

Russian Federation

UN/ECE

start

end

start

end

83-01 B

(EURO 1)

-

-

30.12.92

02.07.95

83-02 B, C

(EURO 1)

01.01.99

31.12.2001

02.07.95

07.12.96

83-03 B, C

(EURO 2)

01.01.2002

-

08.12.96

2000

83-05 A

(EURO 3)

-

-

2001

2004

83-05 B

(EURO 4)

-

-

2005

-

49-01

01.04.96

(1 year)

31.12.97

14.05.90

01.07.92

4902 A

(EURO 1)

01.01.98

(1 year)

01.04.96

(3 years)

-

 

01.01.99

01.07.92

04.10.95

4902 B

(EURO 2)

01.01.99

(3 years)

-

01.10.95

2000

EURO 3 (project)

-

-

2001

-

Presently there are three types of transport ecological standards in Russia. They define CO and CH emission levels while idling (for cars with petrol and gas engines), and also they set level of smoke for diesel cars.

Table 2 contains all the standards for cars with petrol engines.

Smoke emission during guarantee period, after technical maintenance or repair works shouldn’t be higher the level in table 3.

The possible level of the smoke emission in running might exceed the free acceleration rate k pos (table 3) less than 0,5m-1 .

Smoke emission of all cars approved on the GOST R 41.24 certification, may be checked only in free acceleration, and its rate shouldn’t be higher the maximum rates in the certificates, technical documents of the producer.

Table 2

The possible maximum content of CO and CH rate in emission (GOST 17.2.2.03-87)

Rotation frequency

The maximum possible content of CO, volume, %

The maximum possible content of hydrocarbons, volume, million-1

For engines with the number of cylinders

less than 4

more than 4

Cars without catalysis neutralizations

nmin

The level in the producer’s documents; if absent, -3,5

1200

3000

nheightened

2,0

600

1000

Cars with catalysis neutralizations

nmin

The level in the producer’s documents; if absent, -1,0

400

600

nheightened

The level in the producer’s documents; if absent, -0,7

200

300

  Comments:

1.      Technical documents for cars, produced after 01.01.99, should contain the level of the maximum possible content of CO in idling (it shouldn’t be higher than those in the table 3)

2.      Producers regulate the possible content of CO and CH in emission only for cars with mileage less than 3000 km.

3.       Rotation frequency of the engine crankshaft (nmin and nheightened) is defined in technical instructions. If they are not defined, then nmin=(800±50)min-1, nheightened=(3000±100)min-1.

Table 3

The maximum possible smoke emission diesel cars (GOST 21393-75)

Smoke rating conditions

The maximum possible natural rate of light flow abatement kpos, m-1,   less than *

The maximum possible factor of light flow abatement Npos, %, less than **

Free acceleration for diesel cars:

 

 

Without supercharge

1,2

40

with supercharge

1,6

50

The maximum rotation frequency of idling

0,4

15

* Producers should set technical smoke standards for cars with mileage less than 3000 km.

** The standards are given for L=0,43m.

The Decision of the Government of Russia “The main issues on the transport certification and responsibilities of legal authorities to road safety” (No 1090 of 23.10.1993) defines banning of the running transport means with indices higher than standard. The national standard GOST 25478-91, which regulates maximum technical car indicators with obligatory periodic technical check, also contains obligatory ecological standards.

Fines for ignoring standards is regulated by the Official Delinquent Code (articles 80 and 81).

In 1998 two intergovernmental ecological standards were introduced in Russia. They regulate ecological requirements, emission standards for agricultural, industrial, forestry tractors with diesel engines, self-propelled agricultural and road-construction machinery (GOST 17.2.2.05-97) and smoke emission (GOST 17.2.2.02-98). These standards are used for both new and used equipment.

Rolling stock of Russian railways is also being controlled by the system of ecological standards. Standard GOST 50953-96 regulates content of CO and NOx and smoke emission for different types of diesel locomotives.

Ship power plants also have special ecological standards. According to the rules of Appendix VI "Rules for preventing atmosphere pollution from ships" to the Convention MARPOL 73/78, approved in 1997, emission of NOx and SOx is regulated for ship engines.

At the national level there are two standards for producers: GOST R 51249-99 "Ship, locomotive and industrial diesel. Gas emission. Standards and evaluation methods”; GOST 51250-99 “Ship, locomotive and industrial diesel. Smoke emission. Standards and evaluation methods”. These standards are used for both new and used equipment.

According to the Appendix VI to the Convention MARPOL 73/78 brimstone content in any liquid fuel should be less than 4,5% its weight, and if the ship is within the District of SOx Control - 1,5% its weight.

Methods of emission reduction

Presently there are no legal economic methods of stimulating production and usage of ecologically improved equipment. Its control is based on the official restrictions and fines.

Road safety rules

Russia uses almost all Rules of UN/ECE that regulate requirements for active, passive and after repair works car safety.

Periodical inspections on road safety are made. The standard GOST 25478 regulates road safety rules. Now that standard is in the process of revision and on some issues it will correspond to the EU Directive 96/96.

Registration rules of the National Road Safety Inspection oblige all the registered cars to approve type, safety systems work.

Maintenance Standards

Since 01.02.1993 a special certification system of all services on vehicle maintenance has been introduced in Russia. It is based on system of standards, legal documents that regulate amount and quality of works done.

Presently there are no rules, directions of any kind that would stimulate the nation to use ecologically safe means of transport. Meanwhile, governmental strategy in the field of public passenger transport system itself stimulates the nation to use public transport, which is safer. It is financed by the national and local budget, the Government also keeps low rates and prices on transportation and that makes public passenger transport a more attractive option.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

On the 8th of September 1997, a new Governmental Concept of transport policy of the Russian Federation was approved by the Governmental Decision No 1143. Its regulations are recommended to use while working out and conducting national transport development programs, social and economic development programs of the regions of the Russian Federation.

The Concept of transport policy defines goals and missions of the governmental transport policy, main directions of further changes in property relationship, reforms on the corporate level, economic cooperation improvement in the field of transport services, tariff and tax control, government support of transport companies.

On the Board Session of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation (Moscow,  February 1999) were worked out the main goals of the development of the Russian transport system for the year 2000 and in the prospective. On the whole, they can be defined as the following. Keeping the main mission the same (providing stable and safe functioning of the effective transport system) transport strategy should be based on the priority system, renovated according to the present economic situation in Russia. Growth in transport activities shouldn’t be priority of the present transport policy. The stress should be made on structure development, legal, economic and administrative improvements, which will lead to the stable qualitative development of the transport system.

At the beginning of a new century the government should be more responsible for the transport system development, for providing free competition and fulfilling all the transport technical standards.  Taking into account deficit of financing, the government should support its transport system by improving legal and economic conditions.

Unfortunately, at present time there is no national transport policy on the national level. However, legal authorities and executives take steps to improve transport system and urban-planning strategy.

Short- and long-term transport infrastructure planning is formulated in legal documents and acts of the Government. Table 4 shows the national plan  "Transport Network Development Plan 2000-2010".

Table 4

Road network in Russia in XXI century

 

2000

2005

2010

2020*

Road length, thousands of km

including federal roads

579

 

46,4

629

 

40

703

 

53

860

 

60

* forecast

 

The project "Inland waterways of Russia" provides support of total road length on the level year 2000 (103000 km, including 42400 km with guaranteed depth).

The Concept of modernization of unified Russian airways was approved by governmental decision No144 of 22.02.2000. It provides the same airways length as in the year 2000 (600000 km). However, there is no approved short or long-term plan that would define quantitative goals on the following problems: reducing fuel consumption and optimizing its structure; reducing emission; expanding alternative means of transport.

The Committee on Standardization, Certification and Metrology has approved the schedule of introducing international standards (UN/ECE Rules) for certification of new types of cars, trucks, etc. The Ministry of Transport of Russia has approved a number of social, economic, and technical steps for short, middle and long term policies.

Transport infrastructure development:

In short term period:

In middle term period:

In the long term period:

Alternative ecologically safe energy resources

In short term period:

In middle term period:

In the long term period

 Further promotion of alternative energy resources for public passenger transport especially liquefied natural gas.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

All citizens and public organizations have a right for free gathering and spreading information. It is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian federation and international and Russian legal acts. In the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "Complementary Civil Rights on Information", article 3, the principle of informational openness of all governmental authorities, organizations is defined. The nation is informed about all the decisions of the Government and.

The federal Law "Atmosphere protection", approved in 1999, has a special section devoted to civil rights in the atmosphere pollution. It guarantees rights for information about atmosphere condition and the sources of its pollution, rights to take part in the discussion of projects and making suggestions.   These rights are conducted by public organizations. The number of public ecological organizations has grown for the last decade sharply. Consequently, their level of organization and efficiency has also changed. These organizations are Greenpeace Russia, Social and Economic Union, Ecoline, Green Democratic Party, Russian ecological party "Cedar", Moscow ecological Federation, etc.

According to the ecological legal system of Russia, all major projects (including transport that can negatively effect the environment), have to be ecologically tested. Public organizations use their rights, and as a result of their several dangerous projects were banned. For example, the project of high-speed railway Moscow-Saint Petersburg, overland project of the third Moscow transport "ring" through the historical district Lefortovo, etc.  However, there is no national system of studying public opinion concerning transport policy, but certainly there are premises for creating it.

The results of Russian transport system work in 1999 shows that in general the system was stable and it managed to meet the demand of the economy in transportation. However, some factors show the necessity of improving the transport system. Transferring to the market relations, slow macroeconomic stabilization, sharp decline in nations solvency keep tensions in public transport and in cargo in several Russian regions - the Far East and the Far North.

A sharp growth in the number of cars (since 1992 - by 83%) especially in the "rich" regions of Russia, and the transport infrastructure doesn't correspond with the number of cars. As a result the number of traffics has increased, speed has been reduced, emission from transport has grown  (83% of all emission from transport is in cities and towns).

Private sector is very active in the transport system. In 1999 private companies provided 10% of all cargo transportation services, and 1% of all auto transport services.

Auto transport associations of Russia are created in order to meet the interests of all transport companies (public and private forms of property). There are 54 such associations now in Russia and 20 of them were established in 1999. Moreover, on 29th of January 1999 the Russian Auto Transport Unit was set up. Its founders are national and regional auto transport associations.

The main mission of the Unit is to protect and present the interests of all Russian transport companies, to improve transport legal system, make it more safe and effective.

Programmes and Projects   

In May 2000, the Ecology Committee in Duma made a decision to prepare a legal project “Auto transport ecological safety”. That project defines the main principles of providing ecological safety of auto transport, responsibilities of federal and local authorities, financing and insurance principles. The present version of the project defines:

To meet commercial, private and public demand in transportation in Russia, presently Ministry of Transport of Russia as a nation's consumer is conducting two programs: the program of the President "Inland waterways of Russia" and national program "Development program of public buses, trolleybuses and train production".

The program "Expansion of international transport system" is now being worked out.  he Ministry of Economics of Russia has prepared a project of National Program "Development of Auto Transport Industry till 2005"

Private companies are involved in the transportation sphere in order to raise service quality. Also a number of programs are conducted to restore taxi companies that were cut down in the 90-s.

Improving road safety

A new project of a national program called "Raising road safety in the Russian Federation for 2000-2003" has just been worked out. The program is now being prepared for introduction into the Government. The programs aim is to reduce traffic-related accidents and damages by 15-20%.  Similar programs on raising road safety were worked out and now conducted in 66 states of Russia.

Improving efficiency in fuel consumption

In 1998 the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Russia worked out and approved national program "Energy Saving" (till 2005). However, the problem of energy and fuel saving are not mentioned in that program.

Reducing emissions from transport

Environmental protection in the transport system of Russia is conducted on the base of the Program of managing environmental protection in the transport system, introduced in 1993. The Government has approved the National Plan of Environmental Protection for 1999-2000. A part of that plan is devoted to reducing negative effects from transport on environment and on the nation.

Promoting non-motorized modes of transport

There are no national or regional programs of promoting non-motorized modes of transport in Russia now.

According to the decision of the Board of the Ministry of Transport of Russia, the main objects of research programs and projects for the nearest future are:

The Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Finance of Russia are financing research programs and projects in the following federal programs:

Scientific research projects are still aimed at formulating and restricting transport system, providing all the necessary conditions for stable and safe functioning of the system.  Since the year 2000 all research programs on developing transport infrastructure, including finance, investments and innovations systems will be continued.

Presently the Program of managing environmental protection in the transport system is being conducted in the field of formulating ecological requirements for the transport infrastructure. The ecological requirements are based on the terms of The Concept of Sustainable Development, approved by the UN Conference on Environment and Development.

The program "Satellite Navigation System GLONASS Usage for civil consumers" provides working out technical equipment for transport satellite navigation, necessary overland control systems, which provide transport work with the signal of satellite navigation System GLONASS and GLONASS/GPS.

A new national program " International Transport Corridors Development" is now being worked out. It is aimed at providing active participation of the Russian Federation in the field of creating integrated European transport system with Russian communications and infrastructure.

Several industrial ministries of Russia and research institutes are working on the following national scientific programs: "Ecologically safe high-speed transport", "Fuel and energy", "Gas Supply in Russia".  In particular, within these programs the following projects are worked out on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade in the field of ecologically safe engines and cars:

About 115 scientific, consultant and expert organizations (with 7000 staff members) are involved in working out research programs.

Status   

There is no statistic information on economic satisfaction of transport services in Russia. The total length of transport ways of Russia at the beginning of 1999 was:

Every day more than 130.6 million passengers used these transport lines and 28 million tons cargo was shipped.

The length of airways was 600000 km.

Motor-car roads

The difference between Russian and European or American roads is huge. Density of motor car roads is 26 km at 1000 km2. It is 10 times lower than in the USA, 40 times lower than in Great Britain and France, 50 times lower than in Germany and in Japan. The density of motor car roads at 1000 people is 3-10 times lower in Russia.

Only 2/3 of the roads can be used, not taking into account the quality of these roads.  All regions differ by the quality of roads, in some roads are not connected with federal roads, and some are closed during winter. A few regions even don't have permanent roads.

The base of Russian transport complex is motor car road of general use (578000 km, including 520000 km with hard road surface). Federal roads form about 10% of roads of general use, but more than federal roads provide 50% of transportation services.  On the 1st of January 1999, 99% of all federal roads had hard road surface (45700 km), including 91% improved surface (42000 km).

Traffic capacity of most federal roads is less than standard by 20-30%.  The intensity of traffic on the way out in Moscow is 30-70 thousand cars a day. In other big cities (with population more than 1 million people) it is 20-40 thousand cars. Far away from cities it is 1-4 thousand cars a day.  About 45% of all roads are used more intensively than they should be, and 25% of them are overloaded. Only 30% of all roads are used according to the standards.  Federal roads were considered unsafe and even defective after total inspection: 51.8% of roads are not hard enough, 38.7% are not adhesive enough, 22.8% are not even enough.

Due to such technical conditions more than 12 billion of rubles are wasted each year. According to the experts of the program "Russian Roads", total loss from lack of roads is 380-440 billion of rubles.

Inland waterways of Russia

Guaranteed depths are supported on the 39400 km of inland waterways, including 24000 km with electric lightning.

Reduction in governmental financing of inland waterways of Russia leads to the reduction in length of waterways with electrical lightning. In such conditions financial support is spent on the hydro equipment reconstruction works.  Technical condition of hydro equipment that was build 40-60 years ago is very bad, and the risk of accidents increases day by day.

Since transferring to the market economy quality of statistical data on fuel consumption has declined sharply. The present information cannot provide precise evaluation of oil and gas consumption.

The transport system of Russia is one of the main energy users; it consumes about 140 million of relative/conventional fuel a year (mostly more expensive light oil products).  Meanwhile, the total amount of transport services in fuel and energy consumption is lower than in economically developed countries.  Transport section provides 9.5% fuel and energy consumption, 59.1% of motor oil fuel consumption.

In 1999 the amount of petrol produced in Russia was 26.5 million tons, diesel fuel – 46.8 million tons.  The total petrol sale on the domestic market in 1999 was: motor car petrol - 90%, diesel - 48%.  The low transport part in the oil motor fuels consumption is due to non-efficient consumption in agriculture and in industry.  Total oil products consumption by transport organizations and companies is given in table 5.

Table 5

Fuel consumption by transport organizations and companies

 

1991

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Aircraft petrol

0,141

0,049

0,036

0,022

0,014

0,019

Motorcar petrol

27,7

15,7

14,7

12,7

11,3

12,2

Diesel

27,0

16,2

14,5

13,2

12,1

13,2

Kerosene

7,5

3,7

2,9

2,3

1,7

1,5

Coal and its products

5,9

5,6

5,7

5,6

4,7

4,2

Since 1991 production of unleaded petrol has sharply increased (table 6). According to the National Program "Fuel and Energy", total transition to unleaded petrol in Russia is planned by the year 2010.

Table 6

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Total motor car petrol, mln tons

38,5

35,1

30,1

26,8

28,2

26,8

27,2

26,7

25,5

Total unleaded petrol, %

25,3

26,8

32,5

37,7

46,9

53,4

69,0

80

88

Leaded petrol is prohibited to use in some regions, cities and resorts (Moscow, Moscow Region, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Sochi, etc.). However, some plants in Russia (4 plants on the East) still produce leaded petrol. Further reduction of leaded petrol production is hardly possible due to economic factors - lack of financing. Besides, import of leaded petrol from former USSR countries is still high.

Since 1st of January 1999 a new standard on petrol has been introduced: GOST R 51105-97 "Unleaded motor car petrol". The new standard provides restriction of such ecologically harmful components as lead, brimstone, and for the first time in Russia it regulates the maximum benzene content. Table 7 contains all Russian and foreign ecological standards for petrol.

Table 7

Present Russian and international petrol ecological standards

 

Russian standards

International standards

 

A-76 (standard GOST 2084)

AI-80, AI-91, AI-93, AI-95 (standard GOST 51105-97)

EN 228

Lead content, gram / decimeter3

0,15

0,010

0,013

Mass part of brimstone, %, less than

0,10

0,05

0,05

Benzene volume, %, less than

-

5

5

Pressure of saturated steam, kPa, less than *

66,7

70

65

* For summer petrol

  Meanwhile, due to the lack of production capacities of highly octane rating oil products for unleaded petrol, presently it is not prohibited to use ant detonation equipment on the base of some ecologically harmful substances.

However, Russia is more or less is provided with necessary amount of unleaded petrol, but there is definitely a problem with supply of high octane unleaded petrol on Russian gas stations. It will help cars with catalysis neutralizations. First that problem has to be solved in central and in South regions of European part of Russia.

The biggest pollutant among all industries of Russian economy is transport system. Total amount of transport emission is 45% of all atmosphere emission, in greenhouse gases - 10%, in industrial waste - 2%, in sewage - 3%, in use of ozone destroying substances - less than 5%. Transport noise is 85-95% on different territories.

Table 8 contains the amount of pollution from all means transport.

The trends of changes in the emission are shown on the diagram 8.1.

Table 8

Atmosphere emission from transport in 1999, thousand of tons

 

CO

CnHm

NOx

C

SO2

Pb

Total

Motor car

8996,0

1261,0

1629,0

48,0

219,0

1,38

12154,4

River

13,0

9.7

37,0

3,9

13,0

-

76,6

Sea

11,0

7,6

28,0

2,5

29,0

-

78,1

Airways

52,0

13,0

62,0

-

13,0

-

140,0

Railways

34,0

21,0

138,0

8,3

-

-

201,3

Industrial railways

7,0

4,0

30,0

1,5

-

-

42,5

Road cars

125,0

24,0

63,0

5,4

8,6

0,02

226,0

Total

9238,0

1340,3

1987,0

69,6

282,6

1,4

12918,9

 

Diagram 18.1

  Table 9

Gas emission, thousand of tons

Year

CO2

CH4

NO2

1990

226400

48

50

1999

173000

37

38

  Table 10 contains information on emission of organic matters and heavy metals in Russia. From the 1,2 million tons of hydrocarbons (table 8) only 432 thousand tons were identified. The biggest part was toluol (150 thousand tons), xylols (100 thousand tons), ethylene (92 thousand tons).

Table 10

Emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere from transport

Benzene

20

Acetaldegid

3,8

Formaldehyde

17,5

Benzepirne

1,5*10-3

Petrol steam

20

Dioxin

8*10-9

Ethylene

92

Cadmium

5,4*10-4

1,3-butanedien

12

Copper

9,2*10-2

Toluol

150

Nickel

3,8*10-3

Xylol

100

Selenium

5*10-4

Sterol

9

Zinc

5,4*10-2

  The amount of ecological pollution from transport system equals 1,5% of GNP each year.  The biggest part of that pollution comes from vehicles (63%). It is a leader among all others means of transport: in atmosphere pollution 95% comes from vehicles, noise pollution - 49,5%, influence on climate - 68%. In 1998 emission from transport system increased by 2% because of the growth of number of car owners. In 1999 such trend was saved.

The 83% of all emissions are made on the within cites territories. The main pollutants there are vehicles (about 60-70% of emission comes from vehicles).  Total volume of wastes in the transport system in 1999 was 2,5 million tons (table 11, the amount of scrap-iron is not included).

Table 11

Transport system sewage and wastes in 1999

Transport

Polluted sewage volume, mln meters3

The amount of harmful substances in sewage, thousands of tons

Wastes, thousand of tons

Suspended substances

Oil products

Motor cars

7.6

79.0

2.9

1800.0

River

7.6

0.48

0.02

83.8

Sea

2.4

0.12

0.01

8.0

Railways

50.6

2.7

0.06

537.3

Airways

6.6

0.6

0.14

120.0

Total

74.8

82.9

3.13

2549.1

  Ecological problems, connected with motor car transport are aggravated by a sharp increase in the number of car owners. At the beginning of 1999 there were 25.44 million motor transport in Russia, including 18.81 million of cars, 4.26 million trucks, 0.63 million buses, and 1.66 million trailers.  Russian ecological transport and fuel standards are lower than in the rest of the world. Another feature of Russian transport system is a rapid increase of foreign used cars (older than 4-5 years).

Challenges  

An absolute leader in transportation, fuel consumption and pollution is auto transport. 90% of all transport emission comes from auto transport; 62,7% of environment damage, influence on people (noise, air pollution, climate changes) also comes from auto transport. It is obvious that government authorities should do everything to improve transport system safety.

Russia has everything for creating efficient transport system: high scientific, technical and industrial potential, developed road and construction systems, qualified human resources, etc.  However, great territory of the country, severe climate and a great length of transport communications make the progress slower in that sphere.

Another reason for slowing progress is economic and social situations in the country. Russia is only transforming to a market economy; transport system is in the process of privatization and restructuring. There are also changes in the governmental management of transport system, changes in financial methods of industry development. The economy has just started to stabilize.  Slow progress in the transport industry is due to the reasons, listed below:

The main difficulty in implying principles of ecologically stable progress in transport industry is that economic problems seem to be more important than transport safety.  Conducted research showed that ineffective ecology safety management in transport system also comes from the following problems:

Negative consequences of transport are connected with ineffective management transport systems and they are:

A very important problem is information support of all the projects, participation in exhibitions and auctions. All the information on efficiency of companies should be open to the public so that it could attract investors.

The number of local public transport services has declined sharply, the prices have increased and as a result people who don't own cars (mostly families with low income) find it difficult to travel, go to work.  In spring and autumn more than 100 towns and 50000 settlements are cut off from the rest of the world due to inaccessible roads. Only 2/3 of  roads can be used.  In addition, the level of transport services within the cities has also declined, because of the reduction in the number of rolling stock. Consequently, the intervals have also grown.

Another problem is inaccessibility of transport for pensioners, disabled and blind people. These categories of people make about 30% of all passengers.  Children and elderly people are more effected by pollution from transport.  I addition, it is difficult to keep reasonable prices for services. 30% of the population are elderly and disabled people, children and their mothers, etc. Taking into account their income, it is obvious that sometimes they cannot afford transport services. Another group is inhabitants of distant country regions.

Bad management of transport industry in big cities leads to reduction in quality of public transport services and at the same time traffic increases.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Russian people are greatly concerned about ecological problems, especially those that are connected with transport emission. To some extent it is a result of work of mass media. The following newspapers and journals regularly write about these problems: "Motor car transport", "Automatic pilot", "Klaxon", "The green world", etc. "The green world" newspaper annually publishes reports on environment pollution in the Russian Federation that include information on transport. 

Lately, environmental protection has become a great issue for election campaigns and people have become more and more informed about these issues.  Federal and local legal acts more often take into account public opinion in the process of ecision-making. For example, Federal Law "Atmosphere protection" approved in 1999 has a special chapter "Civil rights, rights of public organizations and companies in the sphere of atmosphere protection" which regulates these problems.

A number of public organizations provide information on environmental issues. For example, GREENPEACE, Green Democratic Party, Russian ecological party "Cedar", Christian ecological party, etc. These parties participated in a number of environmental protection actions: felling forests and others.

Public Transportation improvement

A very reliable public transport system always was and still is one of the main factors of social and political stability in Russia.  Statistical information on public transportation is given in table 12.

Table 12

Public transportation in Russia

 

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

The number of cities and towns that have the following means of transport

Tram

70

70

70

68

68

68

68

68

Subway

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Trolleybus

86

86

86

85

85

85

87

87

Bus

1387

1293

1321

1286

1249

1266

1250

1289

 

Taxi

465

442

365

241

222

186

169

157

The number of routes on each type of transport

Tram

695

696

686

677

681

664

649

Trolleybus

891

907

916

923

925

932

920

Bus

28545

26960

26304

26929

25937

25342

25806

25384

Total number of passengers

45962.1

44919.4

45320.2

43825.3

42809.8

43390.0

43959.4

43468.3

44095.5

Including:

Tram

7619.5

8070.6

8125.2

7644.4

7563.9

7510.8

7481.0

7481.0

7710.0

subway

3229.0

3567.5

4212.1

4224.4

4149.9

4173.7

4128.2

4146.2

4087.1

trolleybus

8004.9

8619.1

9101.6

8751.3

8546.6

8681.0

8812.9

8852.3

8925.7

Bus

26511.8

24352.4

23703.7

23078.5

22458.5

22963.5

23480.5

22947.0

23331.4

Taxi

525.6

265.7

139.3

98.4

66.0

43.4

33.1

24.1

20.8

sea transport

13.2

8.4

6.1

4.2

3.2

2.1

1.5

1.2

0.8

River transport

58.1

35.7

32.2

24.1

21.7

15.9

22.2

16.5

19.7

Total passenger turnover. mln pass./ km

29497.5

275230.8

274469.0

269214.8

264907.3

263843.2

263652.9

258744.1

261768.6

Including:

Tram

24101.2

25961.9

26326.1

25869.5

25356.7

25238

25035.8

25483.3

26214

subway

35571.8

39589.4

46754.7

47000.7

46180.3

46622.3

46195.4

46458.8

45775.4

trolleybus

23918.5

26161.8

28280.3

27154.1

26852.3

27330.1

27872.7

28185.9

28562.3

Bus

202454.9

179048.4

170601.1

167386.2

165229.8

163747.0

163818.4

158065.0

160704.7

Taxi

7883.5

3773.4

1977.9

1406.6

950.3

624.3

476.8

345.4

306.7

sea transport

221.3

124.5

92.0

83.5

64.6

84.2

16.7

16.3

16.3

River transport

824.3

571.4

436.9

314.2

273.3

199.1

237.1

189.4

189.2

                                     

Presently Russian authorities are working on several improvement projects of Public Passenger Transport System:

1.      Creating a three-level system of special money funds (national, regional and local) for financing Public Transport System. The subsidies should cover 40-45% of real expenditures (15-20% of all expenditures will be covered by regional and local funds). Fare/tickets should cover the rest part. There are several money sources:

2.      Release from special transport taxes all public passenger transport organizations.

3.      Reforming the Public Passenger Transport System in order to create better cooperation between cities authorities and Public Transport System organizations; improving contract system of cooperation: fixed prices for socially important transportation services.

4.      Improving the system of privilege or free tickets for certain categories; regulating the system of budget compensation from privileges. These compensations will be paid by local budgets to guarantee proper spending.

5.      Modernization of transport fleet of Public Passenger Transport System.

6.      Organizing permanent monitoring of transport services demand; working out and introduction the system of Public Passenger Transport traffic registration.

Non-motorized transport, car-pooling development

Unfortunately, non-motorized transport (bicycles, etc.) is not popular in Russia due to its climate and lack of infrastructure (cycling lines, etc.), air pollution in cities.

Car-pooling systems are not spread in Russia.

Road safety is a great problem in Russia. Each year more than 30 thousand people die in car accidents and about 170 thousand people get injured. To improve road safety mass media informs of some serious accidents and their reasons. In schools there are special classes on road safety.

A new federal program "Raising road safety in the Russian Federation for 2000-2003" has a special chapter devoted to future improvements in road safety policy. Special literature, posters on road safety are to be published. It is known that teenagers get into car accidents more often than any other group. That program provides an intensive program for them: contests for the best artwork on road safety, special road safety sports clubs, auto schools, bike clubs.

Ecological aspects are more or less mentioned in Russian school program. Some issues are included in the following classes: "Biology", "Economic Geography". More seriously these issues are studied at a new course "The basics of safe life". Some schools have additional ecology courses. For example, some 8-9-grade students study such course as "Moscow region. Ecological issues". There is a Museum of Ecological Education at Moscow school No information available. 969.

In Saint Petersburg there is a new school project called "A step into the 21 century". It includes a number of different programs:

In Russia there is a special system of improving employees qualification in the transport system, including the issues of environmental protection. That system includes a number of short-term courses and classes on special problems. Permanent courses of Motor Car Transportation Association are also devoted to ecological and road safety at international transportation.

Each year the Department of Environmental Protection and Ecological Safety in the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation holds 2-3 day seminars for transport system organizations.

The Department of Auto Car Transport in the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation twice a year holds Conferences on road safety.  Since 1995 permanent courses on "Environmental protection and road safety" are held on the base of The Agreement between National Road Institute of Sweden (VTI) and Russian National Transport Research Institute with the help of Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency (SIDA).

The Ministries are mostly responsible for organizing courses. Education programs are sometimes conducted at special Universities, for example, Moscow Institute of Auto Transport and Road (MADI).

Information   

Russia has a well-developed governmental system of gathering information, with an appropriate legal system. Gathering information that has a great value for planning and managing Russian economy is the responsibility of the Committee on Statistics of the Government of Russia (Goscomstat of Russia). The Committee has regional and local agencies in all regions of Russia. Information is gathered and then summarized according to the format. Each year the Committee on Statistics of the Government of Russia publishes statistical almanacs that contain main economic and social data for a certain period of time. Later the information is analyzed by research agencies.

Independent organizations, specialized in gathering information and studying public opinion sometimes participate in gathering information on special subjects. Statistical almanacs also contain information on transport system and services. It includes production of means of transport, total amount of services by public passenger transport and cargo, energy consumption, accidents, etc. All the information is open.

Each year the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia publishes a Report of the Government "Environment in Russia" that contains information on emission from all transport means. Volume of emission is evaluated by standard methods according to the structure of the transport fleet and work done.  Unfortunately, due to the liberalization of the economy, the amount and quality of gathered information has reduced. For example, there is a big gap in the information on transportation demand, fuel consumption, etc.

There is a special system of gathering information on pollution from any kind of sources in Russia, including transport. That system is regulated by Environmental Protection Legal System and is organized by the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia (earlier – Ecology Committee of the Government Russia).

Evaluation of gross emission is conducted by special organizations. They do it by direct evaluation or by calculating (according to the information on the number of cars, mileage, fuel consumption, number of shifts, etc).  Pollution monitoring of the basic toxic components, typical for emission gas CO, NO, formaldehyde, carbon-black/soot, is conducted periodically in big cities during special research programs or short-term projects. There is no permanent Governmental system of environment monitoring, but in some regions or cities such programs are conducted (in Moscow, Saint Petersburg and other big cities).  Gathered information is published annually and is open for everybody. Unfortunately their drawing is very small and often neglected by the public.

Information on environmental pollution is guaranteed by the Russian legal system, but very often it is neglected. Sometimes barriers for getting information are made in regions.  Lately, due to the expansion of Internet in Russia, special web-sights on environment have been made. Television and radio also inform the nation about ecological situation.  Information on traffic is more open and systematic. There are special web-sights and radio programs about situation on the roads. New roads also have electronic boards with current information on traffic.

Research and Technologies   

Alternative types of fuel (energy) sources includes only non-oil types of fuel and energy sources: comprise of natural gas, liquefied oil gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, liquid synthetic fuel, biofuel, electricity. In the nearest future only gas may be a real alternative for oil fuel. It will provide a sharp cut of CO emission, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide and hard particles. Public transport, small and medium tonnage trucks are using compromised natural gas.

Presently different schemes of natural gas usage on internal-combustion engine are applied on engines with:

The most promising gas engine is the one with spark ignition, with electronic system made to work with gas. Such engines are worked out in a number of Russian research institutes.  Other prospective alternative energy sources include methanol, diethyl ether, and hydrogen. But these projects are only in a process. Traditional methods, used in other countries are also used in Russia and they include:

The Ministry of Transport of Russia is now conducting a project of introducing Satellite Navigation System GLONASS.  According to the recent information there are no new technologies or inventions that are being conducted in that field.

Financing   

a) Investment structure for 1999:

national budget

1.5%

company’s or organization’s own money

28.4%

local budget

15.3%

bank credits and extra-budgetary funds

5.7%

foreign investments

49.1%

b) Research projects financing:

national budget

55%

extra-budgetary funds

14%

other sources

31%

  Transport industry development programs are controlled by both governmental and local authorities. Special investment projects are now carried out with support by Development Budget of the Russian Federation.  A new way of forming budget for restoring merchant fleet will be introduced; sea and river transport investment projects will be financed by that fund.

Rational fiscal measures, protection of national transport system, governmental support for companies in the form of grants, low tax rates, etc. will definitely attract investors into the system.

Introducing international accounting standards would also attract foreign investments. It is planned to create special investment funds in order to support companies of all transport means.  In order to attract foreign or national investors it is necessary to create special infrastructure.

In 2001-2003 it is planned to get more than 1519.1 million of dollars in sea, inland river transport and auto transport. Annual foreign investment will increase from 229.1 million of dollars in 2001 to 670.3 million of dollars in 2003 (203.7% to the level of 1999).

Credits, leasing, new fiscal system will definitely stimulate investment in auto transport. New credit and insurance system for sea fleet provides money from the Development Budget for providing governmental guarantees on credits for shipping companies. Financial risks will be shared between the Government, insurance and credit companies, and ship owners.

Cooperation

There are three international transport corridors on the territory of Russia:

In future it is planned to expand the following transport corridors on the territory of Russia:

The role Trans-siberian Railway Road will be increased in the transit transportation from Asian-Pacific Region to Europe and Central Asia. Technical capacities of the Trans-siberian Railway Road can be used for 100 million tons a year, including international transit in containers 140-160 thousand containers in 20-feet equivalent.

Railroad expansion is planned on the boards with Mongolia, China; expansion of ports at Far East will increase transportation. For example, it is planned to finish Russian-Korean logistic project at port “East”, to modernize container terminals for 40-feet containers.  New terminals and logistic centers will be built in different regions of Russia. There are also projects for reconstruction and updating car roads, in the first place Central Europe – Moscow – Vladivostok, including construction Chita - Habarovsk part.

A new transport corridor “North-South” will be build for further development of Russian-Indian trade and other regions as well. That corridor will reduce transportation costs as well as shipping time.  “North-South” transport corridor scheme will be the following: Bombay port (India) – Bender-Abbas port (Iran) – Anzely port (Iran) – Olya port (Russia) – Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg ports – Western Europe. Private Russian and foreign companies will be working on construction works in Finnish gulf, Novorossisk, Tuapse, Caspian Sea (Olya, Mahachkala).

Danube is also a great interest for Russia. Consequently, the following corridor is going to be more active: Caspian Sea – Volga-Don Channel – Black Sea – Danube – Rein. Inland waterways, including Danube up to North Sea ports, are very convenient for Russia because of low transport costs.  In the nearest future total amount of freight turnover of “North-South” corridor will be 16-20 million tons a year. Solving the problem of Caspian Sea status will increase transportation on the Caspian Sea – Volga – Baltic Sea corridor and will make economic cooperation more active in the region.

Russia is a member of such international organizations as UN/ECE, ESCAP, APEC, ASEAN, BSEC, ICAO, ECMT, WHO, etc. and participates in different committees on transport system improvement projects, conferences, and meetings.  Russia has signed and ratified 28 out of 54 UN/ECE Agreements in the field of transport:

Russia is a member of multilateral permissions on international transportation of European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT).   Russia has participated in all important international forums on transport:

Russia and countries of the former USSR are working on the project of the united transport system.

Russia participates in a wide range of common transport schemes with neighboring countries. Cooperation with developed countries is very important for further development of Russian transport system. An international consultant agency profiled in problems of transport systems of Russia and former USSR countries could be created in order to help them to tackle the problems in transport industry.

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This information is based on Russia's submission to the  9th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 2001.

 

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The State Committee of the Russian Federation for physical culture and tourism is responsible for sustainable tourism at the national level. Local bodies of executive power are also responsible for tourism.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Federal Law, Basis for tourist activity in the Russian Federation, regulates licensing, standardization and state regulation in tourism, certification of tourist product. Control is exerted through the framework of taxation and practices in force.

Legislation in this area includes:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

At the moment, there is no national strategy or master plan for sustainable tourism.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Major Groups are not involved in decision-making in this area.

Programmes and Projects 

The Russian Federation has developed a Special Federal program called, Development of tourism in the Russian Federation (Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation 177 of 26.02.96.)

Status 

Under the Federal Law tourism is one of the priority and developing sector of the Russian economy.

For the recent 10 years, the number of Russian citizens traveling abroad as tourists increased approximately 4 times while the number of foreign citizens entering Russia for tourism remained stable.

A share of tourism earned revenue is used for the preservation of cultural heritage.

A tourism development program for the Lake Baikal region is an example of eco-tourism in the Russian Federation.

Challenges

The primary constraints in this area are the current economic and social problems.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The ecology travel center - a non-governmental non-profit organization - is involved in awareness activities providing lectures, seminars and organised trips for scientists, students, tourists and other interested groups to the Russian specially preserved nature territories.

Information 

The State of Environment in the Russian Federation is available to assist both decision-makers and the tourist industry in promoting sustainable tourism.

Mapping and inventorying of nature territories are also taking place. Relevant information is available on the Internet.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available

Financing 

Financing is provided through direct budget appropriations for special federal programs and development of tourism, preferential credits, tax and custom incentives, assistance from national and international financial organizations, providing favorable conditions for tourism.

Cooperation

There is obligatory coordination with Local Authorities in promoting tourism. In addition, the Russian Federation cooperates with several inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, for instance Council of Europe, UNESCO, World Nature Protection Union, International Game Hunting and Preservation Council.

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This information is based on Russia's submission to the  7th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 1999.


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