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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The PCSD, being the country's focal point in sustainable development efforts, was instrumental in forging position papers for international gatherings and dialogues (See under Status). Among its commitments is the preparation and coordination of country papers for the annual sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in New York. The Council also coordinated the preparation of Philippine positions for the various agenda items of the Brussels Conference on "Taking Nature Into Account" held in June 1995.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

See under Status

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

The Philippines hosted a series of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) meetings on sustainable development in 1996. These meetings were aimed at advocating wide-ranging concerns and forging APEC-wide consensus on the need for increased economic and technical cooperation on sustainable development. The major outputs of the APEC Senior Officials' (9-10 July 1996) and Ministerial Meetings (11-12 July 1996) on Sustainable Development included the Ministerial declaration and Action Program on Sustainable Development. The documents essentially embody the need to advance cooperation on the following major sustainable development themes of the meeting: a) sustainable cities/urban management; b) clear production/clean technology; and c) sustainability of the marine environment.

The APEC Experts Meeting on Innovative Approaches Towards Environmentally Sustainable Development (6-7 June 1996, Quezon City, Philippines) resulted in consensus on the need to promote innovative approaches to sustainable development, and the need to collaborate on enhancing the capacity of the environment and natural resources through innovative approaches. In addition, consensus was reached on the need for various APEC fora to consider the incorporation of innovative approaches in the introduction of Environment and Natural Resources Accounting (ENRA) into the system of National Income Accounts; the utilization of market-based instruments (MBIs); the sourcing of information and expertise in promoting, adapting, and adopting innovative approaches to sustainable development; and the application of participatory approaches in planning.

The Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD), in cooperation with the Earth Council, sponsored the Meeting of the National Councils for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific (APNCSD) on June 18-19, 1995. The conference, entitled "Weaving the Fabric of Asia's Future," was envisioned to strengthen respective National councils for sustainable development and establish creative mechanisms for regional and bilateral cooperation among countries in the region. As an offshoot of this meeting, a regional secretariat for the APNCSD was created to implement the recommendations made during the meeting. The PCSD also co-hosted with the Earth Council, the Second Meeting of the APNCSD with the theme "Beyond Boundaries: A Sustainable Asia-Pacific," on December 12-14, 1996. This meeting primarily aimed to assess the resolutions made during the first APNCSD and prepare for multistakeholder's participation in the Rio + 5 Forum during March 1997.

The PCSD co-hosted with the Government of Canada, the International Experts Meeting on Persistent Organic Pollutants in Vancouver, Canada on June 5-8, 1995. It also co-sponsored with the same government and the Canadian National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) the Meeting of Senior Environment and Economic Officials from APEC Economies on March 25-29, 1996 and "The Workshop on the Environment and the Economy in APEC: Realizing Convergence" on March 25, 1996. These initiatives were aimed to continue the process of integrating environmental considerations into economic development policies and programs.

The Philippines is also involved in the formulation of the International Standards Organization ISO 14000. The objective of this wide-ranging set of international standards is to guide companies on how to manage, measure, improve, and communicate the environmental aspects of their operations in a systematic way.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The PCSD, together with the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, conducted a seminar-workshop for senior policy-makers in Asia entitled "Economy-Wide Policies and the Environment" on June 3-7, 1996. This forum sought to promote better understanding and cooperation, especially among senior environmental and economic decision-makers, in the pursuit of "win-win" initiatives; illustrating key economy-environment interactions from actual cases; and to demonstrate practical approaches for implementing coordinated environmental and economic planning.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information from the Department of Trade and Industry, click here.

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TRADE

No information is available.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies       

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Phillippines Agenda 21 (PA 21) recommends the adoption of a mixture of market-based instruments, and command and control measures to provide the needed financial flows to support its implementation. The strategy aims to influence the consumption and production behaviour of the general public, including the business sector, in favour of sustainable development. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Country initiatives focus on two major programmes: unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption patterns.

Under the first programme, the following commitments are being attended to: adoption of an international approach to achieving sustainable consumption patterns, such as the international environmental standards ISO 14000 and undertaking research on consumption and developing new concepts. New concepts on the production of low-cost housing were developed, paving the way to the development and accreditation of new technologies. Proponents were also encouraged to undertake research and development of new technologies for housing construction to make housing more affordable to a larger segment of the society.

Under the second programme area, initiatives include the following:

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

See under Programmes and Projects.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

See under Programmes and Projects.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available..

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Philippines Agenda 21 (PA 21) recommends the adoption of a mixture of market-based instruments (MBIs), and command and control (CAC) measures to provide the needed financial flows to support its implementation. The strategy aims to influence the consumption and production behaviour of the general public, including the business sector, in favour of sustainable development. The PA 21 adopts the principle that the local government units (LGUs), the National Government, and economic sectors should be further developed to achieve the optimal conditions for the application of the financial resources strategy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDDA) oversees the implementation of an environmental user fee system which grants discharge permits based on an assessment of fees and charges on industrial and municipal effluents. The system aims to enhance the water quality of Laguna Lake through the reduction of pollution loading and to provide lake users with an incentive to reduce pollution and allocate their prevention and abatement resources efficiently. The revenue generated through the system will be utilized for water quality management programs and projects like the building of infrastructure, technical assistance centers and training. Twenty percent of the revenues collected will be shared with the LGUs to finance their environmental projects.

In order to implement the Environmental Impact Assessment System (EIAS), the country has a risk-liability system through the Environmental Guarantee Fund (EGF). The EGF is a fund that proponents, required or opting to submit an EIS, will commit to establish when an ECC is issued for projects or undertakings determined by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to pose significant risk to answer for damage to life, health, property and the environment caused by such risk or requiring rehabilitation or restoration measures. The benefits from setting up an EGF was illustrated in response to an incident involving the disastrous seepage of mine tailings of the Marcopper Mining Corporation into the waterways of Marinduque. The EGF was tapped to compensate the affected families and to fund the rehabilitation of damaged areas.

The Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) supports the initiatives of the Integrated Environment Management for Sustainable Development (IEMSD)-Subprogramme on the Integration of Environment and Socio-Economic Development Policies (SEI) as an additional source of financing. Under the SEI of the IEMSD, a study on the "Implementation of Selected Market-Based Instruments for Air and Water Pollution Control" was undertaken to examine the applicability of MBIs for air and water pollution reduction in the Philippines. The study also discussed the implementation designs of emission and efficient charges to control air and water pollution and, likewise, computed the optimal levels of pollution charges.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Earth Capital Facility pilot-testing is currently being explored by the Earth Council with assistance from the PCSD Subcommittee on Financing Arrangements. The Earth Capital Facility or Earth Fund is being envisioned to provide financing assistance in the form of soft loans, grants and mixed credit, to support multi-sectoral initiatives on sustainable development. Related to the establishment of the Fund, an Investment Mission on Sustainable Development is being hosted by the PCSD in collaboration with the Earth Council in 1998 to explore possible investment and assistance projects/areas in the country.

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This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Asia and the Pacific from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally-Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Information Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Management (CTEM) managed by the Philippine Business for the Environment (PBE) is providing an information center on clean production and clean technologies. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

To promote eco-efficiency, tax exemptions are provided to firms which import brand new equipment and utilize industrial waste treatment systems. Facilitated by the Board of Investments (BOI) of the country's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), incentives are granted for the installation of pollution control equipment whether locally manufactured or imported. The BOI, in cooperation with the Green Aide Plan of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, transfers technology on pollution control and energy. Similarly, the Omnibus Investment Code under the supervision of DTI provides incentives to companies using anti-pollution devices. DENR certification is needed prior to the issue of incentives.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The CTEM derives funding support from the United States-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP), a project of the United States Agency for International Development (US AID). Its objectives include: a) the promotion of clean technology and environmental management to improve efficiency and reduce pollution; and b) provision of access to relevant information on specific industrialtechnologies and management needs to enable businesses to achieve a competitive environmental advantage, reduce costs, and increase productivity. The US-AEP has been an active partner of the private sector to facilitate the transfer of environmental technology. The local US-AEP Technology Cooperation Office sends local suppliers to environment trade exhibits abroad where the opportunity to forge distributorship agreements with foreign counterparts are being explored. A number of distributorship agreements have already been successfully negotiated through US-AEP (Business and Environment: Jan-Feb 1996).

A survey of the country's top 1000 companies to benchmark existing environmental practices of these companies and identify areas where businesses can collectively work to improve local environment initiatives has been initiated by several organizations. It was undertaken to consolidate the business sector's contribution to the Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21). The findings of the survey reveal that private firms are increasingly adopting voluntary environmental guidelines such as the Philippine Business Charter for Sustainable Development (PBCSD), Responsible Care Program or the International Standards Organization ISO 14000, and standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). There has also been an observed increase in both investments and savings on the environment over the past three years.

The local chemical industry, for instance, has adopted the Responsible Care Program as a means of minimizing risks and potential adverse effects associated with their operations. The recent adoption of the program by the Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines, also known as the "Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK), is a commitment to continually improve their respective companies' performance regarding health, safety, and environmental aspects of their operations.

Management of hazards, disasters and risks is also among the areas of concern. The establishment and operation of centralized waste handling is in progress. This is complemented by the development of training modules in the field. Other on-going R&D activities include: the development of efficient and clean technologies to reduce industrial wastes ( such as the development of appropriate methods for water pollution control); utilization of renewable energy sources; strengthening of solid waste management; and air pollution quality.

Several other projects are being implemented by the Philippine Government through the DENR aimed at assisting private firms to be environmentally competitive. The Integrated Environmental Management Program (IEMP), a joint undertaking of DENR and US AID, aims to encourage sustainable economic growth in the Philippine industrial sector while reducing pollution from industrial activities, and improving human health and the environment. It conducts pollution management appraisals (PMAs) to periodically assess waste minimization opportunities and improve firms' production processes and methods (PPM).

There are also initiatives being coordinated by the PBE, a non-stock, non-profit organization formed to assist business firms in making their operations supportive of environmental thrusts. The PBE developed and promotes the PBCSD, an instrument which encourages business firms to adopt environmentally correct practices or cleaner production strategies. Some of the initiatives include: a) implementation of a pollution control program by Hi-Cement (cement plant) which includes the installation of a device that controls the release of dust and other particulate matter into the atmosphere; b) the initiative by the Asian

Institute of Management (AIM) to introduce a three year Environment, Development and Management Program with grant assistance from the MacArthur Foundation. The program aims to make sustainable development a strategic concern in the training of Asian development and enterprising managers (Business and Environment: May-June 1995).

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

The Philippines' support for information/knowledge sharing is manifested by its initiative to establish the Asia Pacific Center for Technology Exchange and Training for Small and Medium Enterprises (ACTETSME) databank on clean production (CP) and clean technologies (CT) which can be accessed by all Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) member economies. The country fully subscribes to mechanisms to stimulate cooperative activities among APEC member economies for the dissemination, promotion, transfer, and wider application of CP and CT practices. Moreover, it rallies behind the use of the ISO 14000 for wider dissemination and use of CP and CT in the APEC region.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

 

Biotechnology

No information is available.

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Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages
For the Department of Science and Technology in the Philippines, click here.
For the Science and Technology Master Plans, click here.
For access to the Philippine Science & TechnologyAdvisory Council, click here:

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The role of business and the industry in the pursuit of sustainable development is expected to strengthen with its recent inclusion as a member of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). It should be noted, however, that this sector engaged in several contributory activities before its membership in the PCSD. These included the implementation of the Environmental Information Center for Business and Industry, and the conduct of environment related campaigns (that is, the campaign on toxic and hazardous waste management, anti-smoke belching campaign). 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In the Philippines, there are government policies to encourage increasing the efficiency of resource use and reduction of waste per unit of economic output. There are also governmental policies requiring recycling.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

See under Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies.

Programmes and Projects 

Several projects are being implemented by the Philippine Government through the Department of Environment and Natural resources (DENR) aimed at assisting private firms to be environmentally competitive. The Integrated Environmental Management Program (IEMP), a joint undertaking of DENR and the United States Agency for International Development (US AID), aims to encourage sustainable economic growth in the Philippine industrial sector while reducing pollution from industrial activities, and improving human health and the environment. It conducts pollution management appraisals (PMAs) to periodically assess waste minimization opportunities and improve firms' production processes and methods (PPM).

A survey of the country's top 1000 companies to benchmark existing environmental practices of these companies and identify areas where businesses can collectively work to improve local environment initiatives has been initiated by several organizations. It was undertaken to consolidate the business sector's contribution to the Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21). The findings of the survey reveal that private firms are increasingly adopting voluntary environmental guidelines such as the Philippine Business Charter for Sustainable Development (PBCSD), Responsible Care Program or the International Standards Organization ISO 14000, and standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). There has also been an observed increase in both investments and savings on the environment over the past three years.

The local chemical industry, for instance, has adopted the Responsible Care Program as a means of minimizing risks and potential adverse effects associated with its operations. The recent adoption of the program by the Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines, also known as the "Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK), is a commitment to continually improve its respective companies' performance regarding health, safety, and the environment.

Status   

No information is available.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information from the Department of Trade and Industry, click here:

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

After more than two years of extensive discussions, President Fidel V. Ramos approved EO No. 446 on September 26, 1997. It directs the phase-out of leaded gasoline in Metro Manila by the year 2000, and nationwide by the year 2001. The Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of EO No.446 is expected to be issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resource (DENR) Secretary in April 1998. The IRR will cover general provisions and administrative procedures; fuels and facilities quality standards; monitoring, evaluation and assessment; inspection/maintenance and emission control system; public information dissemination; research and development; and prohibited acts and penalties.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

Low-leaded gasoline was initially introduced in the Philippines in 1994 following the Clean Air Pact introduced by the Chair of the Senate Committee on Ecology and Natural Resources. In addition, the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) Subcommittee on Atmosphere, with members from the government, civil society and business, began consultations in 1994 with the oil industry, car manufacturing association, government planning and policy bodies, and nongovernmental organizations, particularly tackling the health effects of lead and the economic impacts of the phase-out of leaded gasoline.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available..

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available.

Status 

The development of ecotourism as a tool for biodiversity conservation occurs in the Subic forest. Efforts to mainstream indigenous knowledge systems through the documentation of different plants used and propagated by the indigenous peoples (IPs) to sustain their livelihood and cultural activities are being conducted.

Challenges  

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available.

Information   

No information is available.

Research and Technologies   

No information is available.

Financing   

No information is available.

Cooperation  

No information is available.

* * *

This information was provided by the Government of Philippines to the fifth and sixth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1998.


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