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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Pakistan

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation covering Agriculture and Rural development include: Insect Pest Control Act of 1959; The Pesticide ordinance of 1971; the Pakistan Pesticides Rules of 1973; and the Pakistan Agriculture Research Centre XXXVIII of 1981.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

The strategies to ensure food security by 1998 and to address rural welfare include women, indigenous people, local communities and NGOs. Local communities and NGOs are taken into consideration to review international trade relations and agricultural production. Women, youth, indigenous people, and local communities are also involved through workshops in developing and strengthening institutional capacity for plant genetic resources.

Programmes and Projects 

In 1981-82, a programme called "Matching Grants Programme" (MGP) was initiated. The MGP focuses on the development of infrastructure in rural areas, and is based on community participation. To date, about 22,000 schemes have been implemented in 26.500 villages. The MGP is financed as follows: half is funded through the Union Councils together with the communities, either in cash, or in kind; and the other half through the Directorate General of Local Government and Rural Development (DGLGRD). An evaluation of the MGP showed that the programme has had a noteworthy effect on the communities in terms of raising both socio-economic standards, and mass-awareness of hygiene and environmental conditions.

Status 

Pakistan is an agricultural country, and more than 50% of its population is employed in the agricultural sector. Less than 20% of Pakistan's land can be intensively farmed, nearly all of which is cultivated. In 1990, 209,400 km2 were in use as farmland. In general, farmers lack knowledge of operating characteristics and full capabilities of technologies within the agricultural sector. 

The decision for intensification of farm lands in Pakistan stems from demographic reality. In rough terms, one hectare of cultivated land supported an average 5 people in 1993; by the year 2010, it is estimated that the same land must support nearly 10. Pakistan has developed strategies to ensure food security by 1998, which also includes the agricultural sector. 

Challenges

Pakistan is faced with some common problems in both irrigated and rainfed areas used for agriculture. These problems can be summarized as erosion of soil, underuse of organic fertilizers and overuse of synthetic chemicals. In rainfed areas, over-extensive cultivation is common.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Numerous meetings and working groups have been initiated to strengthen the knowledge and capacity within food production, improve access to agricultural markets, and manage land and fertilizer use.

A National Rural Support Programme was established to promote education and health, based on community participation. In 1993, this programme was supported by the Government with Rs.1,000,000. MGP is structured so that the local councillor is normally the leader of the Project Committee which approves the projects. The councillor is responsible for collecting community finance.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

In 1994-95, all of the Public Sector Development programmes were assisted by international organizations or foreign governments. The assistance provided included both human and financial resources, by various organizations such as FAO, UNDP, and the World Bank.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Pakistan Environment Protection Council (PEPC) has jurisdiction in this area, and it has established National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Protection of the atmosphere is one of the fourteen core issues in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. PEPC has established a Committee on Clean Fuels, which has the mandate to make recommendations for the alleviation of atmospheric pollution. An incentive reduction scheme has been recommended in relation to the emissions from Compressed Natural Gas and Liquid Petroleum Gas powered buses, trucks, and urban public services, and a mandatory introduction of catalytic converters in two-stroke engines by July 1997 has been suggested. Vehicle emission regulations, are also being set to include Nox, Sox, SPM and Lead by the expert committee of PEPC.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON) has put together some programmes to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. These programmes involve:

Status 

Pakistan's greenhouse gas emissions are nominal, of which energy generation, industry and households are major consumers. A Cabinet Committee on Climate Change met for the first time on March 27th 1995. Its purpose is to monitor, evaluate and prepare strategies to cope with adverse impacts of climate change by creating an appropriate institutional mechanism which would operate by taking into account all sectors. 

Challenges

The diesel and furnace oil being marketed in Pakistan have a high sulphur (SO2) content. Pakistan is also facing numerous problems from the lack of efficient fuel burning, abnormal exhaust emissions from automobiles, inadequate tuning of engines, and improper repairs and maintenance. These problems mainly affect the larger cities where breathing difficulties can occur during peak-hours. Air quality clashing with the WHO standards is costing Pakistan about Rs. 25 billion a year from adverse health and other effects. The number of vehicles in the country increased from 0.85 million in 1982 to 2.8 million in 1995, showing an overall increase of 229%. It is envisaged that, with the present rate of growth, the number of vehicles will increase to 4.5 million by the year 2000, thereby adding to quantum green house gases.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

Pakistan has developed a system of inventory of all green gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, which is periodically updated.

The Energy Conservation Centre has proposed setting up a computerized database on the quality of air for the six largest cities in Pakistan.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.


Financing 

The Ministry of Environment has approved the project "Fuel Efficiency in Road Transport" at a cost of Rs. 230.58 million, including a Rs. 220.55 million grant under GEF. The project will be executed by ENERCON. 

Cooperation

The Montreal Protocol (1987) was ratified in December 1992, the London Amendment (1990) was ratified in December 1992, and the Copenhagen Amendment (1992) was ratified on May 18, 1995. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was ratified on 1 June 1994 and entered into force on 30 August, 1994.

The United Nations has extended major support to this project through UNDP. Support for phasing out Ozone Depletion Substances is provided through cooperation with UNDP, the World Bank and UNIDO.

 

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development is responsible for the implementation of this sector. The Ministry is involved in national decision-making.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Pakistan has initiated preparation of a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) which should be completed in its first phase by the time that CSD V is convened (April 1997). The second phase of preparation will begin as soon as further GEF funding has been made available.

Pakistan has 15 National Parks, 86 Wildlife Sanctuaries and an equal number of Game Reserves. Management Plans have been prepared for 3 National Parks. The implementation of the management plans of these National Parks and preparation of the management plans for the remaining National Parks is required immediately. Similarly, many species are endangered and plans for their recovery are to be made immediately.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement


Local communities, including women, are involved in the conservation of biodiversity. 

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The Provincial Wildlife Departments need to have permanent resource persons to make inventories in the protected areas, since the inventories that are made for PAs are not sufficient for policy formulation. The protected areas need well-equipped staff for checking the poaching of wildlife. Well-equipped Park Centres are required in order to raise awareness within local communities. A sum of Rs. 52.5 million has been allocated to halt the decline in the state of Pakistan's biological resources within its ecosystems.

Pakistan has many wetlands of international importance, but so far, few could be identified for listing in the Wetlands Conventions. This Convention also does not have an effective funding mechanism. The Monitoring procedure of the Wetlands Convention could not assist Pakistan in developing its Wetlands and Coastal Areas, and there is a great need for such a mechanism to be strengthened.

Pakistan has many sites which could qualify for designation as sites for the World Heritage Convention. The search for an outstanding site which may qualify needs special attention. All previous efforts of Pakistan have not been agreed to by the World Heritage Committee, and due to a lack of funds, Pakistan could not explore such sites. There is, therefore, a need for UN Agencies and other international donors to come forward and assist Pakistan and other developing country parties in the identification of World Heritage Sites so as to save them from any further deterioration and take measures for their development.

Challenges

There is a great need to appoint Park Managers in the National Parks. Presently, Forest Officers are posted in the National Parks as Park Managers, but they can be transferred wherever needed to other forest areas without the consideration of the needs of the specific National Park or Protected Area. The reason for this is because of financial constraints, as the Provincial Forests Departments cannot afford to place separate Wildlife Managers.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

There is a great need for capacity-building in all of the relevant institutions in Pakistan in all of the components of biodiversity. For example, the conservation of species and protected areas management requires the capacity of the provincial wildlife departments. 

Pakistan has been successful in implementing the above-mentioned Conventions and this has resulted in a new lease on life for wild animals and the conservation of protected areas, including wetlands, and coastal areas. There is a great need to develop a mechanism for the implementation of all the Conventions. CITES, for example, can only be made effective if the Management and Scientific Authorities in the developing countries under CITES are made strong by increasing their capacity both in terms of finance, technology and staffing. Their research capabilities need to be extended. Rescue centres, which are required to be designated by the Parties, do not have the capacity to host confiscated species, and therefore specific funding for this is required, particularly for Authorities and Custom Officers. Training of Customs Officers as well as Enforcement Officers is needed and which also requires funding in developing countries.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

Through the funding of US$ 313,000 being provided through the Global Environment Fund, Pakistan initiated the preparation of a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP), to be completed by the first quarter of 1997. However, this is a continuous activity and the BAP is likely to require further funding for its second phase. An investment proposal is also being prepared for the management and development of three selected Protected Areas of Pakistan through possible funding by the GEF. A project entitled "Maintaining Biodiversity in Pakistan with Rural Community Development" is being funded by the GEF through UNDP at a cost of US$2.5 million. Upon the successful completion of the project, it is likely that Pakistan may receive another 3.5 million US$ from GEF through UNDP.

Only the Convention on Biological Diversity has a funding mechanism, while other Conventions do not. The governments, especially developing country parties, have to bear the costs of implementation of the obligations of the Conventions. Therefore, there is a great need for all of the Conventions to be technically and financially supported through the GEF mechanism and extended to all developing country parties. CSD should ensure that the funding of the developing country Parties is made obligatory, without which the world's heritage is not likely to be conserved on a sustainable basis.

Cooperation

Pakistan is a Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity and has taken up many measures before becoming a Party to this Convention.

Pakistan is also a party to a number of nature conservation Conventions which include :

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The institutions responsible for this sector are the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, the Arid Zone Research Council, Pakistan Forest Institute, the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Water and the Power Authority, and the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife and Energy Conservation. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The legislation to combat desertification was revised in 1994. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

A National Plan for Combatting Desertification has been developed and approved by the Interim Secretariat of the Convention.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

NGOs have independent programming which includes women's participation. Youths are not involved.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

 There is a serious shortage of trained staff and management, in addition to the lack of financial resources.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Relevant NGOs have mass-awareness programmes.

Information 

Current land use knowledge in Pakistan is based on Satellite Imagery Interpretation.  Land degradation and human impact assessment have not yet been covered, although some surveys were done dating back to 1988.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

The National Conservation Strategy on restoring rangelands and improving livestock quality investment programme 1992-2001, is estimated to cost US$ 82.63 million.

Cooperation

Experts from Pakistan have assisted Mongolia and Iran in the preparation of their National Action Programmes.

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa was signed 15 October 1994 and ratified 24 February 1997. The United Nations Environment Programme is providing financial assistance of US$60,000 for the preparation of the National Plan for Combatting Desertification, a plan which will soon become operational.

 

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

No information is available.

 

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

Numerous Public and Private Sector Corporations, from the National Highway Authority to Sui Southern Gas Company, have been involved in planting a total of 546 million saplings by the end of the monsoon in 1996.

Programmes and Projects 

Pakistan has the objective of doubling its forest area, from the existing 5% to 10% of total land area. In order to meet this target, the Government has initiated various projects in an umbrella campaign of a Massive Afforestation Programme (MAP). This programme has five main components:

Status 

The forest inventory identified a forest area of 0.042 million km2 in 1991. Forests are divided on the basis of whether they are state-owned or private-owned forests. The state-owned forests are again divided into four categories: reserved, protected, unclassified and resumed lands. Two-thirds of the public forest are non-commercial. The remaining one-third, located mostly on steep and unstable slopes of the Himalayas, is harvested. Production of timber from commercial forests is about 0.5 million m3.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the specific case of pollution control in the Rawal Lake, a Committee under the chairman of the Chief Commissioner in Islamabad was constituted by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC).

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Rawal Lake has been selected for special attention concerning unsustainable activities, such as building latrines at specific locations and construction of septic tanks in the existing settlements. In addition, three projects have been recommended, concerning improvement of catchment areas and the provision of septic tanks and watershed management. 

A pilot project in Karachi has been cleared for implementation. The concept of the project is to recycle waste water by sewage collection and by conveying the waste water to irrigate areas via underground pipes. The project also involves the use of a low capital and operating costs [Lagoon] system, and developing 500 hectares of land for irrigation. This project is a joint venture between the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board, and a private Austrian firm.

Status 

Surface water from rivers is the primary source of water in Pakistan. Infiltration from rivers, canals, watercourses, and fields is the main source of groundwater, which is a secondary resource. The limitation on some of the water available cannot be facilitated through storage dams. Pakistan is struggling with the fact that only 30% of the diverted water at canal heads reaches crop roots. In general, Pakistan needs much integrated water and soil improvement. 

The Kabul and Ravi Rivers provide food, directly through fishing and indirectly through irrigation, as well as water for both drinking and industry.

Challenges

In general, Pakistan needs to address a vast array of problems regarding water usage since, for example forty percent of urban deaths are caused by water-borne diseases. Special focus is also needed in terms of sodicity, water mining and the accumulation of salt in commercial crop roots.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

A nationwide study is being carried out to strengthen the baseline data on the state of existing urban and industrial waste water treatment facilities. This information will become the background material for a National Master Plan for this area.

Research and Technologies 

Pakistan also has an on-going research-project which aims at assessing the water requirements of different species. The idea is to use the information for various forest extension projects. A water survey and analysis was carried out in Quetta, Pakistan.

Financing 

The Government of Punjab has been asked to provide funding of Rs. 57.75 million for the projects recommended for the Rawal Lake.


Cooperation

The Asian Development Bank has worked with the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, under an Umbrella Technical Assistance Agreement, to study Rivers Kabul and Ravi and their environmental state. The initial study on River Kabul was conducted with the assistance of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The institutions responsible for implementation in this sector are the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA); the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, NGOs and Planning and Development Departments. These bodies are members of National Coordination Mechanisms for Sustainable Development.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

 Policies related to capacity building, management and technology are at the planning stage.

Challenges

Pakistan faces a general lack of capacity of institutions to promote an integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.



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MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The institutions responsible for mountain issues are the Governments of Azad Jammu & Kashmir; North West Frontier Province; Northern Area; Punjab and Sindh. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation regarding this sector includes: the Pakistan Forest Act of 1927, the Hazara Guzara 1936 Act, the Provincial Wildlife Legislation and the Provincial Fisheries Legislation.

The Cabinet Committee on Climate Change has made recommendations to strengthen legislation in order to protect an area called Margallah Hills. The idea is to extend the existing area of Margallah Hills and then impose special regulations to preserve fauna, flora, bio-diversity and forests. Recommendations for the legislation are focused on prohibiting mining and quarrying, and preventing industry and manufacturing from getting established in these areas.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Pakistan has five significant mountain systems: Western Himalayas, Karakoram, Hindukush, Suleman and Kirthar. 

Challenges

Pakistan is troubled by the lack of land-use planning and land-use control, uncertain land tenure and an inadequate policy on sustainable development in mountain areas. 

The mountain areas which are cultivated suffer from soil and water erosion, as well as limited infrastructure and marketing facilities. These problems lead to a need for sustainable economic diversification, especially since, despite intensification of the use of farmlands in the mountain areas, these lands will never be able to accommodate the additional population growth expected and already apparent.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

The monitoring systems of the meteorological situation are poor, and have not improved since the 1980s.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.



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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies     

The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife is responsible for the overall implementation in this sector. Pakistan has access to and applies state-of-art technologies in the Marine Environmental Unit.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A green belt around Karachi Port is being implemented. The project includes planting 150,000 mangroves and 350,000 various other plants.

The Port Quasim Authority initiated a number of activities which include mangrove plantations and locating industries in large industrial estates to clear the coastline.

Status 

 The coastal strip of Pakistan is arid, with fewer than 20 centimeters precipitation a year. Pakistan has mangrove on approximately 800,000 acres of swamp.

The Karachi Port is mostly polluted by non-port-related activities. An estimated 90,000 tons of oil products from vessels and the port's terminals are dumped every year in the port's water. To address the problem, the Karachi Port Trust has signed MARPOL 1972-1979. 

Challenges

The Pakistani coast is exposed to negative environmental impacts from thermal pollution, increased oil spills, tarballs, and plastic and toxic effluents, including heavy metal.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

An allocation of Rs. 350 million was distributed among three projects: a Marine Pollution Control Centre which handles emergency oil spills; a Marine Environmental Unit to monitor water, air, sediment and biota quality; and a Marine Pollution Board. The last has been established to handle matters which are related to marine life and environment, and resources at risk; to provide advisory services to relevant organizations; and to review monthly progress in combatting and controlling marine pollution.

Cooperation

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed December 1982 and ratified 26 February 1997.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Committee has been appointed by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council, to make surveys and recommendations concerning the alarming conditions of Hospital Waste.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals is a core issue of the National Conservation Strategy. Management of this type of waste has not yet been achieved. This committee is collaborating with the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, and they have launched a joint action plan. The joint action plan to deal with medical wastes underlines the need for more training and education of relevant personnel, identification and strengthening of the proper institutions, and an initiative to raise awareness of problems.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The projects aiming at reducing pollution from the industries, address toxic effluent reduction by using appropriate technology transfer, recycling chrome recovery, establishing institutions for in-house pollution control in the tanneries, and by establishing industrial complexes which provide the leather industry with the infrastructure and utilities required.

Status 

 In Pakistan, around 250,000 tones of hazardous medical waste are produced annually.

Challenges

Pakistan is suffering from the adverse soil, air and occupational effects caused by the use of chemicals in the textile and leather industries. 

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

A Government project regarding the tanneries in Kasur City has an estimated cost of Rs. 264 million, which is being financed partly by a UNDP grant of 6.85 million US $, and a 30% contribution of the total cost by the Tanneries Association of Kasur.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The privatization of solid waste management was initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife. The Ministry is also responsible for the proposals in connection with the recycling of paper in Federal Government Offices.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The National Environment Quality Standards have been implemented for issues related to this sector. This has led to some concrete measures; for example the waste problems of cement factories are being addressed by installing anti-pollution technology.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans   

The environmentally sound management of sewerage and solid waste is a core issue in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Projects to enhance the capacity for solid waste at the municipal level have been established.

Status 

There is practically no solid waste management in Pakistan. Around 40% of the waste is discarded in the streets or at collection sites. Only half of the urban wastes is disposed in sewers, with most remaining untreated. Solid waste treatment has been privatized in order to keep up with the demand for solid waste treatment services. Only Karachi and Islamabad have sewage treatment plants. Communities are being encouraged to participate in enhancing solid waste treatment capacities.

The following recommendations have been made to counter the consumption of 20,000 tonnes of paper within the Federal Administration:

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The installation of anti-pollution measures in the Cement Industry is being assisted by UNIDO, Chinese experts, and M/S Environmental Resources Management, U.S.A.

 

 

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Hazardous Wastes

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The National Environment Quality Standard is being applied to the issue of waste management. In addition, Pakistan has prohibited the import of hazardous waste in accordance with the Basel Convention.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The environmentally sound management of hazardous waste is one of the core issues in the National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. 

The private sector, namely industry, is the target for national policy.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The industrialization of Pakistan has had an effect on the environment, especially since the discharging of waste is being done without consideration of the treatment facilities that are required to maintain sustainability. 


Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

Pakistan has implemented a Pollution Release Project to monitor select industries in the Province of Punjab. The project includes data collection and data comparison of the National Environment Quality Standards. The proposed action plan involves the collection of a pollution charge from defaulting industries under the National Environment Quality Standards.

Cooperation


The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified on 26 July, 1994.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

Radioactive Wastes

There is no information on this topic for Pakistan.

 

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