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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The thrust of current Nigerian Government policy against poverty is to enable the poor and more vulnerable sections of society to achieve sustainable livelihoods. The approach is to economically empower communities, families, and individuals through a sustained, well coordinated, and comprehensive programme of poverty alleviation.

On-going Government activities related to poverty have been regularly featured in the National Rolling Plan beginning with the 1990-1992 Plan. They include programmes such as: economic programmes for the empowerment of women; Primary Health Care (PHC) programme, whose purpose is to bring health care, particularly preventive health care to the grass roots of the Nigerian Society; establishment of the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in all States of the Federation; establishment of the People's Bank, aimed at extending small credits to people in the informal sector of the economy with the aim of strengthening informal economic activities, cities, and towns and villages; establishment of the National Economic Recovery Fund (NERFUND) which provides easy access to credit by small and medium scale enterprises; establishment of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), a self employment promotion programme which has largely promoted waste to wealth employment activities; education of itinerant communities such as the Fulani normals, Ijaws, etc; establishment of the River Basin Development Authorities and provision of rural access roads; and establishment of the National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA) aimed at promoting integrated rural development.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Accordingly the Government's policy, the National Planing Commission (NPC) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is articulating a Community Action Programme for Poverty Alleviation (CAPPA). The detailed strategies, activities, and targets of the CAPPA are still being worked out. In broad terms, however, it will among other things streamline on-going activities by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

There are also specific environmental improvement programmes that have been integrated with poverty alleviation programmes. Examples include: the Sokoto Desertification Control Programme, and integrated environmental protection programme jointly funded by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and the European Economic Community (EEC); the Katsina Arid Zone Development Programme, and the North East Arid Zone Development Programme, an integrated programme funded by FGN/EEC; and upgrading and mechanization of traditional methods of processing Nigeria's food resources, a project promoted by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology.

Besides, the Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), the Ministry has designed and produced the following equipment/plants, among others, for nationwide demonstration and adaptation: groundnut processing technology consisting of a groundnut sheller, a dehuller, and roaster; a hydraulic machine for the production of bricks from local materials; a tiles-production machine for producing roofing tiles from local fibre, cement, and sand; a lime kiln for the production of lime for leather processing and school chalk manufacture; soap making process for cottage/small scale production of both traditional and modern production of soap; mushroom production technology; fat liquor production, a developed process for fat liquor, an essential product required in the leather tanning industry; a pottery/ceramic machine, designed and fabricated for the production of pottery and ceramic wares from local clays; an essential oils distillation plant for the production of essential oils from local plants such as eucalyptus and lemon grass (essential oils are inputs in the food, confectionary, and pharmaceutical industries); and briquetting technology for sawdust and agricultural wastes suitable for production of alternate sources to fuel and wood.

Status

There is an inextricable link between poverty and environmental degradation. Poverty can be the cause and/or the effect of environmental degradation. Poverty itself is a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the National and international domains. While managing resources sustainable, an environmental policy that focuses mainly on the conservation and protection of resources must take due account of those who depend on the resources for their livelihoods, otherwise it could have an adverse impact both on poverty alleviation and on chances for long-term success in resource and environmental conservation. Equally, a development policy that focuses mainly on increasing the production of goods without addressing the sustainability of the resource base will sooner or later run into declining productivity, thereby aggravating poverty. A specific anti-poverty strategy is, therefore, one of the basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development. The long-term objective of enabling all people to achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an integrating factor that allows policies to address issues of development, sustainable resource management, and poverty eradication simultaneously.

Challenges

An appropriate poverty strategy should: a) provide all persons with the opportunity to earn a sustainable livelihood; b) implement policies and strategies that promote adequate and sustainable levels of funding, and focus on integrated human development policies, including income generation, increased local control of resources, local institution strengthening and capacity-building, and greater involvement of non-governmental organizations and local levels of government as delivery mechanisms; c) develop all poverty-stricken areas through integrated strategies and programmes of sound and sustainable management of the environment, resource mobilization, poverty eradication and alleviation, employment and income generation; d) create a focus in National development plans and budgets on investment in human capital, with special policies and programmes directed at rural areas, the urban poor, women, and children; e) establish appropriate infrastructure and support system to facilitate the alleviation of poverty by implementing projects, programmes, enterprises, and life styles sustainable at the grass roots level.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

No information is available.

 

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Health related environmental problems in Nigeria vary with the social and economic development achieved by different States, and even different towns and villages within individual states. They are linked to poverty, absence of adequate water supplies, lack of sanitation services, and poor housing conditions. With increasing industrialization, the risk of respiratory illness and cancer-related deaths also rises. Extensive and rapid development in all industrial and many agricultural sectors have sharply increased the exposure of industrial workers and large segments of the population to these risks. The major public health problems associated with poor environmental sanitation, exposure to communicable diseases, and poor personal hygiene predominate and are often compounded by malnutrition which reduces resistance to diseases especially among vulnerable groups such as children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the aged. Malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, diarrhoea, and other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and other vectors such as filariasis and parasitic infestations like guinea worm and onchocerciasis are still mayor public health problems. Many other diseases such as tetanus, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are becoming more prevalent in urban areas as a direct result of overcrowding and poor sanitary conditions. Other public health problems are associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals and heavy metals.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


The future strategy and plans of the Nigerian Government for creating and improving capacity for sustainable development are to: a) develop a blueprint for environmental education and public awareness by 1998; b) ensure that environmental education is a core ingredient of the educational system at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education by 1999; c) make environment and development education available to people of all ages; involve school children in local studies on environmental health, including safe drinking water, sanitation, food and the environmental and economic impacts of resource use; d) encourage all sectors of society, including industries, universities, governments, non-governmental organizations, and community organizations to train people in environmental management; e) work with the media, theatre groups, entertainment and advertising industries to promote a more active public debate on the environment; f) train decision-makers on the basic tenets of environment and sustainable programmes for different strata of the environment on a continuing basis; g) develop and implement tailor-made environmental education and awareness programmes for different strata of the environment on a continuing basis; and h) institutionalize environmental responsibility through regular competitions and awards such as cleanest village in each local government, cleanest local government in each State and cleanest State in the Federation, as well as the most environmentally-friendly industries on a sectoral basis.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Nigerian Government, through the Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) and other relevant agencies, has undertaken programmes to enlighten, educate, and raise awareness of the Nigerian populace through media (both print and electronic) campaigns on environmental issues. Identification, education, and training of officials that would form the core of the Environmental Education Network nationwide are being undertaken. In addition, the FEPA has encouraged the establishment of Environmental Conservation Clubs in Secondary Schools. It has also collaborated with the Federal Ministry of Education through the National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) on the development of an Environmental Educational Masterplan and Curricula for both the formal and informal educational system in Nigeria.

In 1993, the UNDP offered to support the National Programme on Environmental and Natural Resources Management for Nigeria. The support focused essentially on capacity building in all programme areas identified. This is to enable the environmental agencies of the Government of Nigeria at both Federal and State level, NGOs, and local communities design, formulate, manage, implement, and sustain their own environmental protection programmes. Specifically, the four target objectives of the programme include strengthening National capacity for the formulation of environmental policies, legislation, and enforcement; increased awareness and conservation of the environment; preparing the National Agenda 21 and an action plan for its implementation; training of staff of FEPA, State Environmental Protection Agencies, and other National bodies to enable them to carry out their work programmes on a self-sustaining basis.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

The ability to develop more sustainably depends on the capacity of Nigerian citizens and institutions to understand the complex environment and development issues so that they can make the right development choices. Citizens need to have the expertise to understand the potential and the limits of the environment. This will require scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and other skills. There is also the need to increase the sensitivity of the Nigerian populace to, and involvement in, finding solutions for environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behaviour needed for sustainable development.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Apart from the publications mentiones under 'Information', FEPA has always engaged in social activities aimed at raising the level of public environmental awareness. For instance, the Agency has consistently joined the world in the commemoration of World Environment Day (WED) during which the attention of the public, children and youths are drawn to the importance of a safe and sound environment.

Staff members of State Environmental Protection Agencies have started to benefit from overseas training programmes under the Technical Assistance Training Programme and the World Bank Assisted Environmental Management Project for Nigeria. Training of staff from other line ministries and the private sector in specialized areas such as environmental law and EIA is already in progress. Presently, an Environmental Enforcement Training Centre (EETC) is being established in FEPA to train environmental officers at federal and state levels, and those in the private sector.

Information

For the purpose of further educating the Nigerian society as to the benefits of frugal use of the environment for sustainable development, FEPA has produced a number of publications on key environmental issues in Nigeria. Some of these publications include: a) The making of the Nigerian Environment Policy, FEPA Monograph l: 1992; b)Industrial Pollution Abatement in Nigeria, FEPA Monograph 2: 1993; c) Environmental Consciousness for National Development, FEPA Monograph 3: 1993; d) Industry and Ozone Layer Protection in Nigeria, FEPA Monograph 4; e) The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Corporate Profile; and f) The Green Book.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In the area of training, the Government has cooperated with international organizations, such as the World Bank, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial development Organization (UNIDO) on capacity building and institutional strengthening. This is to ensure manpower development for environmental protection and natural resources conservation. The World Bank Assisted Environmental Management Project (EMP) for Nigeria has assisted the country in its efforts toward human development. Officers from both Federal and State Environmental Protection Agencies have benefitted from some training programmes in environmental impact assessment (EIA), environmental management, environmental education and awareness, and media education.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The activities of the Nigerian Government through the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing are highlighted under the relevant programme areas: providing adequate shelter for all; improving human settlement management; promoting sustainable land use planning and management; promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure such as water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management; promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster prone areas; promoting sustainable construction industry activities; and promoting human resource development and capacity building for human settlement development.

The Government's decision to implement these programmes was based on the resolution adopted at the First United Nations Conference on Human Settlement (Habitat) held in Vancouver, Canada in 1976. The achievements in the Human Settlement Sector are outlined below:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Efforts have been made to provide land requirements for human settlement development through sustainable physical planning and land use. A major action in this direction is the on-going review of the 1978 Land Use Act. The review is geared towards making land resources more readily accessible for sustainable human settlement development. A new statute will be put in place after the review. The Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Law was promulgated in 1992 to regulate and guide spatial planning at all levels of government. The Federal statute has been adopted and is being implemented nationwide as a model for other levels of government. The Federal Land Registry, which is to be computerized, has been established to facilitate the registration of all titles to Federal Government land throughout the country.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The National Housing Policy was formulated and launched in 1991. The document outlines policies and strategies to provide decent housing for all by the year 2000 or in the shortest possible time. A fall-out of the policy is the establishment of the Housing Policy Council to monitor activities in the housing sector and evaluate policy impact on the sector. The council regularly collects data and publishes information on the state of the housing sector.

Nigeria has witnessed a rapid rate of urbanization in the last two decades. It is estimated that over 40% of the Nigerian population now live in urban areas. The rapid rate of urbanization has brought with it some significant problems including a shortage of housing, overcrowding, traffic congestion, environmental degradation, inadequate infrastructure and services, etc. In recognition of these problems, the National Rolling Plans since 1990 have factored in National Housing Policy instruments for implementing the National Housing Programme. Furthermore, the National Housing Fund and an Infrastructural Development Fund have been put in place to facilitate the attainment of the goals of sustainable human settlement in the country.

Several policies have been adopted by government to improve Urban Management. The National Urban Development Policy was formulated in 1992 to provide guidelines for urban development and management. An Urban Development Bank and an enabling law for the establishment of physical planning units at all levels of government have been achieved under the policy.

To enable the construction sector to meet human settlement development goals while avoiding harmful side effects on human health, the Federal Government of Nigeria has established and commenced the enforcement of National Building Codes and Standards. In addition, a National Construction Policy was promulgated in 1994 to ensure and enhance the following: the use of indigenous building materials and industries; adoption of standards and regulatory measures for increased use of energy-efficient designs; and use of labour intensive construction and maintenance technologies for the generation of employment.

All the problems mentiones under 'Challenges' need to be redressed to improve the well being of the people. The strategy for this is to: a) adopt an integrated approach to the provision of water, electricity, sanitation, drainage, and solid waste management; b) ensure appropriate implementation and monitoring of master plans for major towns where they exist, and preparation and implementation of new ones where they are non-existent or out of date; c) raise awareness on environmental issues needed for sustainable human settlements; d) commence and ensure the implementation of the National plan of action for sustainable human settlement development in Nigeria; e) improve rural economies through the development of cottage and agro-allied industries to create job opportunities for rural dwellers, and thereby stem the tide of rural-urban migration; f) provide not less than 75% of rural communities with social amenities to stimulate and sustain self-reliant development to curb rural-urban migration; g) strengthen institutions with a view to make them more responsive and accountable; ensure effective implementation and enforcement of all existing relevant sectoral laws, standards, and regulations that make for sustainable human settlements; h) encourage private sector and community participation in urban renewal activities, housing, and infrastructural provision; i) develop and implement guidelines and put in place appropriate institutional arrangements for effective land resources management; j) establish a National Human Settlement Data Bank (SHSDB) to provide baseline information that can be used to better plan for sustainable human settlements; k) renew all existing slum areas and prevent conditions that may lead to the development of new ones; l) promote the development of parks and gardens, and ensure retention of adequate natural green areas within human settlements to maintain ecological balance and amenity; m) promote efficient and affordable transportation within urban and rural areas; n) promote easy access to land, especially for low income families; and o) improve the revenue base for human settlement management.

The strategy to strengthen the emergency preparedness to reduce peoples' vulnerability and cushion the impact of disasters on settlements, the economy, and the environment is to: a) prepare comprehensive hazard maps and vulnerability analysis for the country through compiling historical data of disaster occurrence, analysis of meteorological, seismological, agricultural, and environmental records, and employing satellite imagery and geographic information systems (GIS) to prepare the hazard maps; b) establish very effective early warning systems for meteorological, geological, biological, social, and industrial hazards by enhancing meteorological services, effectively monitoring pests and disease epidemics, resuscitation of seismographic stations and the existing seismological centres, development of reliable biological indicators, and building a viable network for early warning information dissemination; c) develop and maintain prompt emergency response mechanisms and contingency plans by making an inventory of all existing resources for emergency response for easy marshaling at times of disasters, establishing a body to coordinate emergency response to reduce duplication of efforts and enhance accountability, and formulating a National emergency policy and an emergency plan; and d) mount a sustained public awareness and education programme hazard preparedness by engaging military and para military forces as well as voluntary organizations in drills on emergency response including search and rescue, and preparing and integrating emergency preparedness into school curriculum.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The Federal Government, through the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) started the National Housing Programme in 1994. The objective is to produce 121,000 housing units for low, medium, and high income earners. So far only about 5% of the target has been achieved. Further efforts on direct construction of houses continue to be made through the National Prototype Housing Programme aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing functional, cost effective and affordable housing units. So far 600 housing units in various stages of completion are being constructed in Lagos, Kaduna, Port-Harcourt, Jos, Kano, and Lafia. The National Housing Fund was established in 1992 to solve the problem of finance for housing development. All workers (both public and private sector) earning N3,000 and above per annum contribute 2.5% of their income to the fund. The funds are disbursed as mortgage loans through primary mortgage institutions to the subscribers to the fund.

The Urban renewal programme is directed at improving existing neighbourhoods in core areas. It has been implemented in 18 cities across the nation. A total of about N20 million had been spent on the programme since 1992. The Federal Government has provided through the National Sites and Services Programme over 15,000 plots at subsidized rate to the public. Over N250 million have been committed to the programme over the last six years.

Further to the achievement of the goal of improving urban management, the country is participating in the Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) under the urban management programme (UMP) of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlement (UNCHS)/World Bank/United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Under the programme, the Sustainable Ibadan Project (SIP) is being implemented. Through the initiative, local governments, NGOs, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), and private individuals are encouraged to participate and contribute to urban improvement and management. The process of replicating the sustainable city programme has already begun. Two other cities, Kano and Enugu have commenced their projects. The sustainable Kano Project has already prepared the Kano environment profile study forming the basis for consultative actions on the management of Metropolitan Kano. The SCP emphasizes the two-way relationship between development and environment which promotes better awareness and understanding of the priority issues to be addressed in urban environment and development, better understanding of modern urban and environmental management approaches, and the most effective and lasting impact.

In addition to efforts of the Government toward the achievement of the objectives of programmes under the Infrastructure Development Fund Programme, the Urban Basic Services Programme (UBS) is being undertaken in the country to promote the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure, water, sanitation, drainage, and solid waste management. The project involves the identification of core areas in some Nigerian cities and the packaging of improvement programmes targeted at women and children.

Nigeria's efforts towards sustainable development since 1986 are marked by policy formulation and the establishment of agencies for implementation. One of such efforts is the establishment of the Family Support Programme (FSP) initiated by the First Lady of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Her Excellency, Mrs. Maryam Sani Abacha. The FSP recognizes that one of the most important needs for the survival of any family and healthy family living is the provision of decent and affordable housing, as most low income families in cities do not own houses because they cannot afford them. The FSP also recognizes that women are handicapped in their access to land and property. This seriously affects their role since they need a secure place to live to carry out their subsistence farming and generate income. Widows and single women are worse off as they are denied rights to inheritance of landed property. In this regard, the FSP sets out, among others, the following objectives to ensure adequate housing for the less privileged in the society: the on-going Federal Housing Schemes should make provision for all government workers in Nigeria so that on retirement their families will have a place to live; the peculiarities of the disabled in our society should be taken into consideration when designing public buildings and houses for their occupation; and women be encouraged to form neighbourhood-based associations which can serve as link agencies for partnerships on any voluntary scheme in housing finance. In all the States of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the FSP has encouraged women to embark on subsistence and large scale farming of crops, vegetables, and livestock. The FSP has procured and distributed agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, farm implements, and improved seedlings to women farmers.

Other facilities for survival provided by the FSP at the State level include: rehabilitation centres; widowhood centres; homes for the handicapped/disabled, abandoned, and motherless children; psychiatric asylums; resettlement homes for the aged, disabled, and destitute; leprosy patient homes; fish farms; youth amusement and recreational centres, and parks; medical and health centres; multipurpose development centres for women and children; rural water schemes and deep well pumps; low cost housing schemes; and agro- processing and packaging centres.

As a measure towards mitigating the negative impact of natural and man made disasters, the Federal Government has adopted a pre-disaster approach to action. In this regard, the replenishment and reclamation of beaches in high wave areas is being undertaken. Specifically, the Federal Government has so far spent N200 million on the replenishment of the sand along the Victoria Beach in Lagos. A proposal for a permanent solution to beach erosion through the construction of breakwaters has been accepted by the Federal Government. A total of N4 billion is being sought for the project. Coastal erosion control measures have been executed in many locations along the coast line of the Bight of Benin, and in the eastern part of the country where gully erosion is prevalent.

The Nigerian Government has over the years invested in raw material resource development through activities of the Nigerian Building Materials and Road Research Institute (NBRRI). As a result, several local building material options have been developed which reduce construction cost considerably. Sources of funds for this research include government subventions and corporate donations.

The Nigerian Government is currently working at developing future programmes aimed at improving the human settlement development and management sector. These include: poverty alleviation programmes in collaboration with the World Bank and UNDP; a programme support document for Governance in collaboration with UNDP; a National strategy for the replication of the Sustainable City Programme in other Nigerian cities; and replication of the UBS Programme in collaboration with UNICEF. The Government intends to concentrate efforts in the near future on the following areas: capacity building for improved management; institutional and policy reforms; social reorientation; increased participation of NGOs and the private sector; and promotion of appropriate technologies.

These future plans have the objective of achieving a state of environmentally sound human settlements free of slum conditions in which all have access to adequate and affordable shelter, and efficient infrastructure and services which will foster sustainable economic growth, and an improved standard of living and well-being for all Nigerians.

Status

Over the years, Nigeria has been experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization. In 1952, 10% of the population lived in urban centres with population of 20,000 people and above. This increased to 20% and 38% in 1970 and 1993 respectively. By the year 2010, 60% of the population will live in cities. On the growth in size of cities, the rate has been equally rapid. In 1960, Lagos and Ibadan were the only two cities with more than 500,000 people. The number of such cities increased to 9 by 1980. In 1990, about 14 cities had a population of over one million. This is expected to rise to 18 by the year 2000.

Challenges

The problems and challenges posed by rapid urbanization in the country are immense. Among these are inadequate shelter resulting in over crowding, inadequate and inefficient transportation systems, poor infrastructure facilities and services, development of slum areas in cities such as Lagos, Ibadan, Kano, and Port Harcourt, and generally poor environmental conditions.

In the Government's various efforts at attaining sustainable human settlement development, several constraints to planning and implementation of physical development have been experienced. These constraints include: rapid rate of urbanization; declining socioeconomic standards; fund limitations; human resource deficiencies; fluctuating political will; unintegrated policy focus; dearth of base maps; inadequate database for planning and monitoring; and insufficient foreign technical assistance.

Future planning for emergency preparedness and management aims to mitigate promptly the negative impacts of natural and man-made disasters on human settlements, the National economy, and the environment. Nigeria has had a number of emergency situations arising from natural and man-made disasters. The natural phenomena include tropical storms, land erosion, windstorms, floods, drought, desertification, human diseases, coastal erosion, livestock diseases, crop pests and diseases, wildfire, harmattan haze, and landslides. Other potential hazards include earthquakes and volcanoes. The major man-made hazards include civil strife; road, water and air traffic accidents; and technological episodes such as oil spills, hazardous wastes dumping, and industrial accidents. All of these hazards call for urgent action to strengthening the emergency preparedness to reduce peoples' vulnerability and cushion the impact of disasters on settlements, the economy, and the environment.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

To address the goal of strengthening urban data systems, a National Index of Building Starts (NIBS) was established in 1994 to collect data on building starts and other housing indicators. The project is being undertaken by the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER) in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing. Regional Workshops have been held on the use and implementation of NIBS.

Financing

The Urban Basic Services Programme (UBS) is being financed with a $3 million grant from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with matching grants from the Federal Government. Target communities to benefit from the programme have been identified in the cities of Lagos and Ibadan.

Through financial assistance from the World Bank (US$ 180 million), the Infrastructure Development Fund has financed urban development projects in 15 States of the Federation. The loan from the World Bank was matched with local funds (25%). The projects cover storm drainage, sanitation, urban roads rehabilitation, water and solid waste management, market development, water rehabilitation, motor part development, river training/ channelization, and street lighting.

Cooperation

Under the various programmes for the promotion of human resource development, the Government in collaboration with such agencies as the World Bank, UNDP, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), UNICEF, and UNCHS have sponsored foreign and local training programmes to acquaint operators of this sector with contemporary ideas, strategies, and tools for human resources development.

Technical assistance for human resource development has been received to contribute to enhancing the management capacity of agencies responsible for urban development. Under the World Bank Infrastructure Development Fund Programme, Officers of State and Federal agencies have been trained in various aspect of urban management and computer literacy. Supply and installation of computer hardware and software have also been sponsored. Other international agencies that have offered training assistance include the UNDP, UNEP, UNCHS, and UNICEF.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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