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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

To integrate environmental and economic aspects in decision-making, it is necessary to establish a system of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (IEEA). With IEEA, the Government (and potentially private firms) can obtain correct information on citizens' welfare. To efficiently prioritize investment and secure new revenue sources, the Government introduced the Special Account for Environmental Improvement in January 1995. Revenue sources include various charges imposed on polluters, transfers from general and other accounts, loans from the National Bond Management Fund and foreign loans. The Republic of Korea recently launched a project to establish an IEEA system based on the United Nations System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounts (SEEA).

The recent introduction of local autonomy in the political system of The Republic of Korea has brought about conflicts on environmental problems between central and local governments or between local governments themselves. Therefore, dispute settlement mechanisms are required to resolve the conflicts. Furthermore, basic principles and mechanisms predefining rights and obligations of related parties are also necessary to prevent such disputes in advance. For the reconciliation of conflicts, the Government of The Republic of Korea will activate a conciliatory mechanism such as "Local Autonomies Association."

Economic Incentives

The Emission Charge System (1983), the Environmental Improvement Charges (1991), the Deposit-Refund System for Waste Disposal (1992), the Waste Treatment Charge System (1992), the Volume-based Collection Fee System for Domestic Wastes (1995) are major environmental policy instruments utilizing economic incentives.

Environmental Impact Assessment

The EIA system was introduced in 1977 by the Environmental Preservation Act, and in 1993, the Environmental Impact Assessment Law was enacted. The EIA system aims to balance environmental preservation and economic development through the analysis and investigation of the impacts of certain development and business projects on the environment before implementation. In The Republic of Korea, the EIA has been applied to 62 projects in 17 areas.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Ministry of Environment (MOE) manages the Special Account for Environmental Improvement and decides the policies relating to economic instruments. In 1996, the Republic of Korea adopted a National Action Plan for Agenda 21.

The MOE is also responsible for the policies relating to Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). In order to ensure the objectivity of the EIA, Central and Regional Committees for EIA, which consist of professors, engineers, and specialists, review the assessment. Residents are invited to the hearing process of EIA. Those who plan to carry out projects that are subject to EIA must prepare draft assessments, which are made public, and hold a public hearing on the proposed project.

Improving Decision-Making Systems of the Central Government and Local Authorities

In the central Government, sustainable development requires an interdepartmental coordination mechanism. In The Republic of Korea, the Environmental Preservation Committee assumes the task of interdepartmental coordination for environmental issues. Environment-related policy objectives are established through coordination between the Ministries of Finance and Economy, of Home Affairs, of Trade, Industry and Energy and of Construction and Transportation. Other institutions involved are the Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Seoul National University, the Taegu University, and the Korea News Editors' Association. The NGOs involved include the Korea Saemaul Undong Center, the Naitonal Council of Consumer Protection Organizations, the Korean Federation for the Environmental Movement, and the Korea National Council of Women. When a broader mandate is required, the State Council can be summoned.

In order to help integrate sustainable development issues into the decision-making process multi-disciplinary experts should participate in national environmental plans and policies, capacity-building programs should be developed for experts in the government ministries and interministerial coordinating panels and consultative meetings to coordinate and integrate inter-ministerial policies for sustaining national development projects should be revitalized.

In capacity-building measures, the central government played a central role in the past, but recently the role of local governments has been increasing gradually to meet their local needs.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

National Decision-Making Structure
1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: YES
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: YES
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD: YES
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: YES
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: YES

National Instruments and Programmes
1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: YES
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: NO
3. Ecolabel Regulations: YES
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: YES
5. Green Accounting Program: NO
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. A national World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Dev. or State of the Environment: YES
http://www.moenv.go.kr

Policies, Programmes, and Legislation
Does your country have either a policy, programme, and/or legislation consistent with Agenda 21 in:
1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: YES
3. Atmosphere: YES
4. Land Use Planning: YES
5. Forest and Deforestation: YES
6. Desertification and Drought: YES
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: YES
8. Sustainable Agriculture: YES
9. Biological Diversity: YES
10. Biotechnology: YES
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: YES
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: YES
15. Solid Wastes: YES
16. Radioactive Wastes: YES
17. Energy: YES
18. Transport: YES
19. Sustainable Tourism: YES

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Republic of Korea actively participates in regional environmental cooperative mechanisms in Northeast Asia, including the Northeast Asia Regional Environmental Programme (NEAREP), the Northeast Asia Conference on Environmental Cooperation (NEAEC), and the Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP). The activities of these mechanisms include the exchange of information on the role of local authorities, the use of economic instruments, and energy efficient technologies, etc.

 

 

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This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1998.

To go to the Ministry of the Environment, click here:
For the Republic of Korea's Environment Policy, click here:
For the National Action Plan for Agenda 21, click here:
For the Republic of Korea's Environmental Vision, click here:
For environmental laws in the Republic of Korea, click here:
For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The National Action Plan for Agenda 21 assures women's participation in environment and development and political decision-making processes. In 1995, the committee for Globalization Policy, a consultative body to the President, reported on the Ten Tasks to Expand Women's Social Participation. Relevant ministries are formulating measures to implement the Ten Tasks. The Basic Act for Women's Development legislated in 1995 includes provisions which deal with responsibilities of the state and local government to provide legal,institutional and financial measures to promote women's welfare (including "temporary measures in favor of women"). The establishment of the Gender Discrimination Elimination Committee, and the establishment of the Women's Development Fund are a few examples of the measures taken by the Government. Curricula and educational material already promote gender-relevant knowledge and policies and strategies for achievement of equality in all aspects of society are being drawn up. There are no plans at present for establishing mechanisms to assess the implementation and the impact on the development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

The percentage of women among decision makers in Government grew from 0.8% in 1992 to 2.3% in 1996; in parliament from 1% (1992) to 3% (1996); and, at local government (local Assembly) level 0.9% (1992) to 2.3% (1996).

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was signed in May, 1983 and ratified in December, 1984.

 

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This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on Women Watch in different countries, click here:
For information on national plans of action in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, click here:

 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Since 1960, The Republic of Korea has pursued the national tasks of expanding educational opportunities and creating employment opportunities for adolescents. Therefore, in 1988, the Youth Development Act was promulgated. This act provides a social and political foundation for healthy adolescent development. The following four program areas were established in order to ensure a brighter and healthier future for the youth and children:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

The role of youth in the national process is advisory, and the most important fora for them to present their views on sustainable development are:

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Youth unemployment has been reduced from 7.7% in 1992 to 6.3% in 1996. The goal of ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training has been reached.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 


* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

In The Republic of Korea, there are no groups classified as indigenous people as defined in Agenda 21. Thus, it is unnecessary to establish a national policy. However, the Government participates in the international efforts to protect the indigenous populations.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The role of NGOs is critical in promoting environmentally sound and sustainable development. Accordingly, through the National Declaration for Environmental Protection of 1992, the Government expressed its commitment to support activities of NGOs. As of 1995, there have been approximately 200 active NGOs working on environmental issues in the Republic of Korea. These NGOs have made significant contributions by raising public awareness on environment conservation issues.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The Republic of Korea has 15 large communities (1 capital metropolitan city, 5 metropolitan cities and 9 provinces) and 230 local governments (smaller cities, city districts, and counties). The Government supports Local Agenda 21 initiatives and, as of 1995, all local governments are revising and developing existing and new environmental programs in conjunction with the National Action Plan. Local governments should, in cooperation with the central government, identify priorities and find solutions for global environmental problems.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Workers already take some part in National Agenda 21 discussions and implementation. Labour and management discuss and decide together the matters of industrial safety and health through participation the representatives of workers in the industrial safety and health committee. In order to strengthen the role of workers and their trade union, chemical plants with major harmful and hazardous facilities will periodically submit the process safety management reports to the Ministry of Labour, and companies handling chemical substances will instruct the employees by using material safety data sheets.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are governmental policies encouraging efficient resource use, and requiring recycling. To promote cleaner production, the Government has designated eight research institutions as "cleaner production technology assistance centers" in order to provide technological assistance to small and medium entrepreneurs. In order to promote environmentally-friendly industry, the 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

In The Republic of Korea, industries and businesses are increasingly taking voluntary initiatives for environmental management, including environmental declarations recently announced by some enterprises. Most Large- and several Small- and Medium-sized enterprises have adopted sustainable development policies. Businesses and industries should furthermore recognize that environmental management is the key factor to sustainable development, and regard it as one of the highest corporate priorities. The Government enacted "Act Relating to Promotion of Environmentally Friendly Industry" in 1995 in order to promote industries' voluntary effort for environmental management. In order to encourage voluntary efforts by industries, the Government has designated the Korea Chamber of Commerce as 'Headquarters for Promotion of Environmentally Friendly Industry'. The KCC plans to take a leading role in expanding environmental management by industry. To disseminate the environmental performance evaluation system, the Government established the Korean Accreditation Board in 1995. The KAB is in charge of designating organizations for certification of ISO 14000. As of October 1996, four organizations were designated as certified organizations.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Government is encouraging collaborations between large and small-medium enterprises and between academia and research organizations and relevant foreign and international organizations.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

There is some effort toward improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between the science and technology community and the general public. The Korean Comprehensive Association of Science and Technology (KCAST), an aggregation of Korean academic organizations, adopted the ethical principles of scientists and engineers in 1972. In April 21, 1980, KCAST adopted the creeds of scientists and engineers, including the creed of dedication to the general welfare of society.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

FARMERS

There is no information on this topic for The Republic of Korea.

 

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The efficiency of environmental impact assessment has been promoted in the Environmental Impact Assessment Act by strengthening the links between the process of assessment and project approval by enhancing management and supervision of projects after assessment and also by reinforcing the role of projects approval authorities. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Both the Long-Term Integrated Environmental Science and Technology Development Plan and the Long-Term Integrated Science and Technology Development Plan serve as the base for strategic planning and manpower development in environmental science and technology. These long-term development plan emphasizes the need for promoting basic scientific research, improving the technological infrastructure, training scientific technicians and developing technology for the public well-being. These needs will be met by optimizing existing projects such as the Five-Year New Economy Plan (1993-1997) and the Ten-Year Environmental Science and Technology Development Plan (1992-2001).

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

National research and development programs in environmental science and technology and HAN's G-7 Projects are planned and evaluated by the National Science and Technology Council, in which private sector experts participate. In addition, national and international workshops and symposiums on sustainable development are being organized by scientific bodies, such as the Korean Science and Technology Association.

Science and technology development projects in the individual ministries are coordinated through the Ministerial Meetings of the National Science and Technology Council, and information on science and technology is being systematically incorporated into the policy-making processes. In addition, development projects are evaluated scientifically and quantitatively through the development of mitigation technologies and EIA.

 It is the Korea Environment Institute and the Korea Science and Technology Policy Institute conduct prior- and post- project evaluation. Large scale development projects are not only now subject to Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) but they are reviewed at public hearings at the planning and implementation stages.

Status 

Scientific technology development should meet the needs of the times, such as solving global problems in harmony with promoting the socioeconomic system, as well as pursuing the goal of improving scientific technology itself. To achieve the framework of national development and to make a contribution to the improvement of the quality of life, while satisfying socioeconomic needs and contributing to the common prosperity of the planet earth and human beings, a long term development program in the field of scientific technology will soon be established and carried out.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

To build capacity and capability, the Government is selecting a strategic field of technology at the national level and training qualified scientific and technological personnel by strengthening the scientific infrastructure in universities with expanded financial support and an increase in the number of college students in science and engineering classes. The Government is building alliances between industries and research institutions so that people can be trained by the institutions and later work for the industries. Government supported research institutes and national and civilian research institutes carry out environmental science and technology development projects with the participation of the private sector. Research funds are provided by the Government and private industry and the results of the research is utilized mostly by them. The Government is also improving the quality of scientific knowledge by supporting international exchange programs such as postdoctorate programs abroad.

High quality engineers are trained at both the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and the Graduate School of Environment, and high quality technicians are trained at junior technical colleges and the Environmental Officials Training Institute. New curriculum for both theoretical environmental engineering and environmental management and practical, field- oriented courses of study have been added to the college to meet industrial needs.

Prior to the commencement of national projects, assessment and monitoring of research capabilities (specialists, equipment and facilities) for each government-supported research institute is conducted in order to improve capacity-building measures and achieve the highest standards;and after the completion of national projects, research results are evaluated in terms of their own scientific merits and their contribution to industrial technology.

Information 

To enhance scientific understanding, standardization of environmental monitoring methods for air, water, soil, wastes, and vehicle emissions will be pursued through increased investments in new technology in order to understand its current condition. An information network will be developed in cooperation with KETRI, KINITI and KORDIC.

Research and Technologies 

In order to maintain sustainable production and sustainable consumer spending habits, technologies for clean production processes and conversion of wastes into resources are being studied, and the research results are commercialized after industrial testing under real conditions. In addition, by fostering the supply and demand for reusable products and the Eco-Mark System, Government guides sustainable production and sustainable consumer spending habits. Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) projects have also recently begun.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last update: 20 April 1998.

Repbulic of Korea's Ministry of Science and Technology
Korea Institute of Science and technology

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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Each part of the government produces various information used for policy making and its assessment. For example, Ministry of Finance and Economy and the Bank of Korea provide information on economic policy, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare provides information on health and social issues. The Ministry of Environment (MOE) generates and disseminates environmental information. 

Although there is no way to include all of the information relating to sustainable development, the National Statistical Office publishes the yearbook with a core set of information gathered from each part of the government.

After the Rio Conference in 1992, the importance of sustainable development, the harmonization of economic development and environmental protection, is evident. The Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD), established in September 2000 as an advisory group, is expected to manage statistics relating to sustainable development.   

Local governments also collect and produce data for policy-making and administration purposes. However, this information does not necessarily relate to sustainable development.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Open Information Promotion Act of 1996, calls for the publications traditional or on-line information  to be made available to the public. The MOE, for instance, requires enterprises discharging toxic chemicals to provide the MOE with the quantity and kinds of pollutants produced periodically according to the Toxic Chemicals Control Act, revised in 1996. But, because of the matter of protecting business confidentiality, the MOE is reviewing whether or not to open the information to stakeholders concerned, including local residents.    

The government composed the National Action Plan for Agenda 21, designed to achieve sustainability. A sustainable development indicator set will be developed by 2001 to estimate the progress of these domestic measures.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

When the set of sustainable development indicators is complete, they will be used to assess whether major national polices and programs are consistent with sustainable development. The set will also be used to inform policy makers and the general public of progress in sustainable development.   

The government is establishing a state computer network to connect central and local governments in hopes to facilitate exchange of information between different levels of the government. 

In 1999, the Republic of Korea established the Northeast Asian Information Center for the Environment to exchange information between countries in the region. 

An Environmental Information Center will soon be established jointly with China, Mongolia and Russia to collect and exchange information concerning the environment in the Tuman River basin.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Central and local governments collect, analyze, and disseminate most of the information necessary for decision regarding sustainable development.   

Until now, it has often been insufficient for enterprises to participate in the field of environmental information. Recently though, with a few large enterprises as the leader, enterprises are working to enhance public awareness by publishing their own environmental report.

Programmes and Projects 

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) requires that various environmental data and documents be published for the OECD every other year.  

The Republic of Korea has yet to provide all the data which the OECD requires. Therefore, the MOE has a long term environmental statistics development plan in order satisfy this requirement. The plan also improves the way of evaluating and analyzing data and enhances comparability among the OECD countries.     

The government has been providing personal computers and internet access to the central government and plans to extend this service to the local government.   

The government is also supplying elementary schools with computers and internet access in order to bridge the information gap between rural and urban areas. 

Status 

Any data related to sustainable development in the Republic of Korea is not managed collectively, especially at the government level. Rather, the authorities concerned produce and manage the information independently. However, according to the Open Information Promotion Act, all the information must be published and made available to the public. The government will be the only body which will be allowed to add to this specific publication. 

The MOE is developing a set of sustainable development indicators which will be used to evaluate the success of governmental policies regarding sustainable development.

Challenges

The most pressing concern for improving the flow and management of information is to address the lack of understanding people have of sustainable development. This is true among both the general public and among civil servants. Rural areas in the Republic of Korea are especially weak in regards to the dissemination of information. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

 The government offers computer training programs to civil servants and officials of ventral and local governments in the fields of data collection, analysis and management. 

Information 

All central and autonomous government web-sites are all cross-linked. The MOE web-site is http://www.me.go.kr.

The MOE annually publishes the Environmental Statistics Yearbook to disseminate environmental information in fields concerning the environment, such as energy and transportation. The yearbook is also published online at the MOE web-site (www.me.go.kr). 

Research and Technologies 

The MOE applies remote sensing techniques in the field of natural ecosystem conservation. For example, the MOE is using Geographic Information System (GIS) for water conservation activities in major river basins. 

Financing 

The Republic of Korea does not have specific data on how much money is spent on the collection, management, and conservation of information regarding sustainable development. However, the MOE spent about 3,086 million won (about 2.6 million US dollars) in year 2000 to manage its web-site. This includes costs for the establishment and operation of an environment information system and the establishment of infrastructure for collecting environmental data.

Cooperation

In 1999, the Republic of Korea established the Northeast Asian Information Center for the Environment in order to accelerate data collection and promote exchanges among countries concerned with long distance, transboundary air pollution in Northeast Asia.  An Environment Information Network will also be established among interested countries to prepare conservation strategies for the Tuman River basin.  Additionally, we are participating in UNEP/GRID activities.  

* * *

This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: January 2001.

For a direct link to the national Web Site in the Republic of Korea for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme, click here:
To access UNDP's Web Site for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme, click here:
To link to the National Statistics Office in the Republic of Korea, click here:


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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

International laws and regulations need to be developed in order to harmonize environmental protection and economic development. Specifically, the technical capacity-building of developing countries is necessary to increase law-making capabilities in the field of sustainable development. The efficiency of international conventions is crucial and should be promoted for the purpose of integrating environment and development. International cooperation should be facilitated in order to create international standards for environmental protection. Such international cooperation will further enhance the effectiveness of institutions, mechanisms and procedures dealing with the implementation of international conventions. Measures should be developed to avoid and settle international conflicts and disputes between environmental conventions and conventions in the socio-economic arena by taking into account the dispute settlement procedures set forth in existing international agreements.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government is planning to actively participate in the negotiation of new or revised international environmental rules, including follow-up meetings for the implementation of existing international agreements. The Government will implement environmental agreements such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention of Biological Diversity, the London Convention, and the Basel Convention, etc. The Government will also substantiate bilateral environmental cooperation agreements signed with Japan, China, and the Russian Federation as well as facilitate environmental cooperation mechanisms with Australia, Canada, Mongolia, the United States, and Member countries of the European Union. The Government will streamline institutions and laws to honour international agreements with amendments and regulations.

 

 

* * *


This information is based on The Republic of Korea's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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