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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

By 1997, efforts were geared towards pushing the Agenda in municipalities and convergence areas, where the SRA is expected to impact the lives of ordinary people. Major policies and legislations that were passed include: the Agricultural Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) that was enacted to improve the incomes and productivity of farmers and fisherfolk; the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) that lays down the basic policies to the IP's rights to their ancestral domains; the repealed Anti-Squatting Law that decriminalizes squatting but maintains sanctions against professional squatters and syndicates; and the Gintong Ani for Marginal and Poverty Stricken Areas (GAMA) that will improve equity and provide equal access to marginal farmers and fisherfolk. Indigenous, environmental-friendly, and community-accepted technologies will be promoted in the upland areas particularly with critical environmental conditions. The GAMA program will cover a total of 36 provinces, 20 of which are provinces in 9 regions identified under SRA.

At the same time, the Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) issued the implementing rules and regulations (IRR), on the preferential treatment and access of marginal fisherfolk to municipal waters under the Local Government Code (LGC). The IRR was formulated through a consensus building process involving the fisherfolk. The Security of Workers in the Informal Sector (WIS) received priority with the President's issuance of EO No. 452 which provides for the prevention of demolition and protection of the sectors from harassments. An inter-agency Task Force is finalizing the IRR of the EO.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Philippines launched the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) on June 4, 1995 to enable people to have access to opportunities for undertaking sustainable livelihoods espoused under the agenda for change. The SRA is an integrated set of major reforms to enable the citizens to: a) meet their basic human needs and live decent lives; b) widen their share of resources from which they can earn a living or increase the fruits of their labour; and c) enable them to effectively participate in the decision-making process that affects their rights, interests, and welfare. These reforms are perceived to enhance democratic processes. The SRA is composed of social reform packages providing programs and services for marginalized sectors of society in the country's 20 poorest provinces.

The enhancement of the SRA resulted in sharper definition of the social equity, economic, ecological, and democratizing components of the various flagship programs. It also led to the integration of the nine flagship programs having impact on all target sectors and ecosystems. This placed the country's anti-poverty initiatives within the framework of Philippine Agenda 21 ( PA 21). The enhanced SRA was adopted by the National Anti-poverty Summit in March 1996 as the Integrated National Action Agenda on Anti-Poverty.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Increased participation by civil society and major groups has been promoted. To date a total of 34 provinces (43%), 9 cities (13%) and 274 municipalities (18%) have sectoral representatives in such local bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

The nine (9) flagship programs of the SRA include: Agricultural Development for Farmers and Landless Rural Workers; Fisheries Management and Development; Protection of Ancestral Domain for Indigenous Peoples; Workers Welfare and Protection; Expansion of Credit; Livelihood Programs; Socialized Housing Delivery for the Poor; Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services; and Institution Building and Effective Participation in Governance.

Status 

Two years after the initial implementation, the SRA was expanded to include an ecosystem perspective, emphasizing four dimensions of poverty where reform can have the greatest impact:

  1. On social equity, by providing the poorest of the poor with access to basic services for survival;
  2. On economic prosperity, by ensuring that the basic sectors have access to productive assets that allow them to contribute to National growth;
  3. On ecological security, by incorporating the parameters of sustainable development in the management and utilization of natural resources; and
  4. On responsible and responsive governance, by making structures and processes democratic to allow the meaningful participation of key stakeholders in policy- and decision-making.

The National Anti-Poverty Summit drew-up poverty reduction targets at the regional level to achieve a National target of 30% by 1998. It also resolved to expand the coverage of the SRA from an initial concentration on 20 priority provinces to an additional 57 provinces and 65 cities.

As of June 1996, the majority of the 20 priority provinces had localized the SRA at the municipal and baranggay (village) levels. This means that: (a) the SRA has been adopted to local needs and priorities and is being implemented with clear poverty reduction targets and basic reform commitments; (b) the Minimum Basic Needs approach has been installed and its data profiles form the basis for local situation analysis, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of local poverty issues and response mechanisms; (c) the programs and resources of the National Government Agencies (NGAs) and the local government units (LGUs) have been synchronized for specific target areas and sectors in line with the convergence policy; (d) local structures have been set up and are functional with clearly defined roles and accountabilities; and (e) the system and process for monitoring the delivery of National and local SRA commitments on the ground are in place.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

To develop and disseminate knowledge about demographic trends and factors for sustainable development, the Philippine Government has prepared framework papers for local and sectoral planning. The Commission on Population (POPCOM), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and the United National Population Fund (UNFPA) have spearheaded a comprehensive population review to set in motion activities that will provide an appropriate population policy climate for sustainable development. 

Policy initiatives have been consistently supported by advocacy activities through the publication of information materials and the conduct of consultative meetings. In line with this, a significant accomplishment of the PPMP is the development of a heightened awareness among planners, legislators, and government executives on the need to integrate the population perspective into development activities. Particularly instrumental in this was the convening of the Gathering for Human and Ecological Security (GHES) in June 1995. Subsequently, the Philippine Population Management Program Advocacy Plan, an inter-agency undertaking, was formulated in 1996 to guide the POPCOM in its role as the lead advocacy agency for population and development.

Furthermore, the POPCOM prepared the Regional Population Program Plan for 1996-1998. Planning Workshops with partner agencies and population structures in the local government units (LGUs) were conducted to formulate and discuss the plan. In the same vein, a convergence group was convened by POPCOM and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) to discuss possible efforts to integrate the concepts/framework of Human Ecological Security (HES).

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

The Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP) was subsequently implemented in 1993 to serve as the Government's program for maintaining a healthy balance between population and resources.

Status 

The population development sub-sector has posted major gains in terms of the basic population services, advocacy measures, capability building, and working towards policy environments for the greater welfare of families, and more responsible parenthood of Filipinos. The Family Planning Program was able to reach out to three (3) million clients who are now practicing family planning methods. Around 3,972 community volunteer health workers were trained on family planning and responsible parenthood. Moreover, 14,839 clinics (private and public) nationwide were provided with contraceptives.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

As regards institutional capability building, the POPCOM, with the assistance of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), conducted an in-country training program on Gender and Development Towards Improvement of Women's Health and Family Welfare wherein individual action plans were formulated on main streaming gender into various organizations and projects. Other capability building programs conducted in 1996 were: Training on Gender and Sensitivity and Reproductive Health; seminar on the program Awareness and Team Building through Staff Development; Workshop/Write-shop on Local Population Planning; Information, Education and Communication (IC) Prototype Development Skills Training; Values Orientation Workshop for the R.P.O. XI staff; Basic Demography Training for Technical Staff of R.P.O. I, II, and VII; Interpersonal Communication Skills Training; and Monitoring and Evaluation Training.

Various advocacy activities were undertaken in 1996 for the promotion of the population development program. Most notable of these was the 1996 LGUS Award which gives National recognition and prominence to the outstanding province, city, and municipality which have contributed in a significant way to the promotion and implementation of local population management program activities in their respective localities. Other advocacy activities were conducted with the view of getting the support of various stakeholders such as Senators, Congressmen, Regional Directors of DAR, media, church leaders, foreign guests, Sangguniang Kabataan (SKs), women leaders, volunteers, youth groups, other government organizations, NGOs, and LGUs at the provincial city, municipal, and baranggay levels. These included: a) orientation on the PPMP/PRE Balance; b) the conferring of the annual Salas Award; c) advocacy programs through radio programs, such as "Pag-uugnay: Tao at Mundo" and "Kamalayan;" and d) commemoration of POPCOM's anniversary.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In the area of nutrition advocacy, the major accomplishment was the formulation of implementing rules and regulations of RA 8172 of the 1995 Act. As a result, more iodized salt was produced and marketed as salt iodization plants increased from 26 in 1995 to 36 in 1996.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In 1996, the National Health Plan, 1995-2000 was completed and approved. This plan is the country's perspective plan for health which provides the general directions and broad strategies for an effective and efficient system. Moreover, the Government has formulated the implementing rules and regulations for R.A. 8203, the Special Law on Counterfeit Drugs and issued the 1996 edition of the Philippine National Drug Policy. The latter aims to rationalize drug procurement, distribution, and use.

The health department developed a Technical Manual and Training Guide on Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA). A sustainable Human Resource Development (HRD) Plan, as part of the National Congress on Health R&D, is currently being prepared by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The nutrition sub-sector is addressed by the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN).

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Accomplishments in basic health services, disease prevention, and health promotion consist of the quantitative gains in the principal programs and projects, most of which were started in previous years. These include: the Expanded Program on Immunization; the Maternal Care and Breast Feeding Program; the Prevention of Blindness Program; the establishment of the Environmental Health Service; the National Rabies Control Program; the National Tuberculosis Control Program; the National AIDS-Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control Program; the Malaria Control Service; Hospital Services; the National Dengue Prevention and Control Program; the National Filariasis Control Program; and the Leprosy Elimination and Special Action Project.

Status 

Physical and social empowerment have been promoted in the inter-related sub-sectors of health, nutrition, and population development. Towards this end, direct and indirect interventions have been achieved through program expansion, greater outreach to clientele, more emphasis on preventive measures, and advocacy.

Other notable recent accomplishments in the area of policy development are the continued facilitation of the implementation of the Magna Carta for public health workers, capability building for devolved local government unit (LGUS) health personnel, and the publication of the 1995 Field Health Information System statistics. The improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH), particularly in small and medium enterprises (SME's), has been pursued. The labour department conducted several trainings for government employees, industrial supervisors and workers. A total of 659 Work Environment Measurements (WEMS) were conducted to improve indoor environments of 16,049 workers in 56 companies. Industry Tripartite Councils (ITCs), which have been tasked to monitor compliance with all existing labour laws and social legislations were established in 13 industries.

At the local level, PPAN implementation has involved the delivery of a mix of services along with PPAN's impact programs of Home and Community Food Production, Micronutrient Supplementation and Food Fortification, Nutrition Education, Credit Assistance for Livelihood, and Food Assistance. The mix of services delivered by LGUs was based on their assessment of the local nutrition situation as well as the prevailing socioeconomic-political environment.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the Philippines, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, with its attached Bureaux, has taken the lead in promoting education on environment and sustainable development through its various programs, projects, and information, education and communication (IC) activities. These activities include the participation of various groups such as policy makers, local government authorities, youth and non-government organizations. Non-government organizations also conducted IC activities on environment and sustainable development for communities and other local sectoral groups through their own efforts and initiatives.

Efforts are being undertaken to integrate environmental education in all levels of education (basic, secondary, tertiary, technical/vocational, teacher training, and non-formal). Concerned agencies are the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Commission on Higher Education, and the Technical Skills Development Authority, particularly with the Asian Development Bank-DECS-Environmental Management Bureau (ADB-DECS-EMB) Project on Environmental Education.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The promotion of sustainable development through information and education is one of the priority activities to invoke a paradigm shift in the development outlook of the nation. Member agencies of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) as well as their civil society counterparts have all contributed to the promotion of sustainable development in the country though various programs, projects, and other IC activities related to the promotion of awareness and advocacy activities for the environment and sustainable development. The Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21) is being distributed to key agencies, organizations, and institutions. Popular versions and primers which will be printed in different dialects and designed for basic sectors will also be distributed to provide the general public with a lay person's version of the PA 21. The PCSD Subcommittee on Information and Education is the primary arm that coordinates the different agencies and organizations in efforts of communicating sustainable development to the Filipino population through the various IC activities of these organizations. Elements of PA 21 are incorporated in their IC activities and materials. It is hoped that these efforts will be strengthened with the inclusion of business and labour groups in the PCSD.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Government provides training of local government policy-makers on sustainable development, particularly organizational seminars on solid waste management, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Risk Assessment, and waste minimization by the EMB. In terms of increasing public awareness, the general public has been stratified into specific target audiences. Of these, policy-makers (National and local), educators, and media personnel were identified as priorities. Several seminars and symposia have been identified as venues for popularizing the PA 21 aside from the dissemination of primers and posters for the general public.

The Philippines launched the implementation of an examination scheme which aims to motivate civil servants, especially at the executive levels to be knowledgeable of environmental and sustainable development (SD) facts, principles and issues. Dubbed as the Environmental Intelligence Quotient Scheme (EIQS), the Philippines pioneered this innovative approach of building a constituency for sustainable development within government. It is jointly lead by the Philippines' Civil Service Commission (CSC); the Career Executive Service Board (CESB); and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in coordination with the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) and the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). To date, there is no similar initiative being undertaken by any country worldwide.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Philippines has promoted the development of sustainable human settlements primarily through the implementation of the Global Strategy for Shelter, and more specifically through, for example, the following initiatives: a) preparation of a revised National Plan of Action for 1994-1995; b) enhancing the roles of government, private sector, scientific community, and NGOs; c) focusing on shelter-related issues including urban management, energy, transport, poverty alleviation, health, and the environment; d) expanding the role of women in shelter policies; e) establishing a National database on shelter and services; f) addressing constraints in shelter production; and g) improving overall performance of shelters.

In terms of planning, the National Urban Development and Housing Framework provided the strategy for the development of environmentally sound and sustainable human settlements. For program implementation, the National Shelter Program adopted eight major housing policies: catalyst for economic activity; people-centered and aided self-help approaches; maximum multi-sectoral participation; easier land access for housing; development of regional growth poles; sustainability and matching of housing finance with beneficiaries' means; maintenance of ecological balance; and improvement of the housing delivery system.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

The key players of the shelter program have been mobilized and their roles enhanced. The scientific community has assisted in testing new construction materials and technologies. NGOs have taken the lead in organizing and mobilizing communities for the Community Mortgage Program. The private sector now dominates housing production and housing finance for economic housing. On the other hand, the government has shifted its role from the major provider of socialized housing to being the major source of housing finance.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The improved overall performance of the shelter sector is characterized by the following: a) increased access by the poor to land, finance, infrastructures, and building materials; b) strengthened capability of local authorities for improved management; c) regularized and upgraded slums and squatter settlements; d) improved rural living conditions; and e) private sector involvement in shelter and service production for the middle and lower income groups.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here to access UNCHS "Best Practices for Human Settlements" programme in Asia.
For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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