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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies     

At the central level in Poland, the body responsible for activities to combat poverty is the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy. At the local level, community offices are in charge.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The strategy to counteract poverty lies in supporting the economic growth and vocational activity of people, creating workplaces, and providing opportunities to gain new qualifications; and in the creation of the system of social protection for people especially endangered by poverty. Such a system should especially cover farmers and pensioners. In order to increase the economic activities of the population, the following programmes are being implemented: Promotion of productive employment and decreasing unemployment, and Promotion of the professional/vocational activity of youth.

Status 

In order to counteract increasing poverty, the Government undertakes activities under the framework of the so-called action of social protection, which includes increases to the lowest salaries and pensions in relation to an average salary (increases respectively to 40% and 30% of the average salary). Currently the Polish welfare system is in the phase of comprehensive reform.

Concerning communities affected by high structural unemployment, the special system of preferences and financial-economic relief has been in place since 1991.

The basic activity aimed at the poor is the creation of a social network, consisting of basic elements that complement each other. A minimum wage is being guaranteed. Actions have been taken in order to reduce unemployment rates and to ensure a minimum living standard. The unemployed are entitled to an unemployment benefit for a 12 month period. This period is extended in those regions most severely affected by unemployment, and the amount of unemployment benefit depends on the person's age, marital status, and the reason for dismissal.

The level of pensions is protected through the introduction of the minimal welfare benefit.

The system of social aid covers all persons who do not achieve a minimum level of income (minimum pension, minimum wage). Apart from financial payments, there are a lot of non-monetary forms of assistance, such as social work, pedagogical, psychological, and legal counselling, and also training and re-qualification programmes. In Poland more than 1,200 non-governmental organizations support people affected by poverty, including pensioners federations, foundations providing aid to the poor, and church organizations.

During the transformation of the Polish economy in 1990-1996, the level of poverty was growing in the majority of the groups of Polish society. It became acute in the retired group and farmers, where, according to assessments, about 35-40% of the population lives at or below the poverty line. Poverty is defined through a minimum level of family income. According to World Bank estimates, and considering the level of the lowest pensions, poverty affected 15% of the population in Poland during the transformation phase.

Certain groups of the population are particularly affected by poverty: families with many children, single old persons, parents bringing up children alone, pathological families, and, especially in the regions afflicted with structural unemployment, unemployed people. The phenomenon of unemployment is new and appeared only since the period of economical and social transformation after the year 1990. Unemployment, including structural unemployment, is considered the main cause of poverty in Poland. At the turn of 1993/94, unemployment reached a maximum level of 18%. It still constitutes a very serious problem for the transition period. Since that time, a downward trend of the unemployment rate has been noted, reaching 14.3% in 1996. A characteristic feature of Polish unemployment is its considerable regional differentiation from 5% to 27%.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Training courses are offered taking into account the needs of the local society. Special forms of training are offered for the rural unemployed and for the employed who are in danger of losing their work. In 1995, welfare expenditures amounted to 9.3% of the State budget.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Poland to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The basis for decision making by the government and for parliamentary acts affecting Poland's demographic policy are prepared by: the Governmental Population Commission (operated for 20 years), the Central Planning Office, and the Council of Minister's Social Committee. The demographic priority for Poland is to stop the tendency of serious decrease of the natural growth and ageing of the population. The Government considers population growth satisfactory but the fertility level too low.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is a need to develop and implement a new National Social Policy, adequate to the market economic system in Polish, providing a proper place for the family and the necessary means to meet the basic and developmental needs of families. Under the new conditions, the State will safeguard to a much lesser degree the population's economic well-being than was the case in the past. This means that a family in Poland will have to take care of its security by its own decisions, through labour and economic activity.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

On December 31, 1995, the population of Poland reached 38.62 million. The growth of population in 1995 was 47,000 inhabitants. Since the mid-eighties a downward trend in population growth has been noted. The real growth of population is even lower due to a negative balance of foreign migration reaching on the average 15,000 per year. According to a preliminary demographic forecast for the years 1995-2020, at the end of this century the population of Poland will reach 39 million and will grow to 40 million in 2010. In 1995, 61.8% of inhabitants lived in towns and 38.2% in rural areas. A negative town-to- rural area migration balance has been noted and is likely to continue.

Demographic development of Poland in recent years has been characterized by a slackening of population dynamics and a decrease of spatial mobility of the population, resulting in reduced migration from rural areas to towns. During the period 1995-2010, the effects of changes in the age structure of the population will be as follows: a considerable increase of youth of elementary and higher school age; a large growth of population in the post-productive age until the year 2010 and a decrease after that date; and the productive age population getting older.

The average life expectancy for persons born in 1994 is 67.5 years for men and 76.1 years for women. Almost 80% of deaths in Poland are caused by civilization diseases such as cardiovascular system diseases (about 51%) and malignant neoplasm (cancer; about 20%).

The irreversible process of ageing of the Polish population, especially intense after the year 2010, and the high percentage of single people requires a comprehensive reconstruction of systems of social care.

Specific actions must be undertaken to improve the economic status of families and implement the wage-cum-revenue policy to a higher extent considering family status, and to eliminate unemployment and develop social assistance with a view to creating appropriate family income especially in families with young children. A system should be developed for crediting housing. Deficits in housing jeopardize Poland's further demographic development.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

In 1997, the educational programme "Agenda 21" begins, aimed at disseminating the basic Agenda-21 assumptions. This is being accomplished in cooperation with the Baltic University in Uppsala.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Poland to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In Poland, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare considers the improvement of the healthy state of the population as a priority activity.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The legislation and regulations in effect to promote health protection include: the Act on State Sanitary Inspectorate (1983), the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare on requirements for drinking water and water for communal use (1977, with subsequent changes), the Act on Water Law (1972, amended in 1990), the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare on permissible concentrations and volume factors harmful for human health emitted from building materials, equipment and furniture in rooms designed for human residence (1996), the Act on Extermination of Infectious Disease (1963, currently amended), and the Act on Health Resorts and Health Resort Care (1966). The Draft Act on Common Health Insurance was submitted to the Polish Parliament in 1996. Some legislation, including that on chemical safety and requirements for drinking water, is under preparation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Most of the goals and recommendations of Agenda 21 regarding protection and promotion of human health are implemented by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. The National Health Programme and the Strategy for Health are strategic documents that respond to the recommendations of Agenda 21. The Act on Common Health Insurance will be the framework of the new health care system, based on concentration of health services. The Act covers all social groups, including the poorest, the unemployed, and those benefitting from social care.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Major groups involved in health promotion and protection include: the health department, state administration bodies, parliamentary commissions, research institutes, medical academies, youth and school children, Council of Farmers, ecological foundations, non-governmental organizations, local government, and local communities.

Programmes and Projects 

The National Health Programme (1990, updated in 1993, and later in 1996) was adopted by the Polish Government in September 1996. The Programme is coordinated by an inter-departmental team headed by the Minister of Health and Social Welfare. The main directions of the National Health Programme cover: shaping benefits for health behaviour and life styles, elimination of health threats caused by the environment, optimization of health care, elimination of diseases possible to prevent, reduction of mother-, infant- and child-mortality rates, limitation of the scale of diseases which are the main reason of death (cardio-vascular, neoplasm), and prevention of accidents and poisoning. The concept of the National Health Programme is based on the European strategy "Health for all till 2000", developed and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). On the basis of several studies, the strategic Governmental Programme Environment and Health is being prepared within the National Health Programme.

Institutes subordinate to the Ministry of Health have been studying the environmental impact on health since 1992. A set of health indicators is being prepared for monitoring the health goals of the National Health Service (Health Service Indicators Programme, conducted in cooperation with the WHO Regional Office in Copenhagen). For several years, work have been conducted on the modification of the financing system of health service units. The Strategic Programme of Safety and Human Health Protection in the Work Environment (1995-1999) and the Programme on Conversion of Basic Health Care (decentralization) have been implemented. An institutional system for AIDS prevention has been established. There is a system for contagious disease monitoring, regulated by administrative provisions. A very high rate of vaccination has been provided for the population . An overall reduction of mortality from polio, pertusis, and measles has been achieved. The Ministry of Health and Social Care and subordinate institutions, following WHO recommendations, support the programmes: Healthy Cities, Healthy Hospital, Healthy Apartment.

The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service, under the framework of its statute activity, controls environmental factors which have an influence on the spread of contagious disease (the control of water quality, carriers of contagious disease, and waste disposal). The Institute of Food and Nutrition as well as the Food Research Divisions of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Service promote proper nutrition patterns. The programmes for early diagnosis are being reinforced. Other programmes include: Heart Protection, Cancer Diseases Fighting, Emergency Services Reform, Self-sufficiency in the field of Hemotherapy and Blood Donating, Increasing of Efficiency of Mother and Child Health Care, Improvement and Development of Transplantation and Dialysis Therapy, Activity Directions of Dental Care, Medulla Transplantations, Pneumonia and Diabetes Fighting, and Priority Activities in Surgery and Orthopaedy.

Status 

Basic health care in the country includes all the problems of prenatal care. Several modern, children and youth oriented preventive programmes are being implemented (including those for high risk groups): preventing and solving alcohol problems, drug use prevention, healthy life style promotion, and rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation actions.

The basic aims of Agenda 21 in the area of decreasing health risks caused by contamination of the environment are realized by the State Sanitary Inspectorate and the State Inspectorate of Environmental Protection. It is necessary to introduce the Monitoring of Environmental Health Risks and Its Effects project, which has already been elaborated in the Ministry. In the framework of State monitoring of the environment, measurements of air pollution are conducted in the basic and general supervision nets. WSSE and the science and research institutes conduct the measurement of air pollution in apartments. Constant monitoring of drinking water quality is conducted. Bathing places are supervised with a view to compatibility with sanitation standards. The Programme of Ecological Actions for Health in Europe is being realized (elaborated by the European WHO Office on the basis of assumptions of the European Card "Environment and Health"). The Commission for Sustainable Development has worked out "Priority actions in environmental protection with a view to health protection in Poland".

Challenges

Clinics of environmental medicine are being created. Several steps have been undertaken aimed at monitoring and decreasing health risks in the most polluted regions. Difficulties are connected with the economic crisis in recent years and the economic transformation of the State. There is not enough well trained personnel in the field of public health and environment. Existing legal solutions regarding the healthy state of the environment are not satisfactory. Modern technologies and new organizational structures are necessary, especially in the field of sanitation and epidemiology.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare provides training courses for managers of the reformatted system of health protection (currently at Schools of Public Health in Cracow and Lodz). Highly qualified environmental doctors are being trained in Sosnowiec to solve problems connected with the unfavourable influence of various environmental factors on human health. Postgraduate training is provided for the requirements of the State Sanitary Inspectorate. The WHO Programme "Health Promoting Schools" covered 14 schools in Poland and a few hundred associated schools. The issues of health and environmental protection have been included in school curricula. Training is being provided for farmers and village councillors on the principles of safety-at-work. The Polish television TVP S.A. is broadcasting a number of serial programmes regarding protection and promotion of human health.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Expenditures from the state budget designed for health protection and social welfare amounted to 3.3% of GDP in 1993 and 3.5% in 1994. It has been estimated that over a seven-year period, annual financing of the programme area "Reduction of risks to health which result from contamination of the environment" is US$ 3.2 million from National sources and US$ 920,000 from international assistance. The achievement of objectives related to communicable diseases is estimated to cost US$17.9 million a year, primarily from National resources. Several health programmes have been established in Poland with the support of WHO and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS).

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Poland to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In Poland, work on the preparation of the National Strategy for Environmental Education began in 1995. This stategy is a cooperative effort between the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry (MEPNRF), with financial support from the National Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management, and essential support from the British Environmental Know How Fund. The first version of the Strategy was presented to about 400 entities dealing with environmental education for consultations in February 1996. A draft document was subsequently submitted to Parliament in September 1997.

In the draft Strategy, the respective responsibilities of ministries, central institutions, education system, higher education system, media, non-governmental organisations and local authorities dealing with environmental protection are delineated. The Strategy indicates the necessity to appoint a co-ordinating and advisory institution, whose main objective will be to prepare a national environmental education curriculum, where functions and responsible bodies are included. Major tasks will also include the preparation of sectoral programs and education strategies.

The National Environmental Policy emphasizes the importance of environmental education aimed at changing society's attitude towards the environment and raising public awareness. Activities in this field cover: a) formal education, through creation of an ecological education system at all levels of teaching in different types of schools by including environmental issues in obligatory subjects and the successive creation of a net of optional education; and b) informal education, through cooperation with institutions and organizations dealing with environmental education. Cooperation is being developed with the mass media for the dissemination of information on the environment, the shaping of the environment, and health friendly behaviour of society.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

There are many innovative educational programs for local communities which make attempts to actively involve target social groups. One example is a project aimed at creating "Eco-Teams" and "Eco-Families", which involves local communities, eg. housing communities, in active co-operation regarding the rational use of resources. Practical manuals and guidelines on how to create such eco-teams have been published. Another example is the creation of a local Club of Ecological Journeys Friends" in Kraków. It promotes among the local community, active contacts with nature through participation in various types of games, as well as in activities to benefit the environment, e.g. rubbish collection.

Additional examples of innovative education, public awareness or training activities related to sustainable development are:

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

Parallel to this process, a programmatic reform of the education system in Poland was completed in 1997. Basic curricula for primary schools were drafted, including ideas and principles of sustainable development, as well as on the conventions ratified by Poland. One of the outstanding education fields in Poland is environmental education, which deals with aspects of ecological interrelations in the nature and principles of sustainable human activities.

The objective of education activities is to integrate all interested parties; as more parties are involved, more effective are the actions undertaken. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been involved in the process of upgrading environmental awareness in society. Environmental organizations or their representatives take part in activities initiated and implemented by MEPNRF aimed at upgrading environmental awareness and the development of programmes for environmental protection. NGOs have access to documents, materials, and information to enable them to conduct their activities, and participate in the elaboration of programmes on environmental protection and public awareness.

In order to raise environmental awareness among the public, numerous educational actions and campaigns are organised at both the regional and national levels. Their aim is to reach as many people as possible, therefore they involve available media: television, radio and press, through cyclical broadcasting and articles. Initiators and leaders of such campaigns are mostly non-governmental organisations, however the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry as well as the Ministry of Education support and/or sponsor these campaigns. Financing comes mostly from the central budget and from environmental funds: the National and Voivodeship.

Examples of campaigns promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns are: recycling action "Care for Waste" (under the patronage of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management, conducted by the National Foundation for Environmental Protection), action 'Clean-up the World, Poland' co-ordinated by the Our Earth Foundation. Numerous training courses and conferences are also organised for the community of engineers and technicians in the framework of the Cleaner Production Program. International fairs such as the "Eko-Media Forum" are organised and focus on the presentation of the most important achievements in environmental education.

In order to develop integrated and holistic sustainable development strategies and actions a new generation of planners, developers, and project managers in Poland must be educated and/or trained in multi-disciplinary and multi-stage approaches to programme and projects. Each manager and senior official has to incorporate at least good professional education, basic background in law, economic and financial instruments, informatic tools, ability to work in multi-disciplinary teams and to communicate with others, particularly with public. Basic knowledge in environmental law has recently been essential to any new industrial manager.

Training for teachers and other professionals has been reinforced. The Act concerning the education system calls on superintendents of schools to organize professional advanced training for public school teachers. Specialist training is conducted for public and local administrations, managerial staff, and personnel of enterprises, journalists, etc. There are various forms of training: courses, seminars, technical conferences, postgraduate, and extramural studies.

Information

A special WWW Site is under preparation.

At present, information on objectives related to environmental education are included in the Site of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry: www.mos.gov.pl.

Aspects linked to education will be presented on a separate WWW Site of the Ministry.

Information on environmental education can be also found at the address of the Information Centre of the Warsaw University:

http://ciuw.warman.net.pl.\alf\biodiversity, in chapter 5 - 'Environmental Education'.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

Education is free of charge and accessible at all levels (primary, secondary and university) for the entire population. In addition, the State provides financial assistance from the State Budget, in the form of social scholarships to the poor thus enabling the younger generation to achieve professions and improve their economic situation. In the framework of the strategy to combat poverty which is presently being prepared, the government also supports economically handicapped groups-- mainly the unemployed--through a system of training courses organised for those who want to improve or change their qualifications/skills.

Financial resources for the above educational tasks are provided by the Ministry of Education, the MEPNRF, the National Fund for Environmental Protection, as well as voivodship and local funds of environmental protection. In 1995, the amounts granted for environmental education reached 0.04% of GDP.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Poland to the fifth aand sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last Update: 10 March 1998.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The most important advance in Poland is the introduction of new legal solutions as the main operating tools for activity in human settlements. These include: the Self-government (territorial) Law of 1990; the State Ecological Policy; the Physical Development (planning) Act of 1994; the Building Law; procedures for the application of environmental impact evaluation on investment; and procedures for the evaluation of environmental impact of physical development plans.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Major groups involved in sustainable human settlements include: self government (territorial) authorities; the general public; non-governmental organizations; professional organizations; and state administrations (in particular, the area of environmental monitoring and education).

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

General objectives for Poland in the area of human settlements are: improvement of social, economic, and ecological quality of human dwellings; improvement of all inhabitants' living and working conditions; making authorities of all levels aware of their responsibility for sustainable development; and vesting the urban and country dwellers with authority in this domain.

In the 1990s, a number of actions have been undertaken aimed at improving the environment in urban areas. This is facilitated by the economic and socioeconomic reform being led by territorial self-government. There is vested authority in the territorial self-governments which have been dictating the terms with regard to the environmental protection priorities in their areas. At the same time, the new plans for physical development of the country acknowledge permanent and sustainable development as the top priority in development planning. For a number of housing projects, including those in the largest cities such as Warsaw, Wroclaw, and Gdansk, local sustainable development programs are being prepared following Agenda 21 directions. These are comprehensive environmental protection and developmental programs taking into consideration the tasks of permanent and sustainable development including: public participation, power industry and waste management problems, water and sewerage management, and limitations of nature's living resources. Activities of the Government of Poland to reduce energy consumption for heating, as a result of promotion of insulation improvement for buildings, measurements and regulation of use, are of particular importance. Activities to reduce water consumption from waterworks resulted in the reduction of the unit index by 10% over the last 6 years. Training of the municipal building managerial cadre has also begun.

In 1995, 860 Polish towns had a population of 23.9 million, this was 61.8% of the total population. Since 1990, no growth of the urban population has been noted, and the negative balance of the natural population growth is filled by the migration from villages to towns. The biggest city in Poland, the capital Warsaw, had a population of 1.6 million in 1996. An important impact on the living conditions in Polish towns, as in other countries, is the technical infrastructure and the state of the environment.

In 1995, 95% of the urban population obtained water supply through water supply systems, and growth of the population using waterworks during the 1990-95 period was 0.2% annually. The quality of water supplied by waterworks improved (less than 8% of water is of uncertain quality). Sewerage systems have been developed slower than water supply systems. In 1995, 81.8% of the population was served by municipal sewerage networks. Significant deterioration of the transport situation in towns has occurred due to the very dynamic growth in ownership of individual cars, which reached about 250 cars/1000 citizens in 1996. Development of public transport in towns is too slow because of the lack of financial resources.

Pollution and degradation of the environment resulting from the adopted directions of the country's development in connection with the wasteful exploitation of natural resources became one of the elements of the socioeconomic crisis in the 1980s. This, as a consequence, contributed to enforcing political change in Poland. Manifestations of the environmental crisis in human dwellings are many. Emissions resulting from energy production [90% of sulphur dioxide (SO2), and 60-80% of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and dust emissions] and automotive vehicles (25% of NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and 60% of hydrocarbons) are high. Eighty-one percent of the country's dust and 67% of gas emissions are concentrated in towns and agglomerations (238 out of the total of 840 Polish towns are severely threatened). Eighty-one percent of the National volume of sewage needs treatment, with 85% of untreated sewage produced in 140 of the most industrialized towns and agglomerations. Only 36% of the sewage is biologically treated. Thirty-five percent of towns with sewerage systems do not have any sewage treatment plant. Out of 10 million tons of waste produced annually in Poland, 90% are household waste. The waste volume keeps growing (over the last twenty years, the waste volume has grown by almost 60%) and as much as 99% of the waste produced goes directly to dumping sites, 25% of which lack sufficient equipment and supervision.

The pressure on the natural environment keeps growing, with new housing and infrastructure systems taking over more and more space. The so-called green areas in towns are being reduced. Physical natural structures are being built but, unfortunately, there are no estimates to illustrate the phenomenon's scale. Noise as a threat, especially in towns, keeps growing. The greatest nuisance is created by street noise. It is estimated that 30% of the inhabitants of large cities, 45% of those in medium-sized towns, and 25% of those in small towns are affected by noise at the LAsq>60dB level.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

US$ 25,000 from domestic and US$ 59,000 from foreign sources have been raised to implement the projects on sustainable human dwellings directly stemming from Agenda 21. However the main funds for the program originate from local budgets which finance all types of development plans, as well as those for physical development.

Cooperation

Several international organizations, including the Institut de Formation a la Maitrise d'Ouvrage (IFMO), the International Society for City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP), the Cooperative Housing Foundation (CFH/USA), the International Cooperative Societies Members Association (ICA), the International Urban Planners Union (IUP), the International Real Estate Federation (FIABCI), and the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), have been involved in detailed projects. Also, the exchange of experience on physical development of border areas takes place. Poland actively participated in the UN Conference HABITAT II.

 

 

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Poland to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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