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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife, and Energy Conservation is responsible for environmental issues.   In 1992, the Sustainable Development Policy Institute was created as an independent policy research institute in order to supervise and monitor the National Conservation Strategy. 

The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) was set up in accordance with the legislation of 1983. The major functions of the Council include enforcement of the 1983 Ordinance and formulation of comprehensive national environmental policy. The PEPC has recommended creating a Pakistan Environmental Fund and an Environmental Bank. The PEPC is also responsible for setting up pressure groups and environmental clubs at workplaces and factories, in order to raise awareness and improve the environment.

There is a Standing Expert Advisory Committee in charge of regularly up-dating the NESQ. 


Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Pakistan has prepared a draft National Environmental Act, which is to replace the Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance of 1983. This draft was prepared after consultations with more than 5000 individuals, organizations and groups including, trade and industry, environmental experts and NGOs. It has been submitted to the Cabinet for approval and is likely to be passed by the Parliament soon. 

Every proponent of a project, the construction or completion of which is likely to have an adverse affect on the environment, has to submit at the time of planning an Environmental Impact Assessment to the concerned Environmental Protection Agency in the Province, confirming that the project will comply with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS).

Standards to establish a charge on polluters and to introduce self-monitoring systems were to be introduced by the 1st of July 1996.  Such standards now exist for industrial and municipal effluents, and for motor exhaust and noise.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Pakistan has a fully developed National Conservation Strategy (NCS), which was approved by the Government on 1 March, 1992.The NCS works on a ten- year planning and implementation cycle. The current cycle is 1992-2001. The NCS deals with 14 core issues, which are:

Based on the experience of the National Conservation Strategy, policies are being redirected at institutional strengthening and human resource development, especially at the local and provincial level.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

In order to test the NEQS for effective implementation, the Government has set up a Central Laboratory for Environmental Analysis (CLEAN). Companies within the Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Tanner and Textile industries have been approached to assess the status of compliance to the NEQS.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

A mass-awareness campaign about NEQS has been launched.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The NEQS, which have received assistance from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), are meant as a vehicle for protection of the environment.  

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on Environmental Law around the World, click here:

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

A permanent Ministry for Women's Development has been established and is responsible for training and education as well as the implementation of projects. 

Decision Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups involvement

There are hundreds of women's organizations in Pakistan. However, in the rural areas there is no network among NGOs focusing on women's issues.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Pakistan has acknowledged that a higher level of development for and contribution from women is a precondition for achieving broad-based sustainable development.  Family planning is receiving increased governmental attention because the population growth rate is considered both a hindrance to growth and a threat to sustainability. The active participation of women is being accentuated in this process.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was ratified on 12 March 1996.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

For information on Women Watch in different countries, click here:
For information on national plans of action in the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, click here:

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

There is no information in this topic for Pakistan.

 

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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE


There is no information in this topic for Pakistan.

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Conservation Strategy is based on the early warning and awareness-building facilities that the NGOs provide.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

The most prominent NGO in Pakistan is the IUCN of Pakistan which helped the Government finalize the draft Pakistan Environmental Act of 1996.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

In Pakistan, there are thousands of NGOs, hundreds of which are involved in environmental issues.   However the assistance of the NGOs to the Government is appreciated and considered productive. 

Challenges

Unfortunately, the NGOs are poorly developed and relatively ineffective.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

 Some NGOs are involved in the promotion of education, mass awareness and the empowerment of women.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

The Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife allocates around Rs. 30 million annually to NGOs for undertaking small-scale projects. In 1995-1996, some 147 projects carried out by 141 NGOs were financially assisted (Rs. 22.3 million) by the Government. This allocation is being handled by a Committee which also approves the NGOs and their projects and is receiving financial aid from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF).

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The implementation of projects related to Agenda 21 issues is very much the responsibility of Provincial Governments. Therefore, it is fair to say that strengthening of authority at this level goes hand in hand with the promotion of sustainable development in Pakistan. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information available

Programmes and Projects 

Pakistan has initiated cross-sectoral projects which will enhance capacity regarding infrastructure, collecting and managing solid waste data, as well as other services for ten urban areas. 

Status 

No information available

Challenges

No information available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

The Provinces of Punjab and Sindh are planning projects which will contribute to increased public awareness and educational training. 

Information 

No information available

Research and Technologies 

No information available

Financing 

No information available

Cooperation

The Provinces of Punjab and Sindh are planning projects which will contribute to increased public awareness and educational training. Some of them will be funded by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank.


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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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WORKERS AND UNIONS

There is no information in this topic for Pakistan.


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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No concrete action has been taken in this area. However, recommendations towards the promotion of cleaner industrial production, general recycling, waste trading networks, businesses etc. are all part of the National Conservation Strategy. The Government has developed a strategy to tackle the issue. The crux of the strategy is private public partnerships for the promotion of cleaner production. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A number of projects encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources have been launched in the public and private sectors. Some of the major projects include a tannery pollution control project in Kaur, Korang; a pollution control project in Karachi; development of a textile processing industrial estate Faisalabad; and an environmental technology programme for industry (ETPI).

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government is grateful for the support of the following international organizations: UNIDO, UNDP, UNEP, JICA, NORAD, and CIDA.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The National Scientific and Technological councils and associations are widening their membership. These organizations have launched various programmes for the benefit of the general public.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Various projects and programmes are in operation whereby farmers are being encouraged to apply sustainable farming practices.

Status 

Pakistan, being an agriculture-based country, is fully aware of the significance of sustainable development practices. 

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Science for sustainable development is at an early stage, which is reflected in its weak capacity features. For example, the science sector is not involved in decision-making at any level. It has not been given the attention that Agenda 21 calls for, in terms of increasing the number of scientists, nor the number of women being trained as scientists. 

Challenges

In addition to the lack of promoting more scientific personnel, Pakistan has a serious problem with brain-drain to other countries.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

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This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997



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INFORMATION

No information is available.

 

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For a direct link to Pakistan's Web Site for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme, click here: || to link to UNDP's Web Site for the Sustainable Development Networking Programme in Pakistan, click here:

This information is based on Pakistan's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997


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INTERNATIONAL LAW


There is no information in this topic for Pakistan.

 

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