Click here to go to the following issues:

Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Nigeria

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Click here to go to these sections:

AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Currently, several activities are being implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development under programmes of water supply, sustainable food production, and rural development. These include:

1. Formulation of the Irrigation Policy for Nigeria: Formal irrigation started in Nigeria 21 years ago. However, a National policy on irrigation has not yet been produced. This situation is being corrected by the preparation of an irrigation policy for the country. Data has been collected and are presently being analyzed with the hope of completing the project this year. However funds have been a serious constraints to the speedy completion of the policy document.

2. Nationwide River Basins Irrigation Planning Study: The study is to enable the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of investments in irrigation development in the country. The required data have been collected and are now being subjected to analysis. The study is expected to be completed in 1998.

3. Surface and Groundwater Monitoring Under the National Fatima Development Programme: The main objective of the programme is to monitor and study the effect of groundwater exploitation for irrigation on flood plains in the semi-arid areas of the country in order to design effective and sustainable exploitation regimes for the various aquifers encountered. Work started in five pilot States in 1995 and is scheduled to be completed by September, 1997. For 1997/98, the Ministry, with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is to use isotope hydrology to study the recharge situation in a pilot Fatima area in Warn, Sokoto State. The study will also seek to ascertain the pollution potentials of the saturated groundwater zone due to the irrigation activities in the project area. The study, which will ultimately assist in the design of the groundwater exploitation plan for the project area is expected to be completed by the end of 1998.

4. Survey and Inventory of Irrigation Projects in Nigeria: The aim of the project is to obtain up to date information on irrigation development in Nigeria. It involves the collection, collation, compilation, and classification of irrigation projects in the country. The first study was completed in 1985, updated in 1992, with a second update scheduled for 1997.

5. Applied Research into Identified Problems in Existing Irrigation Projects: This research programme was established to address the peculiar problems encountered in the operations of irrigation projects, such as water logging, salinity, aquatic weeds etc. The programme will start this year with two pilot studies in the Kano River Irrigation Project and the Lower-Anambra Irrigation Project. As funds become available, other projects and their problems will be tackled.

In its effort to create the enabling environment for food self-sufficiency, the Government, through the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources has embarked on a number of programmes aimed at promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development. The programmes and their associated activities are:

1. Agricultural Land Resource Programme: The objectives of this programme are to select suitable lands for the production of specific crops through soil survey and land evaluation; monitor and improve their quality through soil fertility management; and ensure the conservation of the fertility of agricultural lands through rehabilitation of degraded lands. A soil survey of the country at a reconnaissance level of 1:650,000 has been completed. However, this gives only generalized information. A more detailed survey which would yield information necessary for intensive agriculture has been planned since 1994, but could not be implemented due to financial and personnel constraints. Monitoring of the fertility status of the country's soil as well as the establishment of practices for special problem areas have equally not progressed due to inadequate fund release. Similarly, effective soil conservation practices and rehabilitation of degraded lands have suffered for lack of adequate capital and necessary field equipment. Although the execution of the project has been constrained for some time, the World Bank Environmental Management Assisted Project (EMP) commenced in 1995 and helped to establish the machinery for monitoring land degradation in the country. Through this project, resource personnel are receiving training while equipment, computers, geographic information systems (GlS), etc. have been received for enhanced data acquisition and processing. Project vehicles have also been received to increase efficiency of field operation.

2. National Seed Service (NSS) Programme: The objective of this programme is to produce high quality seeds for Nigerian farmers within a commercial environment of sound certification and quality control; and to sell high quality seeds and seedlings of selected arable tree crops, namely oil palm, rubber, cotton, groundnut, soybeans, gum arabic, etc. Over 2,460 kg of foundation seeds have been produced by the project for Research Institutes and out growers respectively. The Seed Certification and Quality Control Programme of NSS tested a total of 2,425 seed samples in 1996. Rehabilitation of seed testing laboratories and seed processing plants at NSS Jos, Ibadan, Zaria, and Umudike has been completed. Under the Community Seed Development Programme, demonstration plots have been set up to create awareness of modern varieties of maize, cowpea, sorghum, rice, and soyabean; and to offer easy access to good seeds produced by the contract grower. There are, however, constraints of low use of foundation seed by Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) and private seed companies, inadequate mobility for officers to carry out seed industry development activities in the States, and ultimately fund release problems.

3. Agricultural Finance Programmes: This is another programme whose objective is to provide loans and credits to small scale farmers. This is done through some agricultural oriented financial institutions such as the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative Bank (NACB), the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS), and the Farmers Credit Scheme (FCS). Farmers have been supported financially through this programme for the purpose of increasing crop production.

4. Establishment of the Federal Agricultural Coordinating Unit (FACU): This Unit is primarily responsible for the provision of planning and implementation support to the activities of the ADP in the country. The following activities were undertaken in 1996: a) the mid-term review of the National Agricultural Technology Support Project (NATSP) for five State implementation agencies in Kano, Jigawa, Bauchi, Sokoto and Kebbi; b) implementation support through joint bank/FACU supervising missions to various ADP covering all programmes; c) supervision mission on the activities of the National Accelerated Industrial Crops Production Programme (NATCPP) in 11 ADP States; d) participation in the National Artisanal Fisheries Statistical database survey covering the Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Kogi, Benue, Niger, Taraba and Plateau; e) assistance in the strengthening of agro-forestry and land management activities of the ADP; f) assistance in the rehabilitation of existing ADP; g) assistance in the rehabilitation of existing Animal Traction Centres in the five NATSP States: h) support for the video documentation programmes in agriculture to widen understanding; i) organization of workshop and training on the fisheries promotion programme, maize production, and rural institution development; and j) review of External Assisted Projects including the pipeline programme and on-going loans. The Unit continued with production of its regular publications while the library received many publications from other sources. Major constraints are poor funding and support by both the Federal and State Governments; inadequate staff in key areas; and shortage of vehicles and major office equipment.

5. The National Agricultural Research Project (NARP): This Project was set up to strengthen the country's agricultural research system and ensure availability of food through adequate domestic production. Within the network of Agricultural Research Institutions, five handle food crops; three are for livestock; one (NSPRI) completes research on storage of agricultural and food products; while three handle mechanization research including the design, fabrication, and servicing of food processing machines. The impact of the NARP in boosting food production has not been sufficiently realized perhaps due to lack of adequate support and ineffective programme coordination. With recent reorganization and assured funding, NARP is expected to increase food production during the next decade.

6. The Strategic Reserve Scheme: At its second inception, the objective of this Scheme is to undertake the storage of excess grains during the harvest for release when prices are high in the market. This stabilizes the price and makes grains available all year round.

Of the 33 medium and large scale silos commissioned for construction, seven have been completed. At present, there is gross under-utilization of these silos due to lack of available grains for storage. Only three of the silos contain grain. Measures have been taken to restore the storage efficiency of the silos for the 1997 season. Steps are also being taken to ensure high production of grains and to minimize illegal export and smuggling across the border. Direct purchase for farmers is expected to bring about an increase in the quantity of grains reaching the silos.

7. Establishment of the National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA): The Government's main objective in establishing NALDA is to transform rural peasantry by mobilizing human resources and other support services to open up new lands for increased food production. The Authority has embarked on some activities (bush clearing, land preparation, farm infrastructure development, soil conservation and environmental issues, soil survey, evaluation, soil testing and capacity) to provide baseline data for agricultural related activities and advisory services to agricultural land users. The NALDA 1997 work plan proposes to open up more enclave farming communities during the operating season and will focus on land development in cooperation with the Agricultural Land Resource, Forestry, Department of Agriculture, and Agricultural Cooperative.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Inappropriate agricultural practices, the destruction of watersheds, and the opening up of river banks, and other critical areas have led to silting of river beds and loss of water courses. Uncontrolled use of agro-chemicals and the concomitant problems of chemical persistence in the soil in humid areas and soil-crust formation in arid climates have contributed to salinization and destruction of vast agricultural lands.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Natural Resource Law, including the Energy Commission of Nigeria Act, the Gold Trading Act, the National Agricultural Land Development Authorities Decree, the Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission Decree, the Oil Pipelines Act, and the Oil in Navigable Water Act, click here.
For legislation on Land Use, including the Land Use Acts and the River Basins Development Authorities Act, click here.
For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here.
To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 


No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the activities of the Nigerian government in the area of protecting the atmosphere include: phasing out the consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODS); monitoring background atmospheric pollution and the total column ozone; data bank automation; a greenhouse gas inventory; climate change research and training; promotion of environmentally friendly energy practice; and participation in the Global Environment Monitoring Systems (GEMS).

The strategy to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010 includes: a) review of existing National guidelines and standards to include vehicles, generating sets, aircraft etc.; b) intensify public enlightenment campaigns at all levels on the benefits of adequate maintenance, retrofitting, adopting effective technology, ensuring efficient energy use, and increased cost benefit; c) maintain effective databases on industries and their compliance status; d) maintain a register of technologies, vehicles, generating sets, and aircraft for approval for manufacturing and importation; e) introduce and enforce emission control certificates for vehicles, generating sets, and aircraft by 1999; f) eliminate ODS consuming processes; g) enforce laws relating to the siting of new industries; h) instal a minimum of primary treatment for all new industries; i) build secondary central treatment facilities in all major industrial estates in cities such as Lagos, Kano, Kaduna, Port-Harcourt, Warri, Ibadan, and Enugu by 2005; j) invoke the polluter pays principle immediately; k) ensure 100% waste segregation, recycling and re-use by 1999; l) promote research in Best Available Technology Effective for Local Adoption (BATELA); m) make eco-labelling compulsory for all products by the year 2000; n) promote commercialization of sanitary landfill and incineration as appropriate; o) encourage citizen empowerment in pollution control; p) introduce green technologies and promote Environmental Management Systems (EMS) in all industrial facilities; q) create an environment fund for soft loans as economic incentives for environmentally friendly industries; and r) promote tax rebates for industries installing pollution abatement facilities.

The future strategy for the oil and gas sector is to: a) develop and implement environmental assessment methodology, taking into account the economic, socio-cultural and conservation values of the environment; b) develop a comprehensive set of measures to mitigate any negative impact; c) ensure strict compliance with Environmental Impact Assessment Laws; d) implement Health, Safety and Environmental Management Systems and Quality Assurance Control; e) establish comprehensive waste management programmes; f) implement and continually update fully operational oil spill prevention programmes; g) enforce environmental risk assessment, to predict eventual consequences of accidents and take appropriate mitigation measures; h) design an appropriate facility and operational procedures; i) implement and continually update the National oil spill contingency plan for control, containment, and cleanup; j) review and implement procedures to adequately address in a timely manner the damage to the third parties; k) encourage the general public to report emergency incidents to regulatory bodies; l) ensure an internal and external market for gas; m) stop gas flaring; m) put in place a continuous public awareness programme; n) ensure full compliance with legislation, regulations, and standards of the FEPA and Department of Petroleum Resources; and o) plan long term rational exploitation of both oil and gas reserves and draw up investment strategies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In compliance with the requirements of the Montreal Protocol and the provision of Agenda 21, the phasing out of ODS in Nigeria has been given priority among the programmes being implemented by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). The on-going activities include: a) preparation of the Country Programme for ODS Phase-out with a grant of US $ l20,000 from the Multilateral Fund (MF); b) chlorofluorcarbons (CFC) phase-out at Debo Industries Ltd. and Thermocool Engineering PLC with a combined grant of US $2,840,598 from the MF; c) CFC phase-out in four flexible and rigid foam industries, namely Eleganza, Teju Foam, Sara Foam, and Royal Foam with a combined grant of US $540,000 from the MF; and d) institutional strengthening for the phase-out of ODS in Nigeria with a $3,000,000 grant from the MF spread over a period of 3 years to assist Nigeria to set up an effective and lasting institutional mechanism for coordinating national efforts for the protection of the ozone layer.

In 1993, the Federal Government of Nigeria established a Regional Environmental Monitoring Station at Oshogbo under the auspices of the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The station monitors background atmospheric pollution. About 15 elements including surface ozone carbon dioxide, chemical composition of rain water, dry and wet depositions, dust loading, solar radiation, and other conventional meteorological elements are currently being observed. The station has the potential of being upgraded to a global monitoring station capable of monitoring other greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxides (NO2, NO), methane (CH4), and sulphur.

GEMS/Air Nigeria is a component of the Global Environment Monitoring System whose specific goal is to monitor and assess urban air quality. The programme commenced in 1995 with FEPA as the focal point. The programme focuses on: a) air pollution in major cities such as Lagos, Kano, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Warri, Ibadan etc.; b) capacity building through training and provision of laboratory equipment; and c) establishment of emission pathways in order to evolve spatial and temporal emission models for urban centres in Nigeria based on long-term measurement of air quality at designated monitoring network locations. A National GEMS/Air Implementation Committee has been constituted and major industrial cities identified. A few studies have been commissioned to assess the constituents of air in the major urban centres of the country.

Status

Wood, petroleum, coal, gas, and water are the main energy sources in the country. Although solar and wind energy are abundant, they remained untapped in commercial quantity. The principal current energy source is fossil fuels with hydrocarbons accounting for over 90% of Nigeria's export earnings and 80% of government revenue. The principal mineral resources include fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, coal, and lignite), metallic minerals (tin, columbite, iron, lead, zinc, gold), radioactive minerals (uranium, thorite, monazite, and zircon), and non-metallic minerals (limestone, marble, gravel, clay, shale, feldspar, etc.).

The overall management of the country's mineral and natural resources remains the primary assignment of the Government through its various agencies. Resource development is, however, either by individuals, private corporations, or Government organizations. All these developmental activities, impact on the state of the environment and have contributed to environmental deterioration.

The unpleasant side effect of industrialization is the waste generated from industrial processes. These include liquid, gaseous, noise, heat, and solid wastes. Several reports confirm the non-inclusion of waste management provisions in industries sited in Nigeria. However, since the inception of the FEPA, progress has been made in enacting laws and creating awareness of the need to install waste handling facilities in industries. These efforts have yielded fruit and the compliance level of industries with National industrial waste management requirements now stand at about 20%. This is good progress in two years since the expiration of the moratorium for compliance. The progress should continue and mechanisms to achieve 80% compliance are being proposed.

Another source of pollution is gaseous emissions, especially from fossil fuel burning processes and processes using gas. The obnoxious gases include carbon, nitrous, and sulphur oxides (CO, NOx, SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC), HC, ODS, smoke and particulates originating from vehicle exhausts, generators, aircraft, boilers, etc.

The oil and gas sector has continued to be the backbone of the Nigerian economy, contributing over 90% of the nation's foreign exchange earnings and at least 80% of the GDP. This situation is likely to continue unchallenged into the future. The development of the oil and gas sector is, therefore, of utmost importance, especially since virtually all of the activities in both upstream and downstream sectors are not only pollution prone, but readily provoke social discord.

Challenges

The pollution is a major health hazard with the levels of the gases emitted around highways and runways sometimes 10 times higher than permissible levels in Nigeria, Ghana, Europe, and many other countries. In order to reduce the levels of these gases to tolerable ambient limits, it is important to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

A proposal on capacity building for the development of a National Strategy and Implementation of the Country's Obligation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been approved for funding by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). The programmes will cover greenhouse gases, public awareness, impact assessment, adaptation options, integrating climate concerns into planning processes, and identification of abatement practices.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

The Department of Meteorological Services is monitoring total column ozone with the Dobson Spectro Photometer since March 1993 at Oshodi, Lagos. This is the only such measurement taking place in Sub-Saharan Africa. The average value (about 240-280 Dobson Units) conforms to the expected value for the equatorial belt. The Department is in the process of computerizing its data bank.

The Ministry of Science and Technology through its Energy Centres has supported research on the use of solar and wind energy. It is envisaged that by the year 2010 the following would have been produced and distributed: 15,000 solar water heaters; 450 solar stills; 225 solar dryers; 10 village wind energy electrification projects; 11,000 photo-voltaic water pumping stations; 2,000 village solar energy electrification project; and 20,000 solar power refrigerators for rural health centers.

The FEPA-University of Technology, Minna, Niger State Linkage Centre undertakes training and research in the areas of climate change and water resources. Specific activities are associated with: a climate science data bank; assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources development; environmental monitoring of hydro-climatic elements for special locations, such as dams and reservoirs for power generation; early warning systems and vulnerability assessment of climate change impacts; and conservation of the ecological systems of water bodies.

Financing

Since 1993, the inventory of greenhouse gases and the determination of their concentration in the atmospheric has been funded by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). It involved the determination of the concentration of carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, and other CFC gases in the country. Due to delays at the implementation phase, funding for the project has been terminated.

Cooperation

The Montreal Protocol was ratified by Nigeria in 1988. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was ratified in 1994.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here for national information from the Web Site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Federal Government's policy goal on the conservation of biodiversity is to ensure sustainable use of forest resources and preservation of the many benefits accruing from soil, water, and wildlife conservation for economic development. Among the current priority programmes in Nigeria are the extension of National Parks and Reserves and the compilation of the flora and fauna of Nigeria.

The Nigerian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) reviews the status of biodiversity conservation in Nigeria in an attempt to fill the gaps identified in the country study programme, and develops strategies and action plans to bridge the gaps in the conservation effort. The first draft report for four selected ecoregions has been produced and circulated among stakeholders for their discussion and input. The inputs from the planned stakeholder workshop will be incorporated into the second draft report to be discussed at a National Workshop pending the presentation of the final report to the Government for approval.

The Government's mission is that Nigeria's rich biological endowment together with the diverse ecosystems will be secured, and its conservation and management assured through appreciation and sustainable utilization by the Year 2010. Nigeria will continue to be active in the international arena while at the local level infra-structural, human, and institutional capabilities will be developed to ensure equitable sharing of biodiversity benefits over time. To achieve this goal, the Nigerian strategy will be based on: a) the inventory, identification, and rehabilitation of all threatened and endangered species of fauna and flora; b) increasing the network of protected areas to include all ecosystem types consistent with internationally accepted classification; c) promotion and enhancement measures for both in-situ and ex-situ conservation through identification, inventories, evaluation, monitoring, research, education, public awareness, and training; d) increasing the nation's biodiversity management capability (human, infrastructural, institutional, and technological); e) the development of economically and culturally sound strategies to combat biodiversity loss; f) protection and promotion of policy guidance for bio-prospecting and indigenous knowledge (intellectual property right); and g) the rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 


The Protected Area Programme identifies areas and sites of conservation interest and classifies the identified areas using IOCW criteria. Only four states (Delta, Edo, Kogi, and Kwara) have been inventoried so far.

Under the University Linkage Programme, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) has established an association with the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta to undertake further training and research activities on biodiversity conservation.

Status

Resulting from the Government's efforts in biodiversity conservation, the following achievements have been made: a) there are 32 game reserves/sanctuaries and six National Parks in place covering a total of about 4,293,800 ha scattered in different areas of the country; b) there are 12 strict Nature Reserves; and c) there are 13 proposed Game Reserves/National Parks covering about 372,000 ha located across the country.

Challenges

The continual depletion of plant and animal species and the degradation of ecosystem stemming primarily from economic motives have become an important issue of growing global concern. Despite the unbridled rate of increase in the exploitation of biodiversity globally, the rate of replacement has not been commensurate with use. Thus, the number of threatened and endangered species is increasing. Biodiversity as the economic and socio-cultural base of human systems, providing unquantifiable benefits to man and the environment including shelter, food, clothing, medicine, recreation, and resources for industry, needs to be conserved and managed sustainably for present and future generations.

Uncontrolled logging and tree felling are the order of the day in many parts of the southern states of Nigeria. This carries with it loss of precious biological diversity.

Nigeria's wildlife is rapidly declining due to habitat loss and increased pressure from hunters, poachers, and bush burning. Animals that have recently disappeared from Nigeria include the cheetah, the pygmy hippopotamus, the giraffe, the black rhinoceros, and the giant eland. About 10-12 species of primates, including the white throated guenon species of primates and sclater's guenous, are under threat. Also an estimated 484 plant species from 112 families are threatened with extinction because of habitat destruction and deforestation.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

A Country Study on Biological Diversity in Nigeria was carried out in 1991-1992. It produced a report titled: Biological Diversity in Nigeria. The study addressed the full range of biological diversity conservation problems. Most of the recommendations of the study are currently being implemented by the Government.

The outcome of the Botanical Survey (Flora of Nigeria) is the production of the checklist of Nigeria's flora. A survey of biodiversity hotspots to identify new species has also been completed. The objective of the Zoological Survey (Fauna of Nigeria) is to produce a list of Nigeria's fauna. To date, only the aquatic fauna has been documented. The Government has established a gene-bank for the collection and preservation of Nigeria's plant species. It has the following objectives: establishment of a database on National bio-resources; development and adoption of a comprehensive biodiversity and conservation strategy; and the training of personnel as the essential catalysts for better understanding of environmental issues and commitment to sustainable use of resources.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In Nigeria, the Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified in 1994. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was ratified in 1974.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Nature and Biodiversity, including the Endangered Species and Control of International Trade and Traffic Act and the National Parks Decree (No. 36), click here.
For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Nigeria wants to arrest desert-like conditions, rehabilitate affected areas, and institutionalize drought amelioration measures. The Government, and sometimes in collaboration with donor countries, and international organizations and institutions, has done a lot to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought since the beginning of the 1970s. Efforts have been directed at more efficient utilization and alternative sources of fuel wood, promulgation of State edicts, and afforestation and reforestation programmes. Despite these efforts, desertification has continued its southerly movement which currently renders areas north of latitude 15 either as desert or prone to desertification. This process, coupled with the effects of drought, has continued to cripple the socioeconomic lives of the people living in the affected areas. The negative impacts on the people justify urgent actions to check desert encroachment currently estimated at about 1 km annually, and institutionalize drought amelioration measures which should be periodically reviewed.

The strategy to combat desertification and drought is: a) implement the UN Convention to Combat Desertification; b) strengthen the political and financial commitment of governments towards drought and desertification control programmes in the country's National development plans; c) intensify public awareness and education on causes and dangers associated with drought and desertification, as well as the contents of the Convention; d) develop National Action Programmes (NAPs) in accordance with the spirit and aspiration of the Convention; e) strengthen National and state institutions involved in drought and desertification control programmes; f) promote sustainable agricultural practices and management of water resources; g) encourage the development and adoption of efficient wood stoves and alternative sources of fuel wood; h) establish drought early warning systems; i) involve local people in the design, implementation, and management of natural resource conservation programmes aimed at combating desertification and ameliorating the effects of drought; j) encourage viable afforestation and reforestation programmes using tested drought resistant and/or economic tree species; k) encourage international cooperation and partnership arrangements in the areas of training, research, development, and transfer of affordable and acceptable environmentally sound technology, and provision of new and additional technical and financial resources; l) carry out surveys of degraded lands, and implement preventive measures for lands that are slightly or not yet degraded; m) adopt an integrated approach addressing physical, biological, and socioeconomic aspects of desertification and drought; n) cooperate with relevant Inter-and Non-governmental Organizations in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought; o) strengthen the nation's food security system; and p) establish, review, and enforce cattle routes and grazing reserves.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In view of the serious ecological and socioeconomic implications of desertification and drought, programmes and activities have been conceptualized in concert with Agenda 21. These include Establishment of Shelterbelts and Ecological Disaster Relief Programmes.

The shelterbelt programmes are either directly financed through the regular funding of government or implemented jointly by the Federal Government and State governments in collaboration with bilateral or multilateral aid organizations. In this regards, the Federal Government has enjoyed the support of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the World Bank. The EEC grant-aided project was implemented in Katsina State under the Lome II Agreement between 1987-1995. The value of the grant was US $90 million. The World Bank granted a loan of US $71 million to both the Federal and State Governments to implement the Forestry II programme through this Department. The Forestry II Programme included the Environmental Forestry and Forest Management components. The following achievements have been attained: a) establishment of over 201 nursery units; b) establishment of over 3515 community nurseries; c) establishment of over 891 institutional and 936 private nurseries; d) production and distribution of over 75 million tree seedlings; and e) establishment of over 2,298 km of shelter belts and 600 ha of woodlots. In total, over 320,000 farm families have benefitted from the programme.

The objective of the Ecological Disaster Relief Programme is to assist disaster prone areas to ameliorate various forms of ecological problems ranging from soil erosion, flooding, desertification, oil spillage, and general pollution. This programme is financed by the National Ecological Fund instituted in 1989. The Fund is administered by the National Committee on Ecological Problems under the Presidency.

The Linkage Programme, a joint Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and University of Maiduguri initiative, generates credible data and trains manpower for planning purposes in environmental management of natural resources. The focus is to develop practical measures for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in the semi-arid and arid areas of the country. Specifically, the Linkage Centre undertakes research and training in: vegetation and land use management; arid land human ecology; management of range land; and arid land soil/water management.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Drought and desertification are the most important environmental problems affecting the 15 northern states of the country. Population pressure, over grazing, and the continuous exploitation of marginal lands have aggravated drought and desertification. The intensification of the use of fragile and marginal ecosystems has led to progressive degradation and continued desertification of marginal agricultural lands even in years of normal rainfall. It is feared that the damage by drought and population pressure may have resulted in the genetic loss of a vast array of valuable plant species. Pressure on the dwindling resources in arid prone areas has contributed to a number of devastating socio-political and sectarian conflicts in the country with concomitant death, injury, and heavy economic losses.

Nigeria is presently losing about 351,000 square km2 of its land mass to the desert which is advancing southward at the rate of 0.6 km per year. The outward and visible sign of the desertification process is the gradual shift in vegetation from grasses, bushes, and occasional trees to grass and bush, and in the final stages, extensive areas of desert-like sand. Entire villages and major access roads have been buried under sand dunes in the northern portions of Katsina, Sokoto, Jigawa, and Borno States. With about 55% of its land under siege from desert encroachment, Borno State, which suffered from a protracted drought in 1972-1978, is one of the most threatened land areas of Nigeria. Perhaps more spectacular, and of grave consequence, are the persistent droughts which have resulted in famine a number of times in the northern part of the country. During the drought of 1972-1973 for instance, about 300,000 animals died and farm yields dropped by up to 60%.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

In Nigeria, the International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa was ratified in 1997.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

ENERGY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The overall management of the country's mineral and natural resources remains the primary assignment of the Government through its various agencies. Resource development is, however, either by individuals, private corporations, or Government organizations. All these developmental activities, impact on the state of the environment and have contributed to environmental deterioration.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Legislation was enacted in 1995, which sets standards and procedures for the safe use of nuclear radiation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government through the Ministry of Science and Technology, has prepared a National Energy Policy that places emphasis on the exploitation of Nigeria's renewable and alternative energy sources (wind, solar, and biomass), and provides guidelines for environmental protection in the exploitation of Nigeria's fossil energy sources. It will soon be enacted into law.

The future strategy for the oil and gas sector is to: a) develop and implement environmental assessment methodology, taking into account the economic, socio-cultural and conservation values of the environment; b) develop a comprehensive set of measures to mitigate any negative impact; c) ensure strict compliance with Environmental Impact Assessment Laws; d) implement Health, Safety and Environmental Management Systems and Quality Assurance Control; e) establish comprehensive waste management programmes; f) implement and continually update fully operational oil spill prevention programmes; g) enforce environmental risk assessment, to predict eventual consequences of accidents and take appropriate mitigation measures; h) design an appropriate facility and operational procedures; i) implement and continually update the National oil spill contingency plan for control, containment, and cleanup; j) review and implement procedures to adequately address in a timely manner the damage to the third parties; k) encourage the general public to report emergency incidents to regulatory bodies; l) ensure an internal and external market for gas; m) stop gas flaring; m) put in place a continuous public awareness programme; n) ensure full compliance with legislation, regulations, and standards of the FEPA and Department of Petroleum Resources; and o) plan long term rational exploitation of both oil and gas reserves and draw up investment strategies.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

Although the main thrust of Nigeria's petroleum policy is to increase the hydrocarbon reserve base through vigorous exploration, spurred by flexible and competitive fiscal incentives, environmental issues have been accorded considerable prominence in policy design. The Ministry of Petroleum Resources, through various Petroleum Acts and subsidiary legislation ensures that the petroleum industry carries out its activities safely and in an environmentally sound manner. Consequently, the Ministry has, within the past two decades, established measures to address the environmental problems associated with oil exploration, production, processing, transportation, storage, and marketing in the country. These measures include:

Status

Wood, petroleum, coal, gas, and water are the main energy sources in the country. Although solar and wind energy are abundant, they remained untapped in commercial quantity. The principal current energy source is fossil fuels with hydrocarbons accounting for over 90% of Nigeria's export earnings and 80% of government revenue. The principal mineral resources include fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, coal, and lignite), metallic minerals (tin, columbite, iron, lead, zinc, gold), radioactive minerals (uranium, thorite, monazite, and zircon), and non-metallic minerals (limestone, marble, gravel, clay, shale, feldspar, etc.).

The oil and gas sector has continued to be the backbone of the Nigerian economy, contributing over 90% of the nation's foreign exchange earnings and at least 80% of the GDP. This situation is likely to continue unchallenged into the future. The development of the oil and gas sector is, therefore, of utmost importance, especially since virtually all of the activities in both upstream and downstream sectors are not only pollution prone, but readily provoke social discord.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Natural Resource Law, including the Energy Commission of Nigeria Act, the Gold Trading Act, the National Agricultural Land Development Authorities Decree, the Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission Decree, the Oil Pipelines Act, and the Oil in Navigable Water Act, click here.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Effective mechanisms are being developed to harmonize cross-sectoral policies related to forestry (e.g. environment, agriculture, livestock, fishery, etc.). Presently, the National Forest Policy is being reviewed under the auspice of the recently created Ministry of Environment.

The Federal Department of Agricultural Land Resources (FDALR) is currently, on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), articulating Agricultural Land Use and Practices Policy for the country.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There is no Land Use Policy in the country. There is however, a Land Use Act. States are being encouraged to derive their legislation from the national framework. A national forest and wildlife law is being developed with the involvement of all stakeholders.

There is no forest certification practice in the country. However, public involvement on forest certification is being articulated in the proposed revised policy which will encourage private sector and NGO participation. It is being proposed that a National Working Group (NWG) on Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) and certification be set up to finalize the criteria or indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in the country.

The following activities promote the use of forest products in place of products made of non-renewable materials:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  


Nigeria started implementing the National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP) in 1990 with the assistance of FAO and a grant of US $690,000 from UNDP. In order to ensure the greatest commitment at the highest and at all levels of Government, the National Advisory Council, assisted by a National Technical Committee, was inaugurated in 1994. The project was concluded in 1995 and the final NFAP report has been submitted. The next stage is to use the report to canvass for international funding from donors to implement the action plans.

The annual rate of deforestation in Nigeria is of major concern and a viable option to mitigating this is through implementation and enforcement of sound Forest Policy. Towards this goal, the country is in the process of reviewing her 1988 Forest Policy. Also being prepared is Environmental Guidelines on Logging and Fuelwood Extraction. It is hoped that when these two instruments are enforced Nigeria would attain sustainable development and utilization of her forest resources.

A workshop on agricultural land use and practices has been conducted and proceedings printed and in circulation. Sectoral meetings have been held to articulate and review key areas to be addressed in the policy. These areas are now being subjected to further deliberations with a view to synthesizing the issues that could form the main instrument of the policy. This would later be reviewed by the Legal Unit before a whole package is developed for further deliberation and enactment by the National Assembly.

Presently, the country has different policies within sub-sectors of agriculture and the environment involved in land use. There is need for integrated planning and management of all our rural development programmes. This will reduce conflicts and guarantee better resources use.

With the assistance of some international organizations including the FAO, World Bank, UNDP, ADB, DFID (ODA), Ford Foundation, etc. strategies have been formulated and developed for effective sustainable management of a number of forest reserves in the country.

In recognition of the changing strategy for natural resources management, the national forest and wildlife policy is being reviewed to make its implementation more participatory and to better respond to emerging issues in forest development. The review is also intended to support, inter alia, the productivity of small holder farmers and to improve access to credit and other inputs. These documents would be ready by the end of year 2000.

The strategy to achieve the target of 25% of the land area as forest is to:

  1. Ban the export of log wood until the 25% reserve forest cover is achieved;
  2. Provide a policy and institutional framework favorable for private investment in trees and forest resource management;
  3. Increase community participation in forest management and utilization;
  4. Encourage afforestation with species which provide other forest produce such as fruits, gum, etc. as an incentive to community participation in afforestation programmes;
  5. Undertake scientific management of the 10 million ha of existing forest, including the existing 37,800 ha of plantations and the rehabilitation of the existing 590 woodlots;
  6. Establish a total of 15 million ha of plantation for various purposes such as shelterbelts, watershed conservation, rehabilitation of degraded sites, forest fruit trees, Gum Arabic etc;
  7. Promote agro-forestry with multi-purpose tree species to diversify farm produce and improve the soil environment;
  8. Encourage private sector industrial plantations especially in already degraded forest estates;
  9. Adopt protection forestry development strategies which includes shelterbelt establishment, afforestation of eroded sites, stabilization of sand dunes, etc;
  10. Promote community woodlots which could include forest fruit trees and fuel wood plantations;
  11. Improve efficiency of the use of fuel wood
  12. Manufacture affordable bio-mass stoves;
  13. Develop alternative sources of energy such as solar energy;
  14. Support research into conservation and improvement of soil, genetic resources, silviculture, utilization of forest products, agro-forestry, wildlife, and afforestation of difficult sites;
  15. Encourage inter-sectoral collaboration between forestry and related productive sectors;
  16. Strengthen planning, monitoring, and evaluation; and
  17. Support human resources development.

It is well acknowledged that Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) contributed substantially to the rural economy and hence strategies are being developed for the propagation of high potential NTFPs in each ecological zone of the country.

No compensation is provided for forest owners who market environmental benefits to the society. Incentives are provided to enable them to manage their forest sustainably in addition to facilitating their access to improved tree seeds/seedlings in their communities.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

A participatory approach in the management of forest reserves is also being adopted involving the communities around the forest reserves, the State and other stakeholders. This has ensured commitment of the communities in the protection and sustainable management of the forest resources in the reserves.

Series of broad consultants and workshops were held involving all stakeholders. The plan formulation process commenced at community levels where problems, needs and possible interventions were identified. This culminated in the preparation of State Forestry Action Plans, Regional Action Plans and Nigerian Forests Action Plan (NFAP) with inputs from various working group reports and specific studies.

The relevance of IPF proposals is that it is participatory, interdisciplinary and multidimensional. This approach to sustainable management of forest resources facilitates in conflict resolution among all relevant stakeholders in the country.

There are inter-sectoral linkages and participatory management of forest reserves in different parts of the country. However, a strong institutional linkage is being advocated for forestry development initiatives. The present prominent linkage is in the area of conservation of soil fertility and erosion control. Integration of trees into farming systems is well received as a strategy for land management. The existing inter-relationships, however, need to be strengthened. Furthermore, institutional reforms and awareness creation is through the involvement of Non-Governmental organizations (NGO). Government now recognizes the roles of NGO=s and Community Based Organizations ( CBO's) in land management.

Programmes and Projects 

The National Forestry Programmes (NFP)are geared towards sustainable forest management. The Programme is part of the national sustainable development strategy. The updating of the NFP process in Nigeria is through project appraisal and project monitoring and evaluation. The specific needs of the people of different ecozones are also considered. The components of NFP include:

Through some of these projects, equipment and infrastructures such as computers and Forest Information System (FIS) have been put in place to improve project planning and monitoring, and other information management systems on sustainable forest management. Through the country=s participation in the FAO sponsored programme on Forest Outlook Study in Africa (FOSA), the national horizon to improve on our information management system on sustainable forest management has been brightened and broadened.

In order to address the problem of deforestation in Nigeria several on-going programmes and projects on reforestation and afforestation have been initiated. The ADB assisted Forestry Project started in 1987 and is still continuing with a loan of US $100 million. Before the Forestry II Programme of 1987, a World Bank Forestry I Programme was earlier concluded in 1986. The achievements under these initiatives include:

  1. About 445 forest estates located in different ecological zones of the country covering a total area of about 9,652,000 ha have been legally constituted;
  2. Establishment and maintenance of over 7,194 ha of tree plantations;
  3. Installation of two new sawmills with capacity to efficiently convert small diameter logs into large ones;
  4. Various studies on rural sociology, agro-forestry and markets for Gmelina, a short-fibre pulp species; and
  5. Provision of raw materials for pulp and paper for the next 20 years.

The Tropical Forestry Action Programme (TFAP) was initiated in 1985 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Resources Institute (WRI), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as a framework for halting deforestation and the associated destructive impact in tropical countries. The TFAP is a veritable instrument in the successful implementation of Agenda 21.

The Forestry Component of the Environmental Management Project (EMP) has the following objectives: a) updating the Land Use and Vegetation Maps of the country; b) establishing the mechanism for environmental monitoring; c) creating environmental awareness; and d) strengthening institutional and manpower capacities. It is being financed by the Federal Government and the World Bank. The loan value is US $3.5 million. Most of the objectives have been achieved.

The Energy Programme of the Ministry of Science and Technology aims to promote cheaper and smaller units of energy production in rural and remote areas of the country thereby, providing alternative energy to the use of forest resources. This helps to combat deforestation, desert encroachment, and soil erosion. Energy supply to rural areas will lead to increased economic and industrial activities in the rural areas and hence rural development.

The National Forest Resources project was initiated in 1996 because of the serious dearth of data and very weak resource planning base. The objectives of the study are: a) data collection and analysis of the country's forest resources in order to overcome problems of rational planning arising from the serious dearth of reliable and up-to-date data; b) preparation of management plans for sustainable development, management, and utilization of forest resources; and c) institutional and man-power capacity building. This project started in 1995 with a grant of US $4.0 million from the ADB, and contributions from the Federal and State Governments. It is being implemented on schedule and it is a veritable instrument for the realization of the goals of Agenda 21.

Tenure/ownership rights to land and trees are being recognized. For instance, the Participatory Forest Reserve Management Programme in three forest reserves of the country have fully involved and provide for the interests rights of forest community. This is also being proposed for incorporation into the forest policy.

Status

Nigeria was once covered by extensive vegetation varying from humid tropical forests in the south to savanna grasslands in the north. A great percentage of this luxurious vegetation has been removed in the course of various human activities. Presently, forest reserves cover about 10% of the National territory, mostly of the savanna woodland type. The southern rain forest, the source of the country' s timber resources, covers only 2% of the total land area of Nigeria. It is being depleted at an annual rate of 3.5% per year. This implies deforestation on a large scale. The persistent decline in the National forest has been a source of concern to the Federal Government. In order to arrest this situation, the Government has embarked on several programmes and projects on reforestation and afforestation.

Nigeria has the objective to increase the forest reserve from the present 10% to 25% of the total land area by the 2010. Worldwide forest reserves are intended to secure and retain land under forest. This is a prerequisite for effective and prudent forest estate development. In many developed and developing countries, the forest estate covers at least 25% of the total land area, the minimum level required by international standards. The first indicative forest inventory project completed in Nigeria in 1977 put reserved forest at approximately 10% of the total land area. Between 1976 and 1990, deforestation proceeded at an average rate of 400,000 ha per annum, in 1981-1985 at 3.48%, while in 1986-1990 it was 3.57%, including the loss of some forest reserves.

FAO has concluded that if this rate is maintained, the remaining forest area in Nigeria will disappear by the year 2020. The value of lost forest cover has been estimated at US $750 million annually at 1989 prices. The degradation and depletion of the forest reserve base has major effects on other sectors of the economy. The disappearance of forest cover leads to erosion, soil Degradation, and unfavorable hydrological changes. The World Bank has estimated that the value (in terms of avoided costs) of forest cover which protects and regulates soil, water, wildlife, biodiversity, and carbon fixation at over US$5 billion annually (World Bank, 1990). There is need to address this enormous loss to ensure sustainable provision of goods and services including wood, protection of soil and water reservoir areas, stabilization of the hydrological regime, carbon sequestration, and provision of habitat for numerous fauna and flora.

Forest Management in Nigeria today is mostly limited to government programmes. All the forest reserves, which form the bulk of the nation' s productive forest, are under the management of the States or Local Governments. The forest outside forest reserves (free areas), where most of the wood products in the market comes from, are not put under any form of systematic management.

The forest reserves have for sometime been seriously neglected and have received little or no improvement in terms of investment and management. However, after the UNCED, a number of positive developments have taken place to help the country achieve sustainable forest management. In addition to the re-delineation and survey of the boundary and updating of maps in a number of forest reserves, inventory has recently (1999) been concluded which provides estimates of the wood products supply situation in 28 States of the country. Also, reforestation has been carried out in most of the reserves.

Majority of the populace depends on fuelwood for cooking energy. In addition, forestlands are seen as potential farmlands which encourage shifting cultivation. The economic status of the populace has direct bearing on the exploitation of forests for fuelwood and agricultural expansions.

Poverty leads to almost a total dependence of over 90% of the rural population on the forest for livelihood and economic survival. The economic base and well-being of the citizens therefore have direct bearing on the exploitation of forests for fuelwood, arrays of food and fodder, medicinal plants, expansion of shifting cultivation.

Of all the activities of the rural people, the ones that have most serious impact on the forest are fuelwood extraction, shifting agriculture and nomadic cattle rearing. Rural communities, particularly women, in search of fuelwood have gone to the extent, especially in arid areas, of sweeping forest litter, gathering animal dung and digging dead tree roots for use as sources of domestic cooking energy. By so doing, they have prevented the recycling of inorganic materials, exposed the top soil to desiccation, erosion by rain and wind, and have caused the loss of habitat for numerous fauna and flora.

Shifting cultivation has resulted in the encroachment of forest estates and occasionally to out-right deforestation to pave way to agricultural activities. Both nomadic herdsmen, the traditional farmers and hunters set fire to the forest on a seasonal basis to prepare farm lands to kill or capture animals or to stimulate the growth of fresh fodder for their animals. Most of the fires are wild fires and have led to the impoverisation of gene-pool and loss of biodiversity.

The high level of poverty in the country, especially among women, could be said to have a negative effect on sustainable forest management. Majority of rural poor women, apart four consuming lots of fuel woods, also depends largely on it for their income, thereby having a devastating effect on forest management. To combat the situation, the use of alternatives to fuel wood e.g biogas, solar cooking, etc, is being encouraged to stop further deforestation.

In view of the above, forest is a veritable factor in the Federal Government=s programmes on economic growth and poverty alleviation, including job creation. The programme include: e.g., apiculture, mushroom farming, serviculture, domestication and multiplication of some wildlife animals, ornamental landscaping, establishment of fruit trees, development of alternative sources of energy, development of efficient cooking stoves, etc. In addition, several forestry projects have been designed and are being implemented to alleviate poverty particularly among the rural forest dwellers.

Nigeria currently recycles some forest products like paper (pulp and paper). This has just begun and the level is very low.

Challenges

Major challenges militating against sustainable management of forest resources in the country include lack of political commitment and poor funding of the forestry sub-sector. The States usually regard the forest reserves as sources for generating revenue without reinvestment for sustained production. In addition adequate manpower, equipment and funds are not provided for proper implementation of sustainable forest management.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Forestry training at the professional level was available at one of the universities until the late 1970s. The number of universities offering single honors and post graduate degree programmes, including those offering forestry electives, have continued to increase. At the technical level, the number of Colleges of Forestry offering diplomas has increased from one to three. Colleges of Agriculture also offer electives in forestry and forestry related courses. The number of vocational training institutions has also continued to increase for sub-technical manpower development.

As a result of the serious dearth of manpower in quantitative and qualitative terms, some training facilities, institutions, and programmes have been put in place. Formal training can either be at the professional, technical, or vocational level. In order to upgrade the skills of serving officers and enhance their efficiency, some other in-service short training courses have been introduced. These courses have enhanced, in particular, the executive capacity of serving officers. Under capacity building, the World Bank loan for the Forestry II Programme provided international and local training to 219 and 116 staff respectively in 1996. In addition, about 35,000 individuals and farmers benefited from in-house courses.

As a result of the serious shortage of manpower in quantitative and qualitative terms, some training facilities, institutions, and programmes have been put in place. Formal training can either be at the professional, technical, or vocational level. In order to upgrade the skills of serving officers and enhance their efficiency, some other in-service short training courses have been introduced. These courses have enhanced, in particular, the executive capacity of serving officers. Under capacity building, the World Bank loan for the Forestry II Programme provided international and local training to 219 and 116 staff respectively in 1996. In addition, about 35,000 individuals and farmers benefited from in-house courses.

Forestry Extension and Advisory Services are actively pursued through enlightenment programmes and activities to break down the serious public apathy towards environmental conservation ethics and practices. This ensures better reception and pursuit of sustainable development principles by everyone including at the grass roots. The inclusion of environment and forestry conservation issues in secondary school curricular has been actively encouraged. Young Foresters' Clubs have been established and promoted through the provision of inputs, incentives, and technical support. On a more august scale, the measures have received a boost through the Federal Government's Annual Tree Planting Campaigns which are personally launched by the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief at the National level, and by the Military Administrators and Local Government Chairmen at the State and local government levels. The National Tree Planting Campaign has been admitted as a regular line project in the Annual Capital Budgets of the Federal and State Governments.

Information

The international initiatives on criteria and indicators for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in which Nigeria participates is the ATO initiative which was developed from many initiations including the ITTO Guidelines to address Sustainable Forest Management and culminate in forest products certification. The criteria and indicators as identified still have to be subjected to field test to validate their application to conditions in Nigerian forest. The application of criteria and indicators is not yet practiced in the country.

Information on sustainable management of forest is made available to potential users in digital and hard copy form. In the future, this information can be assessed through the Internet.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

Some of the projects under the National Forestry Programmes are directly financed by the Federal Government, or being jointly executed by the Federal Government and State Governments while others are either grant-aided or loan financed. In the latter category, the African Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank are the main funding agencies. In very limited circumstances, the FAO and Non-Governmental Organizations like the Ford Foundation and the Nigeria National Conservation Foundation (NCF) have assisted.

Cooperation

Nigeria has participated in the IPF process including the 4th Session of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) which was concluded in New York, USA, in February, 2000. Nigeria has participated in the IPF process through formulating a plan that would be acceptable and implementable at all levels (i.e. government, NGOs, communities and private sector etc.).

Major points and concrete steps in implementing the IPF proposals for action in the country include:

A national focal point for the FAO programme has been chosen, and some assistance has been provided for data generation. In addition, the country participated in a Workshop held organized by the FAO in December 1999 in Cote d'Ivoire in this regard.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and eighth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2000.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home|

FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Nigeria has given high priority to its freshwater resources due to the growing concern at the increasing stress on water supplies caused by poor use patterns, affecting both water quality and quantity. Consequently, the Government through the Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development, is undertaking a number of programmes designed to protect the quality and supply of freshwater resources in the country. 

The low-lying, flood-prone areas near rivers and streams and in inland areas also receive attention from the Ministry. The twin problems of soil erosion and flood control are addressed through the Department of Soil Erosion and Flood Control. This agency was created in 1991 to oversee the mitigation of these problems and the restoration of devastated lands. The Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development handles inland erosion and flooding, while the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing is responsible for marine flood control and erosion.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In the Integrated Water Resources Development and Management programme area, the Ministry has prepared the Water Resources Decree 101 of 1993 to give the legal framework for the development of the water resources of the country. The Decree places ultimate responsibility for the proper development of the nation's water resources on the Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In the Integrated Water Resources Development and Management programme area, the Ministry has prepared the Nation's Water Resources Master Plan for the 1995-2020 period which was completed with the technical assistance of the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) between 1992 and 1995.

In the past, the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation sub-sector was totally uncoordinated. Various methods and equipment were used with little or no thought given to the sustainability of the systems nor the ability of the benefitting communities to operate and maintain them. The Strategy and Action Plan prescribes standards for the methods and equipment to be used. The document was finalized in 1992 and formed the basis for the subsequent three programmes/projects discussed below.

The National Water Supply Policy was completed and approved at the National Council on Water Resources and Rural Development meeting at Kaduna in November 1995. It provides the guidelines for water supply development up to the year 2015.

Flooding in one form or other affects at least 20% of the nation's population, both urban residents and rural dwellers. Flooding is a threat to physical infrastructures, including residential accommodation, commercial, and industrial properties, roads, rail lines, bridges, port installations, etc. It also destroys farmlands, including standing crops. Losses due to flooding run into billions of Naira per year. The future plans of Nigeria to achieve effective management of urban, river, and coastal flooding include: a) enforce compliance with town planning/urban laws/edicts; b) build embankments and levies along rivers and coastlines prone to flooding; c) establish a rainstorm early warning system; d) establish and monitor weather stations, and river and tidal gauges; e) ensure appropriate management and maintenance of dams; f) ensure proper maintenance of existing drainage channels; and g) enforce environmental sanitation laws in towns and cities.

Water hyacinth and other invasive weeds currently hamper normal economic activities in riverine areas where the spread of the weeds has been established. They also impend free river communication on waterways, and above all, the spread of the weed obstructs fishing activities and degrades water quality. Nigeria's future plans and strategy to eliminate the water hyacinth and other invasive plants in all water systems is to: a) inventory the spread of water hyacinth and other invasive weeds in all the river systems; b) develop an infestation index map to determine control options; e) adopt an appropriate integrated control option to ensure that the weeds are no longer a menace; and f) encourage sub-regional cooperation.

Approval is pending for the study of the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources with Particular Reference to Flood Susceptible and Drought Prone Areas. This project has been submitted to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for their participation. GEMS/Water Nigeria is a component of the Global Environmental Monitoring System with the overall goal of monitoring the quality of freshwater supply throughout the country. The programme is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It monitors several water parameters and provides information on the suitability of water for human consumption, agricultural, commercial, and industrial uses. Some of the activities under the programme focus on: a) strengthening National water quality monitoring networks in Nigeria; b) improving analytical capabilities and data quality assurance; c) addressing critical freshwater quality issues in order to propose policy options and control measures; and d) assisting participating laboratories through the provision of technical advice, analytical reference samples, and training opportunities. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) is coordinating the programme within the country. Participating agencies include the National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), New Busa; and the National Water Resources Institute (NWRI), Kaduna. A network of stations on rivers, lakes, and reservoirs has been established with instrumentation for the purpose of collecting samples for analysis.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In the Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation programme area, the Ministry has made significant progress through five local and two international activities. These activities include the production of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Strategy and Action Plan; the Nation-wide Rural Water Supply Programme; Hand pump Development; the Joint Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme; the development of the National Water Supply Policy; participation in the International Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation, and the UN Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council.

In order to assist the States to attain at least 50% National coverage for rural water supply by the year 2000, the Ministry has provided funds to States that have set up their Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agencies as the sole agents for coordinating rural water and sanitation projects. The Agencies are expected to have functional drilling outfits to rehabilitate 20 broken down hand pump schemes and construct four mini water supply schemes. The Rural Water Supply Programme was started in 1995 and will continue to the year 2000. So far, 16 states have benefitted. Others are to come on stream as soon as they meet the criteria for participation.

Due to the maintenance problems presented by the proliferation of assorted hand pumps in the country, the Ministry commissioned a hand pump study programme in 1987 in Missau Local Government Area (LGA), then of Bauchi State. The study recommended the standardization and use of two hand pump makes, the India Mark III and the Afridev, within the country as Village Level Operated and Maintained (VLOM) pumps. Both have been modified to improve their efficiency and durability and are now produced locally, through a deliberate programme of technical assistance to local manufacturers.

The Joint Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme, supported by the Federal Government of Nigeria and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), uses the provisions of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Strategy and Action Plan to fashion out rapid intervention in water supply and sanitation in rural areas, with the States, Local Governments, and the Communities contributing financially to the capital cost of the systems provided. The Communities are involved in the planning and execution of their projects and are adequately trained to sustain the systems. They also collect revenue to fund the operation and maintenance of the systems. The programme came into effect in 1995 and has already provided 3,583 boreholes and 25,349 sanplat latrines to various communities in 18 states within the last 2 years.

In the Water and Sustainable Urban Development programme area, the Ministry has been involved in basically two activities. These are the National Water Rehabilitation Project, and the Peri-Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Programme.

The National Water Rehabilitation Project originated when it was realized that most of the operating water systems hardly produce 40% of their installed capacity. With the assistance of the World Bank, the rehabilitation of some selected systems in the former 21 states of the Federation and Abuja were scheduled at a total project cost of US $256 million. The project implementation started in 1991 and is scheduled to be completed by next year, at the end of which over 250 systems will be rehabilitated.

The Peri-Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Programme provides drinking water and sanitation facilities to the marginalized inhabitants of urban areas. The project, to be assisted by UNICEF, was to carry out pilot schemes in Calabar, Maraba (near the Federal Capital Territory), and Kaduna. The preliminary study at Maraba has been completed but funding has been a constraint as UNICEF appears to have problems with the classification of the project vis-a-vis their global mandate. It is still a very important programme that would help diminish the suffering of the urban poor through poverty alleviation and improvement in health.

In the Water Resource Assessment Sector, an inventory of water resources facilities has been completed as the initial activity for the preparation of the National Water Resources Master Plan in 1992/93. Hydrogeological mapping of the country is being conducted. The project seeks to produce the hydrogeological maps of the country in 100 sheets. Between 1992 and 1995, 11 of the 100 sheets were mapped. It is intended to complete the remaining 89 sheets over the next 3 years. The Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) is being approached for funding to complete the project. Hydrogeological mapping of old Sokoto State (presently Sokoto, Kebbi, and Zamfara States), with the assistance of the JICA, was conceived to investigate groundwater potentials with the view of providing water supply to villages in this semi-arid area. The project started in 1988 and the hydrogeological aspect was completed in 1993, with the production of the hydrogeological map of the old Sokoto State and the provision of water for 13 villages. Eight villages are outstanding, but JICA funding was stopped in 1993 because of the political situation of the country.

A Hydrological Network is being established based on World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) standards for a network of primary hydrological stations. Under the standard, Nigeria is to have 482 stations. Of these, 163 have been installed with 53 of them presently functional. The lack of funds constrains the early completion of the installation of the outstanding stations and the maintenance of existing stations. To ameliorate this, the National Council on Water Resources and Rural Development decided in October 1996 that each State of the Federation and the Federal Government should, for the next three years, spend 1% and 3% respectively of their annual budgetary allocation for water resources on data gathering and processing. In subsequent years both the State and the Federal governments should commit 1% of their respective annual budgets on water resource to data collection and processing. A Borehole Inventory Survey has been carried out to document all boreholes in the country. It involved a record of their design, construction methods, operation, and maintenance. The work, handled by a consultant, started in 1991 and was concluded in 1996.

In the Protection of Water Resources, Water Quality, and Aquatic Ecosystem programme area the Ministry has carried out five activities: Nigeria Register of Dams; rehabilitation of dams; rehabilitation of soil erosion sites; flood control; and establishment of Water Quality Laboratories.

Faced with the dangers of dam breaks as was epitomized by the failure of the Bagauda Dam in 1988 and the attendant destruction of lives, property, and downstream ecology, the Government decided to complete an inventory and register of dams The objective of the project was to verify the location, distribution, and the vital statistics of dams. The project was successfully completed in 1995 with the production of the first edition of the Nigeria Register of Dams.

During the preparation of the Register of Dams and inspections, it became clear that a number of dams were under distress and rehabilitation works were required to restore them to safety. Since 1993, the Ministry has requested funds to rehabilitate the dams under its River Basin and Rural Development Authorities, while also persuading other dam owners to set funds aside for the maintenance of their dams, and the rehabilitation of those under distress. Rehabilitation works on the most critical dams will commence this year.

The heavy monsoon rainfall and the fragile nature of soils particularly in the eastern parts of the country, has causes hundreds of gully erosion sites to develop annually. The Ministry has a programme for arresting the massive ecological problems of soil erosion in rural areas and restoring the land as much as possible. This is an on-going programme supported by the 2% Ecological Fund.

Status

Nigeria is endowed with abundant surface and groundwater resources whose availability varies with rainfall, location, and geological formations. The highest annual precipitation of about 3,000 mm occurs in the Niger Delta and Mangrove Swamp belt of the southeast where rainfall lasts for almost 10 months of the year. Rainfall decreases in amount progressively towards the north. The variation in rainfall also determines the drainage regime in the country, the most important drainage systems being: the Niger River Basin drainage system with its major tributaries of Benue, Sokoto-Rima, Kaduna, Gongola, Katsina-Ala, Dongo, Taraba, Hawal, and Anambra Rivers; the Lake Chad inland drainage system comprising Kano, Hadejia, Jama'are, Misau, Koma dongou-Yobe, Yedseram, and Ebeji Rivers; the Atlantic drainage system to the east of the Niger Basin made up of the Cross, Imo, Qua Iboe, and Kwa Rivers; and the Atlantic drainage system to the west of the Niger Basin consisting of the Ogun, Osun, Owena, and Benin Rivers.

While various human activities draw on the surface resources, the groundwater resource potential in the country has not been fully tapped. This is partly due to the fact that it is comparatively more expensive to harness groundwater than surface water resources. Also, it is technologically more demanding to exploit the crystalline rock aquifers for water.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

In order to ensure that water supplied to the Nigerian populace is clean, the Ministry established the Regional Water Quality Laboratories in 1986. In addition, some Reference Laboratories were established to serve as centres of excellence and training facilities for water quality personnel.

Financing

In 1991, African Development Bank (ADB) funding was sought for equipment purchase and expert training for the Regional Laboratories and two Reference Laboratories located at Dadin Kowa, Minna, Akure, Enugu, Lagos, and Kaduna, respectively. The ADB loan was approved and signed in July 1994, but could not be drawn on because of a Presidential directive to source the funds internally. Budgetary provisions have been very meager and have only enabled the Ministry to construct three buildings, while a fourth one is 30% completed. The construction of the outstanding two buildings have not yet commenced. The laboratory equipment are yet to be procured due to funding constraints. The PTF has been approached for assistance.

Cooperation

Nigeria participated actively in both the Steering Committee and the Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation held in Noordwijk, Holland in March 1994 under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Government. The Conference was a direct follow-up to Agenda 21. The Ministry of Water Resources was also active in the subsequent meeting on "Forward Looking Assessment on the Implementation of the Action Programme on Drinking Water and Sanitation" held in The Hague.

The Ministry took active part in the work of the UN Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council and actively participated in the Working Groups that produced the Country Level Collaboration, and the Information, Education and Communication documents that were presented and accepted at the Council's second biennial meeting held in Rabbat, Morocco in 1993. Presently, a staff member of the Ministry is the Chairperson of the Working Group on Water Supply and Sanitation Development in Africa set up to focus on the water supply and sanitation problems in Africa and to set the stage for donor awareness raising on the needs of Africa.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For legislation on Land Use, including the Land Use Acts and the River Basins Development Authorities Act, click here.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home|

LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The policy objectives and mandate of the Nigerian Department of Agricultural Land Resources, established in 1980, have been refocused since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to cover sound planning and management of land resources consistent with the provisions of Agenda 21.

Erosion is a continuous process. Once started, there is urgent need to stabilize all existing erosion sites to stem the rate of soil degradation and loss of lands, forest resources, and property. In addition, there is a need to restore all those badlands and gullies that are amenable to restoration. The Nigerian strategy is to: a) prepare and implement a comprehensive National policy on soil, coastal erosion, and flood control; b) formulate and enforce regulations for soil and water conservation especially in erosion-prone areas; c) complete National watershed delineation and characterization for use as a basis for developing and implementing an aggressive management and enforcement programme to protect and maintain the quality of the nation's lands, water, and coastal resources; d) prepare a periodic master plan for the management of soil and coastline erosion and flood, and advise the Federal Government on the financial requirements for plan implementation; e) complete feasibility and scientific studies on soil erosion and related flood problems for the design of appropriate integrated remedial control measures; f) complete public enlightenment campaigns on the dangers of environmental degradation arising from poor land and water management practices; g) provide and promote training on environmental issues as they relate to flood, erosion, land degradation, and water conservation; h) promote integrated ecosystem management for agriculture, land use, soil and water conservation, rural development, and coastal resources management including environmentally sound recreational use; i) strengthen National capacity through personnel development, provision of training facilities and research on combating climate-related ecological problems; j) strengthen capacity of the Environmental Management Support System (EMSS) for remote sensing data gathering, GIS facilities, and development of a disaster/environmental data bank; k) support agro-forestry and integrated coastal zone management; l) encourage planted fallow in abandoned farmlands using soil enriching species; m) promote conservation farming and use of organic fertilizer and soil conditioners; and m) establish viable contingency plans for tackling socioeconomic and other problems resulting from coastal and other erosion disasters.

Mining and its associated activities are a source of considerable environmental damage to surface water, groundwater, and land. Health and safety risks are also considerable for people working in mines or living close by. The resulting deterioration of the environment and human health, are seen in existing mining wastelands all over the country, especially in the Middle Belt States, including Plateau, Bauchi, Niger, as well as Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, and Enugu. The degradation of the natural environment has a negative effect on the long term growth potential of the country, even though immediate economic benefits are being derived by individual enterprises. It is important, therefore, that all approvals to initiate mining should be carried out in an environmentally sound manner, so as to minimize negative impacts. In addition, all abandoned and closed mining sites should be reclaimed. The strategy to accomplish this involves: a) developing an inventory of all existing and closed mining sites; b) enforcing compliance with all National Mining Laws and Regulations, especially the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law, the Safety Code and Accident Prevention Regulations; c) Enforcing mining wasteland reclamation measures for closed mining sites; d) providing financial incentives to assist and encourage the reclamation of abandoned mining sites; e) encouraging public participation through dialogue with affected communities and other directly interested parties on the environmental aspects of different phases of mining activities; f) adopting environmentally sound mining technologies and practices in all phases of mining activities, especially appropriate technologies to mitigate environmental impacts, including those from small-scale mining operations; and g) building capacity in environmental management in the mining industry.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

The on-going activities for this programme area include: the Soil Survey and Land Evaluation Programme; the National Soil and Fertilizer Testing Programme; Soil Fertility Management and Fertilizer Development Programme; and the Soil Conservation Programme.

The Department of Agricultural Land Resources has already completed Phase One of the Soil Survey and Land Evaluation Programme, which includes reconnaissance surveys at a scale of 1:650,000 and l:l,000,000 in 1990. In view of the objective of the World Food Summit, Phase Two of the programme is focusing on semi-detailed and detailed surveys at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:10,000 respectively. The detailed surveys will provide the more reliable characterization, classification, and detailed information necessary for the optimum conservation and utilization of land resources, including farming operations. All the data collected will be stored at a National Soil Museum under the National Soil Reference Information Centre (NSRIC) and used as a reference base for students, researchers, farmers, and all land users who desire information on the nation's soils and environmental studies.

Various soil fertility management and fertilizer development projects have been completed in different parts of the country. Efforts are now being made to ameliorate the special problems of acid soil with low pH value which exists in the south eastern zone of the country. Medium level technology, that is the application of lime, organic matter, and industrial waste, is being adopted to improve this condition to enable profitable crop growing.

Status

Soils in Nigeria are variable due to variations in the geology and climate. Most predominant in the country are the utisols which cover about 46% of the total area of the country. Such soil performs very well under good management though it is of moderate to low productivity. Only 6% of the country is covered by entisol, the high productive soil.

Nigeria has also been classified into eight Land Resource Zones, namely semi arid, dry sub-humid, sub-humid, humid, very humid, ultra-humid, plateau, and mountain zones. Most, if not all of the these ecological niches have witnessed pressure resulting from uncontrolled socioeconomic activities leaving a large proportion of the land barren. From ecological and economic standpoints, soil erosion is probably the most serious environmental problem affecting the nation's soil and land resources.

It is estimated that over 90% of the total land area of Nigeria is under severe sheet, rill, and gully erosion, with the severest gully erosion on 80% of Nigeria's total land area. Sheet erosion leads to soil impoverishment as nutrients are washed away, loss of livelihood as farmlands become wasteland, and pollution and siltation of available sources of drinking water. This exacerbates the increasing menace of rural-urban migration. Human lives and properties, especially buildings, are endangered as they collapse into gullies. There are currently over 2,000 active gully erosion sites spread around the country.

Gully erosion is widespread in Abia, Imo, Anambra, and Bayelsa States while coastal erosion is commonly found along the nation's 853 km long coastline with estimated mean shoreline retreats of 2-30 metres per year. The worst affected areas include Victoria Beach in Lagos, Awoye/Molume in Ondo State, Ogborodo/Escravos and Forcados in Delta State, Brass in Bayelsa State, and Ibeno-Eket in Akwa Ibom State. In recent years, the Federal Government has spent almost 91.0 billion on periodic rehabilitation aid for sand replenishment projects of the Bar Beach in Lagos. In the far north, where vegetation cover is scarce, wind erosion is a common land degradation factor frequently sweeping away the top soil.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is being implemented through bilateral cooperation under the World Bank Assisted Environmental Management Project for Nigeria. The GIS will enable increased capacity for monitoring environmental components in soil resources management. Arrangements are in progress to install Soil Erosion Monitoring Posts (SEMP) in the six ecological zones of the country. The efforts also include local and overseas training of technical and managerial manpower.

Research and Technologies  

The existing regional soil laboratories located in Kaduna, Ibadan, and Umudike are to monitor soil fertility and quality levels. The objectives of these laboratories are to: a) offer routine services in soil, plant and fertilizer analyses to farmers and other land users; b) provide back-up services to National agriculture, land use, and environmental programmes; c) monitor soil degradation due to nutrient depletion; and d) water quality testing (expected when the laboratories are fully operational).

Apart from the special problems of soil acidity, there is a need to conserve these soils from degradation. The degradation can be in the form of soil and wind erosion or the intensive activities of man from uncontrolled deforestation. One of the technologies being used to monitor this problem is sheet erosion control trails, aimed at monitoring the occurrence, intensity, and mode of sheet erosion on farmlands. Trials of this nature have successfully been completed in parts of the Eastern States, and similar trials are being initiated in the north-western part of the country. In the course of implementing these projects, natural waterways would be enhanced and drainage channels improved. Grass bund, wicker works, use of vetiver grass, and other agronomic measures like crop rotation would be introduced in an effort to create a viable environment for profitable food production.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *



This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

For legislation on Land Use, including the Land Use Acts and the River Basins Development Authorities Act, click here.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home|

MOUNTAINS

No information is available.

 

 * * *

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Nigeria has three tiers of government comprising federal, state and local government. In the areas of oceans and seas there are many governmental and non-governmental agencies that have responsibility in this sector. These include: the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), Federal Ministry of Transport, the Nigerian Navy, and the Federal Department of Fisheries (Federal Ministry of Agriculture), Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, and other organisations who have responsibilities to protect the Nigerian marine environment at the federal, state and local government levels.

Nigeria has recently instituted an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) approach to address the various environmental problems and to promote sustainable utilization of coastal resources. Integrated coastal area management and Sustainable Development, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas are being handled by the following Ministries/Agencies and Organizations in Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development, Federal Ministry of Transport, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Niger Delta Environmental Survey, and Nigerian Conservation Foundation.

Marine environmental protection, both from land-based activities and from sea-based activities (e.g. coastal sewage, agricultural waste and industrial effluents, discharges of ballast from shipping, oil spills, etc) is being handled by FEPA, DPR, Meteorological Services Department/Marine Meteorology Unit, and the Ministries / Organizations mentioned above.

Under the Water Resources Sector, the responsible organisation is the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development under its various Departments, and the River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs) having contiguous boundaries with the coast viz:

NIOMR is involved in research studies on the effects of sewage, agricultural waste, industrial effluents, discharges of ballast in the Marine environment. The Nigerian Navy and the Marine Police in collaboration with relevant government agencies have responsibilities to protect the marine environment. The responsibilities include:

Marine environmental protection both from land-based activities and from Sea-based activities is also handled by organisations under the Federal Ministry of Transport. The organisations responsible for discharges of ballast from vessels and oil spills are National Maritime Authority, the Nigerian Ports Authority, and National Inland Water Waterways. National Maritime Authority (NMA) monitors marine pollution and oil spillage on Nigeria's territorial waters while the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) has receptacles in place for collection of waste and ballast water, and the National Inland Waterways Authority (NIWA) deals with pollution matters within the Nigerian inland waterways such as rivers, creeks, and the delta areas.

Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources (both of the high seas and under national jurisdiction) are handled by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Federal Department of Fisheries, and the Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research. The Federal Department of Fisheries (FDF) enforces procedures to guard against fishing methods and operations e.g control of fishing net sizes, discouragement of dynamiting and use of poisons for fishing. NIOMR - carries out studies on stock assessment of the fisheries resources, (fish and shell fish) and determination of the maximum sustainable yield of identified stocks (MSY) and fishing efforts.

Various mechanisms have been established to facilitate coordination among all of the responsible organisations.. There is for example the National Committee on Implementation of Agenda 21, and the National Committee on Coastal Erosion, and National Committee on ICAM, with membership from relevant governmental and non-governmental organisations. FEPA is responsible for coordinating activities among all the relevant organizations.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Over the years, various legislation, regulations and policy instruments have been developed, and being modified from time to time as new scientific evidence emerges. The existing legislation, regulations, and policy instruments that have direct bearing on integrated zone management, marine environmental protection, and sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources include:

Other instruments of intervention developed so far that have much bearing on integrated coastal zone management, and which are mandatory include:

There are also the Mandatory World Meteorological Organization's Regulations, codes of practice standards and guidelines. Stakeholders are also involved in the establishment of codes of practice for the community e.g Akassa Declaration. Efforts are being made to review the Shipping Policy of Nigeria to bring it in line with global requirements and to update the 1962 Merchant Shipping Act by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There are National Policies and Strategies on environmental protection and conservation that cover major issues related to oceans and seas. Nigeria has a National Policy on Environment launched in 1989, and revised in 1999. There is also the Green Agenda of the Vision 2010. The National Policy on Environment and the Vision 2010 cover all major sectoral issues identified in the Agenda 21, including issues relating to oceans and seas. There are also specific strategies/plans developed to address particular issues.

The National strategy or Policy that will cover the relevant aspects of integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas are provided for under the following:

The coastal zone's River Basin and Rural Development Authorities listed above occasionally develop specific plans and programmes for addressing the preservation and sustainable use of fragile ecosystems in their areas of jurisdiction.

The Niger Delta special area and its flank represent on a worldwide basis a complex but unique tropical environment based not only on its geological setting, but the diversity of biotopes and production of its resource base. It encompasses swamp forest, mangrove forests and inter-tidal mud flat areas. It ranks as one of the largest deltas in the world in terms of its abundant area of a national/global heritage, the mangrove ecosystems. Policies and Plans that have been developed specifically to address the preservation and sustainable use of fragile ecosystem (mangroves) include: Creation of mangrove forest reserves; Planting of mangroves in areas of mangrove deforestation; Akassa declaration; Development of Niger Delta Action Plan; the Niger Delta Environmental Survey; etc.

Niger Delta Action Plan: The Niger Delta is one of the largest deltas in the world. This large expanse of wetlands covering about 20,000 square kilometers and located in Southern Nigeria houses most valuable renewable and non-renewable natural resources. The area consists of a number of distinct ecological zones which are characteristic of a large river delta in a tropical region: coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forests and lowland rain forests. In recognition of the fact that sustainable development will require a balance between accelerated economic growth and environmental protection to ensure that the people of the Niger Delta benefits as much as possible from exploitation of the resources in the area, Government and other stakeholders developed a long-term Integrated Environmental Action Plan - the Niger Delta Action Plan - that will address priority environmental issues in the area.

Niger Delta Environmental Survey:The Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES) is an independent objective and comprehensive survey of the Niger Delta. It focuses on the characteristics of the areas, the factors affecting environmental quality and the potential for sustainable development, in on-shore, coastal and off-shore activities. The objectives of the survey are to:

Within the scope of the Survey, the following issues are to be addressed:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Various major groups are involved in programmes and activities relating to integrated coastal zone management, marine environmental protection and sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources. These groups include: Women, Children and Youth, Ethnic Groups, Non-Governmental Organizations, Local Authorities, Workers and Unions, Business and Industry, Scientific and Technological Community and Farmers.

Programmes are being implemented in consultation with a broad spectrum of interest groups, stakeholders and private citizens. Such consultations and dialogue are carried out through seminars, workshops, public lectures, direct visits to specific locations and communities and other channels of communications. The major groups are also being involved in various decision-making processes.

Programmes and Projects 

There are some specific programmes that address one or more of the three issues: Integrated coastal area manageemnt and sustainable development; Marine environmental protection; and Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources. These programmes include:

Some of these programmes are further discussed below:

Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem Project: The project is on-going. It was formulated on the realisation of the need to control water pollution and conserve biodiversity in the Gulf of Guinea. The project is regional in outlook; it cuts across countries like Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Guinea and Nigeria. Participating Agencies in Nigeria include the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), and the Federal Department of Fisheries. The project is being funded by Global Environmental Facility (GEF) with UNIDO as the executing Agency.

Several activities have been carried out since the commencement of the project. These include:

Marine Observatories: The Department of Meteorological Services operates two marine stations in Lagos and Eket. Regular measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Wave Height, Sea Level Rise and other conventional meteorological elements are being undertaken. Data obtained from such systematic observations are expected to complement the existing oceanographic database of the country.

Storm Surges Forecasting for Coastal Erosion Monitoring: Specific Marine Meteorological Programmes include the Storm Surges Forecasting for Coastal Erosion Monitoring. This programme establishes marine meteorological stations to acquire data including sea-surface temperature covering our immediate high seas and coastal area, to forecast and monitor storm surges and coastal erosion, to forecast for fishing industry to adequately forewarn residents of areas prone to storm surges and Government Agencies that are responsible for environmental degradations.

Installation of Meteorological Information Technology, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems : The ADM-Infortech will support Climate Studies Through Organized Data Collection and Archiving. Climate Studies including change detection require consistent and digitally available Meteorologic Data. This data permits the identification of climatic zones. The zones can then be modelled to predict climate variation and allow for preparation of the effects. Modeling also facilitates understanding of climate system dynamics and the estimation of climate change.

The Data used to create climate studies products will include ground stations and satellite through a Database. Satellite estimated precipitation, temperature and vegetation data will provide much needed data for climate studies. High resolution satellite image coverage of the country will provide a base map to identify landuse and vegetation types. The base map can then be used to monitor climate variables with lower spatial resolution data and be a baseline to measure climate change.

Climate Data Products are useful to planners, industry and researchers. Climate modeling can provide timely information on climate variation that can be incorporated into mitigation strategies by planners. Climate and climate change data permits planners to effectively manage natural resources. The same products are used by industry to effectively exploit natural resources and plan for climate variation. The data archives provide the means for researchers to improve methods of climate modeling.

Climate Information and Prediction Services and El Nino Monitoring: The project is aimed at meeting increasing needs for methods and techniques to apply information on past and present climate as well as climate predictions in various socio-economic sectors using computerized climate data management systems already developed by many Departments climate information includes climate statistics produced on past date, completed for many operations by recent weather data. Development of new methods, techniques and services in response to new requirements for operational use of climate information and knowledge will be supported through the project based on the extremely fast progress in this area in a number of departments and other countries.

Marine Meteorologic Information System: The Meteorologic Information System will produce valuable forecast for marine meteorology consumers. Weather data is very important to the shipping and fishing industries. Accurate weather reports provide increase their security. Real time updated conditions could be distributed to ports and to ship over the Internet and radio. The ocean experts strong control on weather conditions on land. Sea surface temperature monitoring provides valuable information to meteorologic models that predict precipitation.

The Meteorologic Information System will provide a number of hazard warning and monitoring products. These products can be used to prepare for and mitigate the consequences of sever weather and fires. Flood warning models exist that incorporate water basin and precipitation information. Warning of imminent floods allow populations to be evacuated or other mitigation strategies. Severe weather affecting crops such as hail and high winds can also be monitored remotely. Warning of Marine Storms can save lives at sea. Monitoring with AVHRR Data can identify large bushfires and then local officials can be alerted.

The following area are effectively being looked into for further research work: Meteorological Climatological Data, Marine MET, Data, Impact of EL NINO on coastal rainfall, Research work on coastal climate variability/change, Sea level rise prediction by Marine Meteorologists and University of Lagos, Ozone

Status

Nigeria has a coastline of about 853km with Niger Delta covering about 80% of the entire coastline. Much of Nigeria's population and economic activities are located along the coast. According to the 1991 census, approximately 20% of the population inhabit the coastal area. Increased economic activities, rapid population growth and conflicting uses of the coastal zone have resulted in several environmental problems. Some of these problems include; land degradation, erosion and flooding, fisheries depletion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, introduction of exotic species, oil pollution, gas flaring and solid waste pollution.

Major current uses of the coastal areas in Nigeria include the following: Major population centres - 20% of Nigerian populations inhabit the coastal zone. Urban centres include - Badagry, Warri, Sapele, Brass, Port Harcourt, Yenagoa, Bonny and Calabar.

Fishing: Three major sectors, artisanal, industrial and aquiculture:

Mining and Oil Exploration: Major activities in the Nigeria Coastal Zone particularly in the Niger Delta Crude oil production: Approx: 2 million barrels/day.

Industries: Oil Refinery, Petrochemical, Fertilizer, Liquified Natural Gas( LNG) , Iron and Steel, Aluminum Smelting.

Agriculture: Important economic activity in the Nigerian Coastal Zone.

Production of food and cash crops:

Tourism: Many beaches are located along the coast and in Lagos State the beaches have been divided into 7 tourism zones :

Percentage of the economy contributed by fishing is estimated at 1.4%.

Methods in place to encourage sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources include the implementation of an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Action Plan, introduction of closed areas, delimitation of fishing zones for artisanal and industrial zones, and introduction of Turtle Excluder Device (TED).

Impact of shipping:

Pollution of coastal waters and ground water: Pollution of beaches with plastic wastes, bottles, etc.

Primary sources of land-based pollution of the marine environment:

Primary sources of sea-based pollution of the marine environment:

Major projects and activities underway or planned to address the relevant issues cited above are contained in the Nigeria's National Agenda 21. Activities designed specifically to address the problems related to fragile ecosystems, such as mangroves include:

Challenges

Some constraints to implementing effective programmes to address the issues raised in the programme areas (Integrated coastal zone management; Marine environmental protection; and sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources) include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Programmes to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable coastal management include organisation of conferences, seminars, workshops, training, and direct consultations. There is also production of various journals, bulletins, magazines, handbills and literature, radio and TV programmes. With regard to marine meteorological services, there is the MET Awareness Conference on adjustment strategies/measures to combat sea level rise and the issues of climate change and global warming.

Local and overseas training programmes are available from time to time for the officials of the relevant Ministries/Agencies and organisations. Also relevant industries are involved through conferences, seminars, workshops, and special staff training programmes.

There are various efforts in place to raise awareness on issues related to sustainable use of marine resources. There are the Marine Meteorology and Oceanographic publications; recruitment of voluntary observing ships for information; conferences; workshops, seminars; Annual World Environment Day and Annual World Meteorological Day Celebration Campaigns. As part of the activities to mark the International Year of the Ocean, several workshops were held to sensitize Nigerians on the importance of the oceans and seas and their resources. Emphasis was placed on protection and conservation for sustainable development. Nigeria also participated in EXPO >98 in Lisbon, Portugal where a documentary of NIOMR's activities were shown. The theme of the World

Information

Various kinds of national information are available to assist both decision-makers and planners working in coastal areas. These include the Nigerian National Policy on Environment, the Vision 2010, the Nigeria's National Agenda 21, various sectoral guidelines, standards and Regulations.

In addition, there is specific national information on the Sustainable Management of Fishery Resources:

There is also specific information on Marine Pollution: Oceanographic/Meteorological information systems, including tidal information, primary water level, wind speed, gust, salinity, SST, methods and techniques on climate predictions and marine meteorology forecasting, etc.

The national information available from the water resources sector that assist both decision-makers and planners working in the coastal areas includes:

Information on Mineral Resources can be obtained from relevant government publications such as :

There is information on some Living Resources Other than Fish: Shellfish - shrimps, crabs, lobster, molluscs, etc.

Sources and kinds of information on Critical Uncertainties:

Some surveillance systems and mechanisms are in place to monitor implementation of relevant laws and regulations. Relevant law enforcement agencies, FEPA, National Maritime Authority, Nigerian Navy, Federal Department of Fisheries, and other Task forces , Committees, and Working Groups such as the Marine Meteorologist Working Group. In the area of fisheries, there are regular visits to the fishing companies and occasional patrols at sea to ensure the fishing companies go out with the required mesh sizes, and that they fish in the prescribed areas.

In the near future Geographic Information Systems will be applied to monitor the implementation of the relevant laws and regulations.

Relevant information is made available to potential users through publications and advisory services. Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources has E-mail address and a Web site:- E-mail: fmin.agric@hyperia.com ; Web site.

Some activities are underway to develop the country's sustainable development indicators relating to various sectors, including oceans and seas. The National Committee on Implementation of Nigeria's National Agenda 21 are working on the matter.

Research and Technologies  

While specific issues related to the development, transfer and use of environmentally sound technologies have not yet been addressed in the programme areas of oceans and seas by the water resources sector, in the inland water areas, a programme for setting up water quality monitoring network, coupled with the setting of a network of Regional and National Reference Water Quality Laboratories has reached an advanced stage of implementation. The programme is to enable the monitoring of the water quality of our rivers and streams in order to devise strategies and technologies for addressing the problems identified through the monitoring exercises.

The equipment for effective monitoring of Nigeria's territorial waters include Pollution Control Boats, Oil Recovery Boats, SAR Boat and SAR/Patrol Boats. There is also plan to acquire Surveillance Aircrafts and Helicopters with their associated Surveillance equipment for both marine pollution and other safety equipment.

Development of the Turtle Excluder Device: Sea turtles, an endangered species, are associated with shrimping and trawling in Nigerian water. To prevent the depletion of this important marine resource, an excluder device, designed in the U.S.A , was modified by NIOMR for Nigerian condition to exclude juvenile sea turtles from shrimping nets, thus enabling the conservation of the sea turtles.

There are also other on-going projects on gas re-injection technology; cleaner production technology; clean-up and rehabilitation techniques; etc.

The choice of technologies would depend on:

Financing

The oceans and sea sector is financed through national budgetary allocations, government/private sector partnership, and external assistance arising from bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

Cooperation

In Nigeria, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was ratified in 1986. The Federal Government, through the Ministry of Transport, has initiated the ratification of the Oil Spill Convention.

Nigeria is a Party to various international, including regional and sub-regional Conventions related to issues on oceans and seas. These Conventions include:

In addition, Nigeria is a member of the International Maritime Organisation. It is a Party to many International Maritime Conventions; it is a member of the United Nation's Conference on trade and development (UNCTAD) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO); and it is also a member of the Ministries Conference for West and Central African Sub-region (MINCONMAR) which co-ordinates the activities of member states in the region. Nigeria is also a member of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPCF) based in London. The Organisation takes care of Oil pollution victims i.e. pollution from vessels. Furthermore, Nigeria is preparing to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Ports State Control in the West and Central African Sub-Region. The objective of the MOU is to prevent the pollution of our marine environment by sub-standard vessels This Agreement will be signed by Member States in Abuja, Nigeria in October, 1999. Nigeria is in the process of ratifying the convention of Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African Countries Bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria is a member of the Committee for Eastern Central Atlantic Fisheries (CECAF), Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa (CIFA), and Committee on Fisheries (COFI). These are FAO Committees which regularly discuss fisheries management and conservation issues.

Nigeria is involved in many bilateral, multilateral and international activities and cooperation with the United Nations systems and the international community. Some of these include:

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and seventh sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1999.

Click here for information on Seas, Fish and Fisheries, including the Oil in Navigable Waters Act; the Subsidiary Legislation: Oil in Navigable Waters Regulations; and the Sea Fisheries Decree
To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Nigeria has National regulations on toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes and is also involved in the implementation of some of the International Convention, Procedures and Protocols on Hazardous/Toxic Wastes and Chemicals, and Radioactive Waste Management. By the year 1998, Nigeria will develop National regulations on the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Toxic Wastes; procedures and protocols on the "Prior Informed Consent" concept for hazardous chemicals in international trade, etc.

In this way, Nigeria wants to achieve 100% compliance with both international and National regulations, standards, and guidelines on hazardous/toxic chemicals and radioactive waste management.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  


The strategies for the management of toxic chemicals include: a) the control of chemical hazards through pollution prevention, emission inventories, product labelling, use limitation procedures for safe handling, and exposure regulations; b) the phase out or ban of high risk chemicals that are persistent and bioaccumulative, and whose use cannot be adequately controlled or monitored; c) the development of policies based on principles of producer/polluter liability; d) emphasis on the use of biological control methods for pest-control; e) provision of information on chemical hazard in local languages; f) establishment of emergency-response centres including poison-control centres; g) the control of the importation of banned or restricted chemicals/pesticides; and the adoption of community right-to-know programmes that provide information on accidental releases and annual routine emissions of toxic chemicals.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 


In Nigeria, the Hazardous Chemicals and Toxic Wastes Dump Waste Programme was put in place in 1992 following the provisions of the Waste Management Regulations S.I. 15 of 1991. In addition, a total ban on importation, transit, transportation, deposit, and storage of harmful wastes has existed since 1988. Under this programme, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) officials operating at the sea ports in the country can take samples of any suspicious consignment camouflaged as industrial materials for analysis at the Reference Laboratory of the Agency. In addition, FEPA has embarked on chemical tracking by monitoring warehouses and outlets for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of imported chemicals. The effort has succeeded in intercepting a host of banned and expired chemicals as well as toxic wastes camouflaged as raw materials and products.

In concert with some of the provisions of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, the Federal Government has approved a FEPA-University of Ibadan Centre of Excellence for training and research in the areas of: industrial, domestic and hazardous wastes management; development or adaption of cleaner production technology for Nigeria; reduction of gaseous emissions; and incorporation of "waste to wealth" strategies into waste management practices.

In a similar development, the Ministry of Science and Technology has initiated a programme for: the identification of major pollutants; monitoring and controlling the effect of pollutants on the environment; developing process technologies for combating industrial pollutants; establishing model treatment plants for demonstration and skill acquisition; and converting solid wastes into energy and other useful purposes. It is envisaged that by the year 2010, the programme will have achieved the provision of a clean and healthy environment; and a reduction in the extent of natural ecological damage.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home|

WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Solid Waste and Sanitation

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The strategy to meet these needs is to: a) promote education and awareness on waste prevention, separation of waste at source, and other environmentally sound municipal waste management approaches; b) develop and implement, through the collaborative approach, National guidelines and blue prints for integrated management of municipal solid waste; c) encourage markets for recovered waste products and ensure that those who generate wastes pay the full cost of environmentally safe disposal; d) promote strict compliance with anti-litter laws and regulations supported by the provision of waste collection facilities; e) promote the development and adoption of appropriate technologies for the conversion of organic municipal solid waste to compost and encourage markets for its use as a soil conditioner; f) review and strengthen existing laws and regulations for environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste; g) ensure provision, upgrading, and maintenance of the necessary infrastructure for environmentally sound collection, transportation, and disposal of municipal solid waste; h) encourage and provide the enabling environment for active private sector participation and commercialization of municipal solid waste management; i) ensure and promote the establishment of sanitary landfill sites; j) strengthen local and state capabilities for environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste through effective collaboration, cooperation, and provision of technical support; k) promote simple, inexpensive, easy-to-use community and locally based technology initiatives for the recovery, recycling, and re-use of municipal solid waste at all levels; l) encourage active participation of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in promoting sound management of municipal solid waste; m) promote environmentally sound collection, handling, transportation, and disposal of other non-hazardous wastes; n) encourage industries to produce biodegradable packaging materials; o) assess, monitor, and improve strategies for environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste and non hazardous wastes; and p) devote a reasonable amount of the budget to addressing municipal solid waste management to ensure a safe and healthy environment.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In Nigeria, the Hazardous Chemicals and Toxic Wastes Dump Waste Programme was put in place in 1992 following the provisions of the Waste Management Regulations S.I. 15 of 1991. In addition, a total ban on importation, transit, transportation, deposit, and storage of harmful wastes has existed since 1988.

In concert with some of the provisions of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, the Federal Government has approved a FEPA-University of Ibadan Centre of Excellence for training and research in the areas of: industrial, domestic and hazardous wastes management; development or adaption of cleaner production technology for Nigeria; reduction of gaseous emissions; and incorporation of "waste to wealth" strategies into waste management practices.

In a similar development, the Ministry of Science and Technology has initiated a programme for: the identification of major pollutants; monitoring and controlling the effect of pollutants on the environment; developing process technologies for combating industrial pollutants; establishing model treatment plants for demonstration and skill acquisition; and converting solid wastes into energy and other useful purposes. It is envisaged that by the year 2010, the programme will have achieved the provision of a clean and healthy environment; and a reduction in the extent of natural ecological damage.

Municipal solid waste heaps dot several parts of major Nigerian cities blocking roads, alleys, and pavements. Municipal waste and sewage disposal problems are particularly serious in Lagos, Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, Aba, Port Harcourt, Owerri, and Warri. These unsightly dump sites are characterized by: a) various non-biodegradable household petrochemical products such as polythene bags, plastic containers, styrofoam packages, and tyres; b) crankcase oils discharged by mechanical workshops, industries, power stations, and commercial houses (about 20 million gallons per year are discharged carelessly into drains and surface waters contaminating surface and underground waters); and c) the siting of public buildings and residential quarters on flood-prone areas as well as unsettled and improperly reclaimed dump sites.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

In the future, Nigeria wants to achieve not less than a 80% reduction in the volume of municipal solid waste generated at all levels. It also wants to ensure environmentally sound management. With an increasing population and rising land values, Nigeria needs to minimize wastes generated to reduce the volume of wastes destined for disposal. The country also needs to promote basic sanitation; ensure the environmentally sound waste management of municipal solid waste; eliminate litter on Nigerian streets; promote responsible care; and secure a quality of environment for all Nigerians adequate for their health and well being.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Hazardous Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Nigeria has National regulations on toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes and is also involved in the implementation of some of the International Convention, Procedures and Protocols on Hazardous/Toxic Wastes and Chemicals, and Radioactive Waste Management. By the year 1998, Nigeria will develop National regulations on the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Toxic Wastes; procedures and protocols on the "Prior Informed Consent" concept for hazardous chemicals in international trade, etc.

In this way, Nigeria wants to achieve 100% compliance with both international and National regulations, standards, and guidelines on hazardous/toxic chemicals and radioactive waste management.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The strategies for the management of hazardous wastes include: a) requiring and assisting industries to change to cleaner production methods and adopting preventive and recycling technologies; b) encouraging the phasing out of processes that produce high risks due to hazardous waste generation; c) environmental audits of existing industries to improve hazardous waste management; d) making producers responsible for the environmentally sound disposal of the hazardous wastes they generate; e) establishing public awareness and training programmes for industries and government workers on hazardous waste issues, especially waste minimization; f) building treatment centres for hazardous waste either at the National or State level so industries can treat, recycle, re-use, and dispose of wastes at or close to the site where they are created; and g) creation of alert systems to detect illegal traffic in hazardous wastes.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In Nigeria, the Hazardous Chemicals and Toxic Wastes Dump Waste Programme was put in place in 1992 following the provisions of the Waste Management Regulations S.I. 15 of 1991. In addition, a total ban on importation, transit, transportation, deposit, and storage of harmful wastes has existed since 1988. Under this programme, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) officials operating at the sea ports in the country can take samples of any suspicious consignment camouflaged as industrial materials for analysis at the Reference Laboratory of the Agency. In addition, FEPA has embarked on chemical tracking by monitoring warehouses and outlets for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of imported chemicals. The effort has succeeded in intercepting a host of banned and expired chemicals as well as toxic wastes camouflaged as raw materials and products.

In concert with some of the provisions of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, the Federal Government has approved a FEPA-University of Ibadan Centre of Excellence for training and research in the areas of: industrial, domestic and hazardous wastes management; development or adaption of cleaner production technology for Nigeria; reduction of gaseous emissions; and incorporation of "waste to wealth" strategies into waste management practices.

In a similar development, the Ministry of Science and Technology has initiated a programme for: the identification of major pollutants; monitoring and controlling the effect of pollutants on the environment; developing process technologies for combating industrial pollutants; establishing model treatment plants for demonstration and skill acquisition; and converting solid wastes into energy and other useful purposes. It is envisaged that by the year 2010, the programme will have achieved the provision of a clean and healthy environment; and a reduction in the extent of natural ecological damage.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Over the past decade, unscrupulous foreign businessmen, acting in collaboration with local people, have found a new way of making money through the illegal trade of hazardous wastes from the developed countries to the poor, helpless, and largely illiterate developing countries. In total, 94% of all hazardous waste trade originates from member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The sole aim is to avoid the strict environmental and health safety regulations and public opposition of the host country which is deeply rooted in economic calculations. For example, the treatment and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) costs US$ 3000 per tonne in the USA compared to a mere US$ 2.50 per tonne including shipment and disposal in a developing country. Nigerians cannot forget the Koko Saga involving 5 shipments totaling 3,780 tonnes of toxic wastes from Italy. That incident was nearly a National embarrassment but for the swift and decisive response of the Nigerian government.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was ratified by Nigeria in 1991.

 

* * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Harmful Waste (Special Criminal Provisions) Decree
For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

Radioactive Waste

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Nigeria has National regulations on toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes and is also involved in the implementation of some of the International Convention, Procedures and Protocols on Hazardous/Toxic Wastes and Chemicals, and Radioactive Waste Management. By the year 1998, Nigeria will develop National regulations on the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Toxic Wastes; procedures and protocols on the "Prior Informed Consent" concept for hazardous chemicals in international trade, etc.

In this way, Nigeria wants to achieve 100% compliance with both international and National regulations, standards, and guidelines on hazardous/toxic chemicals and radioactive waste management.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The strategies for the management of radioactive waste include: a) the promotion of ways to minimize and limit the generation of radioactive wastes; b) the development or acquisition of technology for the safe handling of radioactive waste; c) policy development which will make it mandatory to return used radioactive materials to suppliers; and d) banning unauthorized storage or disposal of radioactive wastes.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

In Nigeria, the Hazardous Chemicals and Toxic Wastes Dump Waste Programme was put in place in 1992 following the provisions of the Waste Management Regulations S.I. 15 of 1991. In addition, a total ban on importation, transit, transportation, deposit, and storage of harmful wastes has existed since 1988. Under this programme, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) officials operating at the sea ports in the country can take samples of any suspicious consignment camouflaged as industrial materials for analysis at the Reference Laboratory of the Agency. In addition, FEPA has embarked on chemical tracking by monitoring warehouses and outlets for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of imported chemicals. The effort has succeeded in intercepting a host of banned and expired chemicals as well as toxic wastes camouflaged as raw materials and products.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 * * *

 

This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

| Economic Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |

| Nigeria | All Countries | Home |