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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Nigeria

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


The following institutional mechanisms are involved in identifying environmental problems (hot spots) in Nigeria:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Some of the relevant legislation that have either been reviewed or are under review in response to the possible negative impacts of trade on environment include:

Nigeria has not agreed to the derogation of any specific environmental legislation or regulation as inducement to foreign direct investment. However, there are some provisions which relate to Investment Protection Assurance as follows:

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Since the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in mid 1986, the Federal Government through the National Planning Commission has built into its Rolling Plans trade and payment liberalization measures aimed at achieving SAP objectives. This is in line with the demands of the country's external creditors as expressed through institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank). The policy is also in line with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) protocol on free trade to which Nigeria is a signatory.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 


Nigeria's approach to sustainable development received a boost from the establishment of the VISION 2010 Committee, a body charged with the articulation of a long-term sectoral economic development programme designed to usher the nation into the third millennium. The National Agenda 21 document has, therefore, been prepared to address the environmental implications of this developmental programme.

Status

With the return of the country to democracy, the confidence of foreign investors have been restored in Nigeria. The abolition/review of many restrictive business and financial regulations and the Nigeria’s membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have enhanced the country’s position in multilateral trade system. Concerted effort is also being made to create an enabling environment for attracting foreign investment to Nigeria. In this wise, there has been relative macro-economic stability and pursuits of policy to get price incentives right.

The following are some of the identified export-induced increases in production that have increased environmental problems in Nigeria:

The linkages that have been identified between poverty and trade and investment in Nigeria include:

The major changes in production and consumption patterns in Nigeria due to increases or decreases in trade, investment and economic growth and the environmental impacts of such changes include:

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

Nigeria prepares reports on trade policy review mechanisms which are submitted to World Trade Organisation (WTO) Headquarters in Geneva every 6 years. Reports are also prepared for UNCTAD, World Customs Organisation and Commonwealth on trade measures such as taxes and tariffs. The Nigerian Export Processing Zones Authority submits reports to the World Export Processing Association at Flagship in USA while the Central Bank sends report on balance of payment to IMF and the World Bank. Nigeria also report to the South Investment, Trade and Technology Data Exchange Cooperation (SITTDEC) under the auspices of South – South Cooperation. Apart from these, the country also reports to the Economic Community of West African States on sub-regional trade, investment and economic growth issues particularly in respect of the implementation of the Protocol on Trade and Investment in the sub-region.

The Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) currently provides some of these information on Internet. Their Internet address is www/nipc.nig.org. However, most of these reports are available in hard copies at the originating institutions.

The Nigerian Investment Promotion Council has information on trade, investment and economic growth in internet vide www/nipc.nig.org. Information related to trade, investment and economic growth are also made available by hard copies of reports and various publications. Such publications are available with the originating organizations such as the Central Bank of Nigeria, National Planning Commission, Nigeria Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Nigerian Missions and Embassies abroad.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

The objective of the trade and payment liberalization measures is to encourage a more efficient and rational allocation of available resources through the interaction of market forces, while at the same time allowing local and foreign investors to jointly participate in the development of the economy. The fundamental idea is that in the new market economic climate underlying the SAP, it is absolutely essential that the true value of every resource and the long-term costs of exploiting it is known, budgeted, and paid for.  

Cooperation

Nigeria shares the concern of other developing countries that there will be no linkage between trade and environment in trade negotiations on those aspects that would hamper developmental objectives of the developing countries. Such linkages might lead to the introduction of stringent environmental standards in the trading system which developing countries could find difficult to meet up with from technical and financial standards. A concern is being raised that such standards may become a new form of protectionism. Nigeria is further of the view that any rules that may be developed in the future in the area of environment would not create barriers to trade and should be in consonance with the country’s developmental objectives.

As a demonstration of the Nigerian Government's commitment to the implementation of Agenda 21 and the effective resolution of other global environmental issues, the international environmental conventions signed during the Rio Conference in 1992 were ratified in August 1994. These include the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, was also signed in October 1994. As a mark of seriousness, Nigeria appointed Environmental Attaches at the Nigerian Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, Geneva, and Nairobi. This is in a bid to facilitate environmentally safe and sound technology transfer, bilateral and multilateral partnerships, and effective monitoring of international trafficking of hazardous chemicals and toxic wastes.

The institutional framework has fostered international cooperation between Nigeria and several overseas countries and international organizations aimed at the implementation of sustainable development. In addition, the country has signed memoranda of understanding with many countries in the area of environmental management. Collaborative research and development, which are critical to the enrichment of the applications of science and technology to National development efforts, was fostered through the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology in the activities of a number of international organizations.

This participation included: hosting the 1995 Biennial Conference of the Third World Academy of Science at Abuja; promoting networking of science and technology information and other activities through the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (The Honourable Minister of Science and Technology is the current Chairman for the African Zone); projects funded by the International Foundation for Science (IFS), a body set up to fund Research and Development projects in developing countries in both the private and public sectors (The Ministry is the focal point and Nigeria ranks third among the beneficiaries of the Foundation); contributing to the funds of the African Regional Centre for Technology, a body set up to promote indigenous technology, technical information dissemination, and technology innovation; and the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, a body that supports the participation of member countries' scientists, including those from Nigeria, in training courses in biotechnology and genetic engineering.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and eighth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2000.

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TRADE

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and eighth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2000.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


In Nigeria there exists a number of public institutions that deal with matters of sustainable consumption and production. Such bodies include:

Parallel organisations at State and Local Governments deal with matters of consumption and production at their respective levels.

The Consumer Protection Council was established by Decree No. 66 of 1992. The functions of the Council are to:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Regulatory mechanisms which seek to promote sustainable consumption and production in include:

The available Guidelines include:

EIA Sectorial Guidelines
National Effluent Limitation Regulations 1991
Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Wastes Regulations of 1991
Solid and Hazardous Wastes Management Regulation of 1991.
Guidelines to Investors as contained in the National Policy on Industry:
Expatriate Quota
Product Standards
Investment Guarantee Approval
Technical Fees Agreement and
Management of Industrial Wastes
Expatriate Quota

The Guidelines were established through participatory approach by Government and are all mandatory.

There are tax concessions for oragnisations and individuals with initiatives in production processes. These include:

The following penalties are put in place for erring firms: pollution levies;

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Nigeria’s National Developments Plans have components addressing the issues of sustainable consumption and production patterns.

The National Policy on Environment, VISION 2010, the recently launched National Agenda 21, National Industrial Policy, National Policy on Agriculture, National Trade and Tourism Policy, Cultural Policy and the National Energy Policy, are some of the policies addressing the concerns of sustainable consumption and production patterns in Nigeria.

The above policies, strategies and plans address issues such as:

The following policies, economic instruments, pricing, subsidies, tax incentives and penalties were also put in place to encourage sustainable consumption and production practices:

The following Policy objectives were outlined for the fisheries sector:

To facilitate the achievement of these objectives the following strategies have been adopted:

The following policies are in place for the solid minerals exploitation:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Involvement of Major Groups in the decision-making process: Even though Government is fully committed to the objectives, policies and mechanisms for achieving sustainable development, commitment and genuine involvement of all groups in society to make the attainment of this goal a reality are highly imperative. Towards this end, Government has

Programmes and Projects 

Government in due consultation with the business community has been evolving schemes with great potentials for addressing unsustainable consumption and production patterns. Among such schemes are:

National Gas Conservation, Recovery and Utilization Programme involving:

Oil Spill Control Programme whose special features include:

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Decree of 1992, the special features of which include:

Country Programme for the Phase out of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). This is an Action Plan for the phase-out of ODS in Nigeria financed by the Multilateral fund of the Montreal Protocol. Highlights of this action plan include:

Eco-labelling: The Standards Organisation of Nigeria in collaboration with FEPA are elaborating a general eco-labelling scheme to cover all goods and satisfy all environmental standards. Developing countries, however, believe that eco-labeling in fisheries can be used to their disadvantage.

The above programmes have components focusing on environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of sustainable consumption and production.

Status

Agenda 21 has two principle objectives pertaining to achieving sustainable consumption and production, viz:

Agenda 21 also proffered broad objectives for national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption patterns, and these include:

Nigeria, like most developing countries, is however faced with the dilemma of striving to meet the needs of its poor millions, who have to eke their living from primary productive activities, and maintaining resource and environmental integrity. Striking a balance between poverty alleviation and environmental protection is indeed an onerous task. The necessary institutional base, policies, strategies and some action plans have been put in place. With great determination, a lot of ground has been covered in this area and a lot more is in the offing.

The current level of efficiency in gas conservation, recovery and utilization is at 30%. For instance, the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria Ltd, Onne, Rivers State was commissioned in 1988 to produce nitrogenous fertilizers using natural gas. This reduced the flaring of gas at the gas oil fields. The company also produces over 50MW of electricity using gas turbines. The excess energy generated may be sold to other firms around the area or to National Electricity Power Authority for distribution.

Examples of projects and activities that have significant impacts in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns:

Challenges

A few national targets for enhancing energy and material efficiency, waste reduction, recycling include:

Priority Constraints to implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production include: Insufficient funds;

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Most environmental awareness programmes conducted by the Federal and State Environmental Protection Agencies, NGOs, and CBOs are comprised of modules on sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Provisions for training for the targeted group include:

Through the Federal environmental Protection Agency, Government has evolve a viable partnership with the media by instituting:

Information

Kinds of national information available to assist both decision makers and industry managers to plan and implement appropriate policies and programmes towards sustainable consumption and production include:

Monitoring system in place to oversee enforcement of relevant laws regulations and standards. Statutory monitoring systems exist covering design, construction and operation. The systems include:

Relevant information is made available to decision makers from the Federal Office of Statistics and/or Departments of Planning, Statistics and Information Management of relevant government of private organisations. As of now, not all information can be accessed through the Internet in Nigeria. Information on sustainable consumption and production is made available by means of:

The Raw Materials Research and Development Council has established the Science and Technology Data Bank, Raw Material Display Centres and Catalytic Model Factories to facilitate the adoption of sustainable processing technologies.

The National Planning Commission has been identified as the lead Agency to coordinate the activities of relevant line Agencies in developing appropriate indicators. Towards this end, National Planning Commission has undertaken two major studies of the impact of sectoral and macro policies on the environment. The two studies are:

Research and Technologies  

Methods or processes adopted by some of Nigerian industries in order to attain more sustainable production include: Slim-hole drilling - to reduce land up take and volume of wastes disposed; Use of less toxic, biodegradable drilling fluids to reduce environmental pollution; Use of gas in electricity generation and other power sources within plant; Horizontal Drilling in place of straight line drilling; Seismic acquisition using vibrational energy in place of explosive detonations; Compliance with ISO 9000 and 14000 Series; Compliance with EIA regulations.

Clean and environmentally sound technologies are promoted and applied in production through various ways. The government has established various centres, institutes and councils to research, develop, and promote clean and environmentally sound technologies. In addition, some policy documents published by government (e.g. Nigerian National Policy on Environment, Nigeria's National Agenda 21, Vision 2010, National Policy on Science and Technology, etc.,) emphasize the need for adoption and promotion of clean and environmentally sound technologies. Some of the ways in which clean and environmentally sound technologies are promoted and applied in production include:

Other environmentally sound technologies being practised in Oil and Gas industries include:

There are other technology-related issues being addresses by the government. The issue of eco-labeling is currently under consideration by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the Standards Organisation of Nigeria. Guidelines for Environmental Management System and a Blue print on Waste Management in Nigeria are being finalized.

Financing

Most Programmes and activities in sustainable consumption and production, like other sustainable development issues are financed from sources, including:

Cooperation

The government participates in various activities to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns through bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Some of these activities include:

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and seventh sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1999.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There are several environmental levies, taxes and charges operative in the country. These include: taxes and charges for gas flaring; forest or logging concessions charges; charges for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processing, penalty and charges for environmental pollution; levies for environmental improvement; etc.

The Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) registers all companies with foreign interest up to 100 per cent or in partnership with Nigerians. However, before a registration certificate is granted, the NIPC ensures that the company meets the stipulated guidelines including those that will ensure environmental friendliness. Hence companies involved in specialized practice or manufacture of special products are required to produce additional license certifying them competent to engage in that line of business. These additional certificates are issued by appropriate government agencies such as Ministries of Environment, Petroleum Resources, Science and Technology, Solid Minerals Development, Health and the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. The NIPC undertakes pre-registration inspection to confirm details about the company and post registration monitoring to ensure that they conform to what was approved.

Priority is also given to environmentally friendly projects under the Debt Conversion Programme of the Central Bank of Nigeria. There are examples of other measures:

The reforms and abolition of the Exchange Control Act of 1962 and the consequent liberalization of capital transfers were designed to make foreign direct investment more attractive in general. This is supported by the participation of the Central Bank in the activities of the newly established Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC), which is a one-stop window for assisting foreign investors with regulatory, bureacractic and institutional support for investment in Nigeria. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In the bid to phase out environmentally unsustainable subsidies, the government has recently reviewed its policies in this regard and is currently implementing the policy of privatization and commercialisation of some of these services as a way of removing the subsidies. The Committee on Privatisation and Commercialisation has been set up to ensure the effective implementation of these policies while the private sector is being encouraged to imbibe the culture of bearing the environmental cost of using natural resources in terms of mitigation, restitution and restoration measures.

In Nigeria, the future strategy for internalizing environmental costs through the use of economic instruments for the management of natural resources is based on:

  1. Incorporating environmental costs in the decisions of producers and consumers so as to reverse the tendency to treat the environment as "free goods" and to stop passing these costs on to other parts of society or to future generations;
  2. Moving more fully towards integration of social and environmental costs into economic activities so that prices will appropriately reflect the true value of resources and contribute towards the prevention of environmental degradation (study and campaign 1998 - 1999, phased implementation 2000 - 2005, full reflection of cost by 2010);
  3. Including, wherever appropriate, the use of market principles in the framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable development, in particular, to consider gradually building on experience with economic instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient policies, keeping in mind National plans, priorities, and objectives; and
  4. Achieving full compliance of the "Polluter Pays Principle" by 2010.

The future strategy to meet the financial requirements of environmental protection and natural resource conservation is to:

  1. Ensure adequate annual budgetary provision for policy formulation and implementation of the National Policy on the Environment;
  2. Include in particular the amelioration of key environmental problems;
  3. Create a fund for the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) to administer for rapid response to industrial accidents with significant adverse environmental impact;
  4. Devote greater resources to the alleviation of critical ecological problem in oil producing areas; and
  5. Take full advantage of bilateral and multilateral technical and financial assistance in environmental protection and ensure maximum benefits from financial mechanisms for the implementation of the Conventions and Protocols ratified by Nigeria.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Huge financial investments are needed to implement the various programmes and activities for environmental protection and natural resource conservation. The costs of inaction far outweigh the financial implication of ensuring a safe and healthy environment for present and future generations. A World Bank Report in 1990 estimated the cost of ameliorating only six of the

numerous environmental problems in Nigeria at about US $5 billion annually which is the equivalent to the National budget. Currently, this estimated cost has more than doubled. With increasing pressure on the environment and natural resources, the cost of inaction will rise exponentially and manifest itself in the expansion of desert areas, loss of agriculture and natural resources, decline in agricultural productivity, impaired health of the citizenry, polluted surface and underground waters, coastline encroachment onto prime property and agricultural areas, etc.

Challenges

The major constraint to the implementation of Agenda 21 remains the financial provisions for implementation. The average annual incremental cost of implementing Agenda 21 in developing countries have been estimated at US$ 600 billion out of which only US$ 125 billion or 25% is expected to be contributed by developed countries. This implies that a larger proportion of the money is to be supplied by the developing countries including Nigeria. The country's high debt servicing profile makes this impracticable. Currently about one-third of the annual budget goes into external debt servicing. Accordingly, implementation of Agenda 21 in Nigeria will require the assistance of international, multilateral, and bilateral agencies, such as the United Nations, the World Bank/International Development Association (IDA), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the GEF. A possible assistance option that may be considered by the IMF and the World Bank/lDA is the conversion of the country's debt service flows into investments in environmental management and protection programmes and projects.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

In general, Nigeria submits reports to many multilateral agencies on different aspects of financial matters. These include data on basic macro-economic indicators such as Gross Domestic Product, Balance of Payments, as well as other reports to the World Bank, IMF, World Trade Organization etc. These reports include components on environment. The country is also involved in Global Environmental Facility (GEF) activities and submits reports and project proposals to the GEF Secretariat. These reports are available in hard copies and in electronic format.

Information on sustainable development is currently being made available through reports and hard copy of various publications. Apart from the Internet facility in the Nigerian Investment Promotion Council, information through internet systems is still rudimentary and still being developed.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

The approach of huge expenditure by government on environmental pollution control without adequate implementation of user fees or polluter pays principle amounts to subsidy in the following areas:

The financial mechanisms used to combat poverty in Nigeria focus mainly on the establishment of credit schemes targeted at the poor especially small-scale farmers and cottage industries. Among these are:

Innovative financial mechanisms would also be needed to combat poverty in Nigeria. The erstwhile approach of creating credit schemes in advance of demand for them has proved relatively ineffective in addressing the problem of poverty. This has necessitated the need to restructure these institutions and credit schemes. There is need for other kinds of innovative financial mechanisms to combat poverty:

While appreciating government, non-governmental, international, and individual efforts at providing the financial requirements for environmental protection and natural resource conservation, there is the need to streamline current funding mechanisms to make them more efficient and responsive. Also, in view of the magnitude of environmental problems and the rising cost of amelioration, there is need to provide new and additional financial resources that are both adequate and predictable. This is an essential requirement to halt and reverse the current menace of environment and natural resources degradation.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth and eighth sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: May 2000.

For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Africa from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally-Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


In this programme area, the Nigerian Ministry of Science and Technology has established a new Department for Technology Assessment and Acquisition whose function is to ensure that all technologies acquired for industrial and commercial uses are environmentally friendly. Such acquisition should also be made at fair and competitive prices with non-restrictive clauses with regard to adaptions based on research and development in the use of local raw materials and existing technologies.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The future strategy to promote research and development of environmentally sound technologies is to: a) ensure access to scientific and technological information, including information on state-of-the-art technologies; b) promote, facilitate, and finance as appropriate, the access to and the acquisition of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how; c) facilitate the maintenance and promotion of environmentally sound indigenous technologies that may have been neglected or displaced, paying particular attention to their priority needs and taking into account the complementary roles of men and women; and d) support local capacity-building so as to assess, adopt, manage, and apply environmentally sound technologies. Local capacity building can be supported through human resource development; strengthening institutional capacities for research and development, and programme implementation; integrated sector assessments of technology needs, in accordance with National plans, objectives, and priorities; and promoting long-term technological partnerships between holders of environmentally sound technologies and potential users.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Environmentally sound technologies protect the environment by being less polluting, using all resources in a more sustainable manner, recycling more wastes and bi-products, and handling residual wastes in a more acceptable manner than the technologies for which they are substitutes. Environmentally sound technologies are not just individual technologies, but total systems which include know-how, procedures, goods and services, equipment, and organizational and managerial procedures. This implies that Nigeria's technology acquisition initiative should address human resource development, and local and indigenous capacity-building aspects of technology options.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 


Recently, the Nigerian Government has designed a biotechnology programme for application in industry, agriculture, and medicine. Capacity building and human resources development, and promotion of biotechnology infrastructure are among the objectives of the programme. The following workshops and training seminars have been held for the purpose of capacity building: National Workshop on the National Programme on Biotechnology; training workshop for scientists on fermentation technology and enzyme production; National Training Workshop on Cell and Plant Tissue Culture for 20 scientists; and International Training Course on Biotechnology, Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


The unpleasant side effect of industrialization is the waste generated from industrial processes. These include liquid, gaseous, noise, heat, and solid wastes. Several reports confirm the non-inclusion of waste management provisions in industries sited in Nigeria. However, since the inception of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), progress has been made in enacting laws and creating awareness of the need to install waste handling facilities in industries. These efforts have yielded fruit and the compliance level of industries with National industrial waste management requirements now stand at about 20%. This is good progress in two years since the expiration of the moratorium for compliance. The progress should continue and mechanisms to achieve 80% compliance are being proposed.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  


The strategy to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010 includes: a) review of existing National guidelines and standards; b) intensify public enlightenment campaigns at all levels on the benefits of adequate maintenance, retrofitting, adopting effective technology, ensuring efficient energy use, and increased cost benefit; c) maintain effective databases on industries and their compliance status; d) maintain a register of technologies, vehicles, generating sets, and aircraft for approval for manufacturing and importation; e) eliminate ODS consuming processes; f) enforce laws relating to the siting of new industries; g) instal a minimum of primary treatment for all new industries; h) build secondary central treatment facilities in all major industrial estates in cities such as Lagos, Kano, Kaduna, Port-Harcourt, Warri, Ibadan, and Enugu by 2005; i) invoke the polluter pays principle immediately; j) ensure 100% waste segregation, recycling, and re-use by 1999; k) promote research in Best Available Technology Effective for Local Adoption (BATELA); l) make eco-labelling compulsory for all products by the year 2000; m) promote commercialization of sanitary landfill and incineration as appropriate; n) encourage citizen empowerment in pollution control; o) introduce green technologies and promote Environmental Management Systems (EMS) in all industrial facilities; p) create an environment fund for soft loans as economic incentives for environmentally friendly industries; and q) promote tax rebates for industries installing pollution abatement facilities.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

An important source of pollution is gaseous emissions, especially from fossil fuel burning processes and processes using gas. The obnoxious gases include carbon, nitrous, and sulphur oxides (CO, NOx, SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC), HC, ozone depleting substances (ODS), smoke, and particulates originating from vehicle exhausts, generators, aircraft, boilers, etc. The pollution is a major health hazard. In order to reduce the levels of these gases to tolerable ambient limits, it is important to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.


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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  


The strategy to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010 includes: a) review of existing National guidelines and standards to include vehicles, generating sets, aircraft etc.; b) intensify public enlightenment campaigns at all levels on the benefits of adequate maintenance, retrofitting, adopting effective technology, ensuring efficient energy use, and increased cost benefit; c) maintain a register of technologies, vehicles, generating sets, and aircraft for approval for manufacturing and importation; d) introduce and enforce emission control certificates for vehicles, generating sets, and aircraft by 1999; e) eliminate ODS consuming processes; f) invoke the polluter pays principle immediately; g) ensure 100% waste segregation, recycling and re-use by 1999; h) promote research in Best Available Technology Effective for Local Adoption (BATELA); and i) encourage citizen empowerment in pollution control.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

In Nigeria, gaseous emissions, especially from fossil fuel burning processes and processes using gas, are a source pollution. The obnoxious gases include carbon, nitrous, and sulphur oxides (CO, NOx, SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC), HC, ozone depleting substances (ODS), smoke, and particulates originating from vehicle exhausts, generators, aircraft, boilers, etc. The pollution is a major health hazard with the levels of the gases emitted around highways and runways sometimes 10 times higher than permissible levels in Nigeria, Ghana, Europe, and many other countries. In order to reduce the levels of these gases to tolerable ambient limits, it is important to single out the sources of gaseous emissions and maintain them at the level of full compliance by the year 2010.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: 1 April 1997.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   


This submission is based on the input of members of the sub-committee as expressed at two meetings of the team held on Thursday, 11th and 18th March, 1999 as well as written contributions made by relevant establishments. The guidelines provided by the CSD secretariat on its forthcoming 7th session formed the basis of the submission on the subject matter. Membership of the Sub-Committee on Sustainable Tourism include the following: Alhaji Umar Yabo, Chair and Director, Legal Services/Council Secretary, FEPA - Abuja; Chief Ndem Kalu, Director, National Orientation Agency, Abuja; Mr. T. A. Ogunfemi, Fed. Min. of Commerce/Tourism, Garki - Abuja; Mr. John Akumba Adzer, Deputy Director (Marketing/Promotion), Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation, Abuja; Mr. H. A. Maha, Assistant General Manager, National Parks Board Headquarters - Abuja; Mr. M. K. Ibrahim, Minister Counsellor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja; Mr. Samuel Soughul , National Orientation Agency, Abuja; and Mrs. C. A. Owolabi, Secretary, and Deputy Director, International and Public Affairs Department, FEPA - Abuja.

The establishments responsible for sustainable tourism at the national level are:

The administrative bodies responsible for tourism at the local level are:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

There are laws and other regulatory mechanisms which seek to ensure sustainable tourism and that set aside specific areas or preserves for eco-tourism and nature-based tourism.

Existing codes of practice, standards and guidelines for the activities of industry in sustainable tourism include the following:

These instruments have been established by both government and industry, and they are mandatory. Industry and consumers have been essentially cooperative with regards to their reaction to the existing codes, standards and guidelines.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is a Tourism Plan/Policy prepared by the TPL Associates. Other existing policies, strategies and plans include essentially: The National Policy on the Environment (1989) Nigeria's National Agenda 21(1999) The Forestry Policy Trade and Tourism Policy (1990) The National Housing Policy The National Commission on Museums and Monuments Policy The National Policy on Information (Tourism section) The National Endangered Species Decree No.11 (1985) Vision 2010: The Environment Agenda (1998) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (1998) The National Tourism Strategy Oil Minerals Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC) Decree The National Conservation Strategy (1985).

Issues relevant to sustainable tourism covered by the policies and strategies include the following:

Eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are integral parts of the National Strategies and Policies identified in above.

There are also established procedures to continuously monitor the progress of tourism development in order to make the necessary corrections or revisions to ensure sustainability. There are deterrents in these strategies, as well, in form of fines and penalties to check, control or penalize damaging environmental practices on the part of business and visitors.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Involvement of Major Groups in the decision-making process:

Government adopts the participatory approach in its decision making process on sustainable tourism. It therefore, involves the nine major groups identified in Agenda 21 in various stages of the process. Ways in which each of the major groups makes efforts on their part include the following:

Programmes and Projects 

Major Programmes Major programmes in effect to promote sustainable tourism include the following:

Eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are being promoted through:

other contributions to promote eco-tourism and nature-based tourism by the private sector include:

Status

Tourism plays a potentially vital role in the country's economy including: employment creation, generation of foreign exchange, attraction of investors, updating of people's knowledge, cross-fertilization of technological and educational know-how; cultural interaction; and promotion of cultural awareness, rural and urban integration.

The growth of tourism over the past 10 years (1988 to 1999) has not been very encouraging. This growth is however, likely to be more within the next decade.

The current impact of tourism on other issues related to sustainable development, viz: social, institutional and cultural, including the preservation of cultural heritage: Its current impacts on the environment have not been established to be adverse and effort is being intensified in this regard to ensure that the environment faces no significant adverse impact.

A few illustrative activities geared both to sustainable tourism, eco-tourism and nature-based tourism include the following:

Challenges

Major constraints to pursuing sustainable tourism include:

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Available training facilities for employees in the tourism industry geared towards assisting them in understanding, applying and promoting sustainable tourism include:

There are specific programmes to educate policy makers in the concept and policy design of sustainable tourism. These include national and international workshops, conferences and seminars organized by relevant establishments including the following:

Various types of programmes/awareness campaigns on sustainable tourism are being carried out in the country through print and electronic media as well as youth tourism clubs established for secondary school students among others. The parties involved in this effort are both public and private tourism and conservation agencies at the federal, state and local government levels. Examples include the Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation, the National Parks Board, State Tourism Boards, the Nigerian Conservation Foundation, etc.

Various tourist centres such as the National Parks, Sanctuaries, Beaches among others are being used for the promotion of sustainable tourism. These are in addition to publications produced for the creation of awareness and the promotion of the concept among the populace.

There is a lot of room for improvement with regards to the marketing of tourism products in the country so that they are specifically geared towards attracting environmentally-conscious tourists. There is need for increased awareness on this.

Information

Kinds of available information to assist both decision makers and the tourism industry in promoting sustainable tourism include:

Mapping and inventorying of natural resources and ecosystem characteristics has been done in tourist areas of the country. However, there is need for regular update.

Relevant information is made available to potential users through electronic and print media nationally, regionally and internationally as well as provision of information brochures particularly at the nation's foreign offices (overseas desks).

Activities are underway in Nigeria to develop sustainable development indicators related to sustainable tourism, eco-tourism and nature-based tourism including the establishment of an Advisory Expert Group on Sustainable Tourism Indicators which will work with communities to identify the indicators and submit a report for consideration through the participatory approach at a National Workshop on Sustainable Tourism, Eco-tourism and Nature-based Tourism.

Research and Technologies  


Technology related issues that need to be addressed include the following:

Environmental management systems are applied in most hotels and other tourists establishments.

Financing

Activities in this area are financed from the national budget and state allocation. Other sources of funding include private sector partnership and external support.

Cooperation

Nigeria has model sustainable tourism destinations abroad - these are commercial desks and service information centres at the Nigerian Embassies and High Commissions. Indirect assistance from these model destinations relates to promotion of awareness on sustainable tourism.

The nature of cooperation with Local Authorities in promoting sustainable tourism comprise the following:

Cooperation by the private sector comprise essentially provision of facilities and funding for tourism, partnership with Non-Governmental Organizations for establishment of such facilities and for relevant activities geared towards awareness and promotion of sustainable tourism.

Bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation frameworks/agreements in which the country participates in order to further activities related to sustainable tourism, eco-tourism, and nature-based tourism include the following:

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Nigeria to the seventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: April 1999.

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