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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Pakistan

SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN

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POVERTY

There is no information on this topic for Pakistan.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Population Welfare is most directly concerned with demographic issues. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Population Policy covers environmental linkages. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

One of the 14 core programmes of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) of Pakistan is integrating population and environment.

Status 

The Government has provided information for the Population Conference in Cairo. There was a national debate linking population and environment at the Government level at that time.

Pakistan has the fourteenth highest population growth rate (2,8% per year) among countries with more than 1 million people. Among the nine most populous countries in the world, Pakistan is second in relative growth rate and third in population density. In 1995, the population of Pakistan was 128.1 million people. The total fertility rate, which has remained nearly unchanged for decades, is about 6.5 children per woman. Approximately 60% of infant deaths are due to infectious and parasitic diseases, most of which can be traced to polluted water. However the number of crude death rates has been declining, and life expectancy has risen in the last few decades. In recent years, infant and child mortality has also begun to decrease.

Challenges

An important operational principle of the NCS is to reduce the rate of population growth as quickly as possible, while simultaneously improving the quality of the human resource base. Many facets are being used in the approach to solve the problem, including education, health, family planning, and programmes for women etc.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

A mass awareness and education campaign has been undertaken to inform the public about water pollution and health hazards associated with drinking contaminated water. The campaign is multi-media in nature and approaches the issues in simple and easy to understand terms and language, establishing a direct link between polluted water and disease and high infant mortality rates.

Another major ongoing activity is the mass awareness campaign for vehicular pollution. Special emphasis has been placed on the health hazards associated with vehicular pollutants. The campaign will also address the remedial measures and laws related to rising environmental and health problems.

In addition, the continuous campaign for tree planting has direct and indirect implications for health improvement. This has been an ongoing activity for many years.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

A library and documentation centre will be established in Pakistan's Environmental Protection Agency. This centre will also be available to educational institutions, industry and non-governmental organizations.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development has been fortunate in its collaboration with the media. Mass awareness campaigns have been communicated through television, radio and the press. The Ministry also finances writers and media to communicate the message of sustainable development. The Journalists' Resource Centre for the Environment (JRC) trains journalists in reporting on the environment by running field workshops. Non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders such as local communities have been involved in mass awareness campaigns in the media.

Programmes and Projects 

Among other initiatives, a voluntary Environmental Corps has been established to monitor afforestation programmes and pollution control.

Status 

Even with a low literacy rate of 27%, Pakistan has still managed to launch many activities which will increase general knowledge about sustainable development. 

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Teachers Training Centre of Excellence in Islamabad is providing training for educators at the tertiary level. UNEP has offered to provide assistance to the programme. The Government has also introduced a module on the environment in its Certificate of Teaching and Primary Teacher's Certificate courses.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

The Government has decided to impose a compulsory research paper on the environment at secondary and intermediate school levels. General recommendations have been made aiming at educational measures in decision making, and to enhance environmental subjects in school textbooks.

The Coastal Ecosystem Unit employs participatory rural appraisal methodology; and there is an Internship Programme at the World Conservation Union.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

Pakistan is participating in the UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP). Over 3000 Environmental Education Clubs have been set up in various parts of Pakistan. These clubs perform various tasks, from assisting the Mass Afforestation Programme, to educating the public, and operating as pressure groups. At the Pakistan Forest Institute a specific programme in forestry development has been developed for women.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife is responsible for this sector. A Committee, appointed by ENERCON, reported to the Habitat II Conference in Istanbul. Recommendations have been made to strengthen the existing in-house capability of the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, by maintaining the database on housing, human settlements and the environment. This will be the second phase of the database project.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

ENERCON has prepared a Building Energy Code as a supplement to the Building Code of Pakistan. The Energy code includes specific recommendations for both building design and mechanical equipment, such as fans, lights and air-conditioning.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

ENERCON has made a cooperative project called Energy Efficient House Design. The programme was a collaboration among UNDP, the UN Centre for Human Settlements, and the University of New South Wales (Australia). The objectives of the programme were to prepare a training guide and a 4-week training programme; to develop prototype designs of energy efficient houses and large scale dissemination of the final designs.

Among the integrated human settlement projects being implemented by Pakistan are the Orangi and the Khuda Ki Basti.

Status 

A large majority of new houses being constructed in Pakistan are not designed in accordance with the climate. As a result, house owners and occupants consume extra energy to make the houses comfortable for living. It is estimated that improved building designs can reduce household energy bills by up to 20%, and this figure could be increased to 50% by the use of efficient home appliances.  

In 1995, the population of Pakistan was 128.1 million people, of whom 31% live in the cities, a figure which is expected to rise to 50% by the year 2020. 


Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

Financial issues: the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) implemented a user-fee approach to a wide extent. In 1993, this resulted in 57.2 million Rs. which were used by the local population for sanitation, while the OPP used 3.8 million RS. for research that year. The Khuda Ki Basti project was also financed by the occupants. In order to be part of the project, a membership fee of Rs. 1000 was required, along with a monthly fees of 50 to 100 rupees paid to finance the development of infrastructure.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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