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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NEW ZEALAND

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Development Cooperation Division (DEV) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) .  Other New Zealand Government line agencies are involved as appropriate.  New Zealand is a strong supporter of the Barbados Programme of Action for Small Island Developing States.

Coordination is achieved through regular contact between ministries and relevant aid agencies.  Any matters requiring  ministerial attention are drafted into widely circulated papers. The Development Cooperation Division regularly seeks input from relevant agencies where specialist expertise is lacking in MFAT and where line agency input to policy implementation is likely.

Decision making is retained at central government level via MFAT, although the participation of other agencies/ representatives of civil society is generally sought.  Decision making on the one NZODA program of special relevance to sustainable development (The Pacific Initiative for the Environment) is informed by a non central Government advisory group.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

There are a variety of measures to support agencies and initiatives linked to sustainable development.  Examples include: The Pacific Initiative for the Environment; the International Development Association; The Asian Development Fund; the United Nations Development Program; the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation; the Global Environment Facility; the IBRD; IFC; ADB; the International Fund for Agricultural Development;  and the Commission on Sustainable Development.  NZ also facilitates small island state involvement in sustainable development activities including through specific programs delivered to the Alliance of Small Island States and to the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission.

New Zealand has been at the forefront of efforts to improve the multilateral trading system including through active participation in the WTO, the Cairns Group and through the promotion of bilateral and sub regional initiatives involving Australia, Asian, Pacific and American trade partners.  Import licensing has been removed, trade distorting subsidies have been dismantled and tariffs lowered or eliminated on most traded goods and services. The deregulation of domestic markets has permitted greater competition, including for foreign firms.  The government recently announced that it will grant all Least Developed Countries duty free access from 1 July 2001. In addition, least developed and South Pacific countries already benefit from non reciprocal trade preferences. New Zealand does not maintain any quotas.  Work is ongoing on improving mutual recognition of standards and conformance.

Two regional schemes: Asian Development Assistance Fund (ADAF) and Pacific Island Investment Development (PIDS) scheme are designed to link the New Zealand private sector with developing country private sector initiatives.  Sustainability is a principal policy directive in each.  NZODA is also piloting a Public/Private Sector Partnership (PPP) scheme to assist the development of robust in-country public and private sector joint ventures for environmentally sustainable development.   NZODA is also the principal donor assisting the development of innovative and private sector linked mechanisms for funding Pacific Island biodiversity conservation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Regional integration and cooperation in sustainable development including environmental protection: 

New Zealand is a founding member of the Pacific Forum, a regional grouping of 16 member states dedicated to regional cooperation.   It actively contributes to the South Pacific Regional Environment Program and the Round Table for Nature Conservation.

Mobilization of domestic and external financial resources for development cooperation:

NZODA actively seeks opportunities to add value and provide leveraging.  For example, one of the six weighting criteria of the Pacific Initiative fo rthe Environment is focused on adding value and providing leverage.  The Pacific Island Investment Development Scheme (PIIDS) provides an example of official co-funding incentives including for commercial development opportunities.  Support is also given to NZ-based NGOs active in the field of international development cooperation. 

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Representatives of NGOs, civil society, Maori and women sit on an Environment Advisory Group overseeing The Pacific Initiative for the Environment.  Linkages with these and other major groups are maintained by ODA administrators on an ongoing basis including with the scientific community and private sector.  A public outreach program targeting major groups is expected to be launched as part of NZ’s preparations to the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

All delivery and implementation of NZODA projects is via NGOs, multilateral and regional implementing agencies and the private sector (which includes Crown Research Institutes and Crown Owned Enterprises).  Close links are maintained with government agencies responsible for women, indigenous people, labour, science, commerce, and farming.   NZODA seeks to foster private and public sector cooperation both generally and via specific schemes noted above (PIIDS, ADAF, PPP).  Project implementation/delivery is contracted to private sector agents in most cases.

People employed in inefficient and uncompetitive economic activities have been the most likely to be exposed to competitive pressures arising from trade liberalisation and globalisation.  The New Zealand government offers a variety of measures including social welfare benefits and education and training support to assist in the protection of livelihoods.

Programmes and Projects   

Contributions include:  UNDP, UNDP Capacity 21, UN Capital Development Fund; OCHA, WFP, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNFPA, UN Fund for Mine Clearance, UNIFEM, UNDCP, UNIDO, WHO:  Tropical Diseases Research, UN Human Rights Program, Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Forum Secretariat, Pacific Community, Forum Fisheries Agency, University of the South Pacific, South Pacific Board for Educational Assessments.

All NZODA must comply with guiding principles enshrining sustainable development objectives.

-     Natural resource protection;                                   ___ %

-     Poverty eradication;                                               ___ %

-     Capacity building;                                                   ___ %

-     Policy formulation, planning, governance.                ___ %

It is not possible at this stage to break down NZODA expenditure according to the criteria requested.  However, the Pacific Initiative for the Environment is broadly spread as follows:

            -  Natural Resource Protection                                      30%

            -  Poverty Eradication                                                     0%

            -  Capacity Building                                                       20%

            -  Policy formulation, , planning, governance.                 40%

South Pacific Island states have received non-reciprocal duty free access to the New Zealand market since 1980 (the SPARTECA Agreement).  The Government has also recently announced that it will grant all Least Developed Countries duty free access to our market from 1 July 2001.  New Zealand does not maintain any quotas.

Status 

We are reviewing this issue in the context of CSD 10.

New Zealand Official Development Assistance has been steadily increasing in recent years.  It increased by 35% over 1995-1999, from NZ$187.6m to NZ$253.2m. Over this period bilateral ODA increased by 29%,; multilateral assistance increased by 57%, and Emergency Relief (included in the Bilateral Program) by 78%.

It is estimated that the private flows to developing countries from New Zealand voluntary agencies (NGOs) decreased by 11% over the 1995-99 period.  It is also worth noting there are significant private remittances flowing from New Zealand to Pacific Island states.

 

 

$NZ '000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

TOTAL NZODA

187,595

176,901

232,914

243,637

253,204

Bilateral

148,464

148,464

170,897

184,254

191,732

Multilateral

39,132

28,638

62,017

59,383

61,473

Emergency Relief

3,322

4,113

5,077

3,822

5,907

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total NGO flows

27,021

23,403

22,990

23,262

24,025

 

 

 

Percentage Increases

 

 

 

 

 

 

95 to 96

96 to 97

97 to 98

98 to 99

TOTAL NZODA

-6

32

5

4

Bilateral

0

15

8

4

Multilateral

-27

117

-4

4

Emergency Relief

24

23

-25

55

 

 

 

 

 

Total NGO Flows

-13

-2

1

3

Challenges  

The nebulous nature of sustainable development concepts and policies are difficult to bring together in a coherent and tangible way.  Coordinating and managing social policy and economic policy to ensure development in environmentally sustainable ways remains the key challenge. 

At the operational level, challenges are experienced in developing locally‑owned strategies for sustainable development which translate through into a genuine focus for action.  Donor coordination within such nationally owned strategies, once developed, is a further challenge.  The concept of partnership between donor and developing countries varies between donors as well as between developing countries.

Bringing sustainable development concepts to the top of the agenda of most major groups remains a challenge.  Coordinating diverse interests also presents challenges, particularly when attempting to establish an agreed framework for action upon which partnership can be based.

Institutional challenges include overcoming a lack of support among vested interest groups.  Planning for structural adjustment must be done to ensure maximum payoffs from an enhanced competitive environment.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Additional funds have been allocated in 2000/01 to a program of communications aimed to ensure improved public understanding of international development issues including that of sustainability and the role and contribution of New Zealand’s Official Development Assistance.  Information is channeled through secondary schools curricula, NGO’s and community groups.  Media people have been targeted for familiarisation visits to Pacific aid projects and a public outreach program of seminars on NZODA has been introduced this year.

Development of Best Practice Guidelines for international development consultants.

An Education and Training Plan has been devised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade for staff working in its Development Cooperation Division.

All categories are targeted by the DEV Education and Training Plan.  In addition, NZ has used the PIE to fund an environment training needs assessment for the Pacific region and, as with NZODA bilateral programs, will respond to requests from developing partners accordingly

Information   

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade publishes a wide variety of reports on international cooperation activities, reports annually to parliament, and maintains a public access website at  www.mft.govt.nz.  The Ministry regularly contacts interest groups using telecommunications and internet facilities.  Seminars and workshops feature on the Ministry’s calendar of events.  The Development Cooperation Division of the Ministry offers an internet address of its own: dev@mft.govt.nz. 

Research and Technologies   

New Zealand is supportive of international initiatives to promote technology transfer for sustainable development.  It has ratified treaties which include technology transfer objectives and contributes to multilateral funding facilities utilised for the same ends.    NZ Official Development Assistance programs include strong know-how transfer components and educational themes.

Effective synergies can be achieved between the public and private sectors in promoting environmentally sound technologies.   Commercial imperatives are respected by the public sector, which in turn creates economic opportunities for firms and offers cost-effective and commercial solutions to development partners. 

The delivery of assistance projects in developing countries involves the tendering and award of supply contracts.  Contracts can be structured to promote environmentally sound technologies, in accordance with partner country requirements.  Penalties exist for breaches of copyright and patents to guard against the abuse of intellectual property rights

Financing   

New Zealand Official Development Assistance currently equates to 0.27% of GNP.  This has increased from 0.23% in 1995.

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

0.23

0.21

0.26

0.27

0.27

 

Private financial flows and multilateral fund facilities are the other major sources for sustainable development funding.

Cooperation

As a country heavily dependent on trade, New Zealand is fully committed to the liberalisation of the multilateral trading system. New Zealand also recognises that strong protection of the global and national environment is necessary to maintain its natural resource base in order to ensure long-term economic vitality. New Zealand strongly supports multilateral efforts to make trade and the environment mutually supportive. New Zealand's position is based upon the principles endorsed by the international community at UNCED and enshrined in relevant trade agreements.

New Zealand participates in the OECD Joint Session of Trade and Environment Experts (JEG) and the World Trade Organisation's Committee on Trade and Environment (WTO CTE) (preceded by the GATT Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade (EMIT).

New Zealand takes an active role in multilateral fora related to sustainable development and has signed and ratified numerous treaties which include sustainable development objectives.  Examples of fora in which New Zealand is active include:  OECD; the UN and its agencies such as the CSD, UNEP, UNDP; the Forum Fisheries Agency; South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission; the Pacific Community; the Pacific Islands Forum; International Whaling Commission; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; the Valdivia Group.

NZ is party to agreements, treaties, conventions and protocols related to sustainable development including those with effect in the following areas: weapons and disarmament; biodiversity; fisheries; the seabed and oceans; endangered species; conservation; Antarctica; timber; wetlands; development cooperation; trade; environment; health; intellectual property; energy; commodities; and agriculture.  Specific examples are listed in an annex to this paper. 

New Zealand has entered into numerous agreements with trade provisions including those which promote freer trade, the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, the application of veterinary and health standards, the control of hazardous or dangerous substances, and the control of trade in certain species.

Active participation in international and regional negotiations on Agenda 21 outcomes.    Support to SPREP in design and implementation of Agenda 21 programs.  Pacific Initiative for the Environment targets assistance to Agenda 21 implementations.

Pacific Round Table for Nature Conservation and Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research activities.

 

 ANNEX I

Multilateral Sustainable Development Treaties

to which New Zealand is either Signatory or Party

as at 20 December 2000

 

1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation: Annex 16

1951 International Plant Protection Convention

1956 Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and Pacific Region

1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Testing in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water

1967 Treaty on Principles Governing Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies

1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (and 1982 Protocol)

1971 Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass  Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof

1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage caused by Space Objects

1972 Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals

1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (and 1996 Protocol)

1973 International Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (and 1979 Bonn Amendment)

1973 Protocol relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances other than Oil

1978 International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

1979 Convention on the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency

1979 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the  Sea

1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

1986 Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the South Pacific Region by Dumping

1986 Protocol concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution Emergencies in the South Pacific Region

1986 Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region

1987 Treaty on Fisheries between the Governments of Certain Pacific island States and the United States of America

1987 Agreement among Pacific Island States concerning Implementation and Administration of the US Tuna Treaty (and 1992 and 1999 Amendments)

1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (and 1990 London Amendment, 1992 Copenhagen Amendment, 1997 Montreal Amendment and 1999 Beijing Amendment)

1988 Wellington Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities

1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal

1989 Convention for the prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific

1990 International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation

1991 Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (and 1991 Bonn Annex V)

1992 Convention on Biological Diversity

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (and 1997 Kyoto Protocol)

1992 Niue Treaty on Cooperation in Fisheries Surveillance and Law Enforcement in the South Pacific Region

1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly Africa.

1993 Convention for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

1993 Agreement establishing the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme

1994 International Tropical Timber Agreement

1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of UNCLOS

1994 Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation

1995 Waigani Convention to Ban the Importation into Forum Island Countries of Hazardous  and Radioactive Wastes and to Control the Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within the South Pacific Region

1995 Amendments to the Agreement establishing the International Fund for Agricultural Development of 13 June 1976

1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of UNCLOS relating tot he Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks

1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

2000 Convention on Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

 

 

* * *



This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on SustainableDevelopment.  Last update:  March 2001.

For national information on international cooperation and trade, click here:

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TRADE

No information is available.

 

* * *

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For national information on international cooperation and trade, click here:

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

There is no single agency that focuses specifically on sustainable consumption and production, but a variety of agencies deal with related issues. The Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade are the coordinating agencies for the purposes of CSD liaison and communication.

Other central agencies involved with sustainable consumption and production issues are the following:

The local government is New Zealand is responsible for implementing the Resource Management Act. This legislation aims to promote sustainable management of natural and physical resources. The local governments consists of:

Both regional councils and territorial authorities are directly elected and set their own rates. Regional councils have a chairperson elected by their members, while territorial authorities have a mayor elected by the people. Functions of territorial authorities include land use consents under the Resource Management Act, noise control, litter control, roading, water supply, sewage reticulation and disposal, rubbish collection and disposal, parks and reserves, libraries, land subdivision, pensioner housing, health inspection, building consents, parking controls and civil defence. Functions of regional councils are generally more limited and include management of air quality, bulk water supply, regional roads and parks and public passenger transport planning.

The organisation representing interests of local government authorities is Local Government, New Zealand.

New Zealand, as an open democracy, offers a variety of opportunities for the participation of major groups in the formulation of policy and the development and operation of legislation. These include the use of public discussion documents, public meetings, hui, and other forms of consultation during the formulation of policies, strategies, and plans; and written and oral submissions to parliamentary committees and members of parliament during the formulation of legislation.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation includes the Resource Management Act of 1991 and the Fisheries Act of 1996. Legislation and regulations for a number of minimum energy performance standards have been formulated but await an opportunity in the legislative programme. Currently, the Government's efforts in this area favour the use of voluntary mechanisms, education and the provision of information.

In addition, the following codes or practice, standards and guidelines apply:

These codes and standards are all voluntary. The Ministry for the Environment's cleaner production programme until 1997 sought to increase industry uptake of cleaner production via direct involvement of central government. However, since 1997, there has been a move to industry leadership of such initiatives (with the help of local and central government) in order to maximise voluntary uptake of sustainable production.

New Zealand does not have a single set of consumer guidelines. Consumer protection is provided through a series of legislation such as the Fair Trading Act, Commerce Act, Consumer Guarantees Act, and the Unsolicited Goods and Services Act. These are all consistent with the 1985 United Nations Guidelines from Consumer Protection and have a focus on the provision of accurate information as their basis.

The Fair Trading Act covers the advertising and promotion of goods and making sure consumers get accurate information about products on offer. The Consumer Guarantees Act covers the rights and responsibilities of consumes and retailers after goods or services have been purchased. The Commerce Act provides the regulatory framework for promoting competition in markets within New Zealand. The Unsolicited Goods and Services Act provides protection for the receipients of unsolicited goods. For more information, note the Web Site link, below.

Among the specific policy and economic instruments in this area are the following:

Polluter pays: New Zealand's waste management policy seeks to ensure that, as far as practicable, waste generators meet the costs of managing the waste they produce. For example, effluent discharge penalties are imposed under the Resource Management Act.

Road user charges: Weight and distance charges are imposed for all vehicles using diesel fuel. The revenue from this goes throuigh Transfund into the National Road Account.

Climate change economic instruments: New Zealand is currently beginning a public consultation process aimed to assist in formulating a domestic response to Kyoto Protocol commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Among the instruments being considered to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from production processes are a carbon charge and emissions trading regime.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no single national strategy, policy or multi-year work programme that directly addresses the concerns of sustainable consumption and production patterns. There are, however, several strategies and policies that promote these concerns, including:

Among the specific issues which such strategies and policies address are the following:

Details follow.

Material efficiency: See cleaner production, below.

Energy efficiency: New Zealand's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authoritiy, established in 1992, launched an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 1994 contains a range of practical measures to (a) increase energy efficiency and (b) encourage the development of non-traditional renewable energy sources. Highlights of the Strategy include:

Increasing awareness for sustainable consumption:

New Zealand has an open and non-discriminatory government purchasing policy that operates in the context of a decentralised and deregulated approach to public sector management as a whole. There are no laws, regulations or central controls relating specifically to government procurement, including for purchase of goods or services based on environmental considerations. For more information on New Zealand's public procurement policy, link tothe Web Site, below.

In addition, New Zealand carries out the following programmes in partnership with industries, consumer associations and others:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement   

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Energy efficiency within the public sector: The Government Energy Efficiency Leadership Programme (GEELP) was launched in September 1993. The programme seeks to reduce energy costs within the public sector and provide a role model for the industrial and commercial sectors to follow. Previously, the performance agreements of state sector chief executives included energy efficiency requirements. Now that this is no longer the case, voluntary Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) are used to demonstrate departmental commitments to energy efficiency. To date, MOUs have been signed by 31 of 37 departments and organisations currently participating in the GEELP. Progress is monitored through the use of Key Performance Indicators rather than quantitative analysis. The performance indicators include the appointment of an energy manager, data reporting, monitoring and targeting, implementation, an energy management plan, and staff education.

Reducing wastes from production and promoting recycling

Cleaner Production: The New Zealand Government promotes cleaner production through:

Recycling: As mentioned above, the New Zealand Government's waste management policy encompasses recycling. While the emphasis is on waste prevention from the beginning, recycling is an important part of waste management.

Promoting the use of new and renewable sources of energy is also included in the Energy Efficiency Strategy.

Using environmentally-sound technologies for sustainable production is facilitated through the cleaner production database.

Reducing wasteful consumption. The minimisation of domestic and municipal waste is promoted through:

Status   

New Zealand's approach to setting targets differs from that in other countries. Rather than setting upper limits of pollution/discharges, New Zealand sets bottom lines. The Resource Management Act requires that the effects of activities must not compromise the sustainable management of the country's natural and physical resources. This means that New Zealand does not regulate activities, but their effects. Legislation also contains a general prohibition against any discharge to land, air or water unless a consent is obtained or the discharge is allowed under a district or regional plan. Again, the bottom line is sustainable management.

The Government's Environment 2010 Strategy , contains a framework of overarching goals for the environment. These goals are qualitative, not quantitative. Among these goals are:

All sustainable production initiatives in industry in New Zealand are undertaken on a voluntary basis. Methods or processes adopted by some industries have included:

Central and local government agencies commission a variety of research activities relative to sustainable consumption and production to meet their particular information requirements (for example to assist the development of environmental policies).

Some examples of projects and activities that have had significant impacts in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns are:

Challenges  

Financial constraints may affect the ability of agencies to implement effective programmes to address issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production. However, a more binding constraint is likely to be that businesses see the benefits of more sustainable production processes accruing primarily to the community rather than to them, while they face the direct costs of putting such processes in place.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Government:

Industry:

The packaging industry has developed an education strategy.

Others:

Various non-governmental organisations in New Zealand promote sustainable consumption and production. An example is The Natural Step Environment Foundation Aotearoa New Zealand, a charitable trust and a subsidiary of the Natural Step International. The Natural Step outlines four system conditions required for sustainable production and use of resources, and recognises that sustainability must be achieved by building consensus between all sectors of the community: government, industry, environmental organisations, the scientific community, households and individuals.

Some awareness campaigns are operating at the local government level. An example is the Wellington Regional Council's water conservation awareness campaign.

Information   

National level indicators of the state of New Zealand's environment are currently being developed and trialed as part of the Ministry for the Environment's environmental performance indicators programme. The current priority is to pilot and implement indicators for air, freshwater, land, ozone, and climate change. These will be trialed over the next two years and fully implemented in 2000. At the same time, work is continuing to confirm indicators for the marine environment, terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, and waste, hazardous substances, and toxic contaminants. Indicators for transport, energy, pests, weeds, and diseases are to follow. Current plans provide for these latter sets of indicators to be implemented in the period 2000-2005. The aim is to have a set of core environmental indicators in place by the turn of the century.

Indicators of waste, transport and energy will be particularly important for increasing consumption and production patterns. Indicators developed at the national level may also be useful for monitoring trends at local and industry levels.

To date, specific but ad hoc measures of environmental quality and improvement have been used in New Zealand, such as those reported in the comprehensive 1997 report The State of New Zealand's Environment.

Information on consumption and production patterns in New Zealand revealed in The State of New Zealand's Environment includes:

Existing information to assist policy makers, industry and the general public is available from disparate sources and includes:

The Ministry for the Environment monitors implementation of the Resource Management Act using a variety of methods, including case studies and an Annual Survey of Local Authorities.

The effectiveness of legislation, regulations and standards in contributing to improved environmental outcomes is monitored through the Ministry for the Environment's environmental performance indicators programme. Once the full suite of indicators is established, consistent information on environmental trends will be used to review and reform policies and research initiatives on a risk basis.

The Ministry for the Environment's website allows access to environmental data as part of its environmental performance indicators programme. As data on indicators is collected, it will be aggregated and reported online. A five-year cycle of rolling reports on different parts of the environment is also planned for future reporting on the state of New Zealand's environment.

Publications: (Note Ministry for the Environment publications are generally available on its website, address shown below).

Research and Technologies 

New Zealand has developed, with a local government body (the Auckland Regional Council) a national on-line database of cleaner production case studies. (Please see link, below.)

Other technology-related issues that are being addressed include:

Financing   

Some of these activities are financed by baseline Governmental funding to the Ministry for the Environment and other government agencies; others are funded through fixed-duration (non-baseline) funding to the Ministry for the Environment and other agencies.

The New Zealand Government also commissions research and activities in this area using the following special public funds:

Public Good Science Fund (PGSF): This is the New Zealand Governments major strategic research fund with NZ$290.7 million allocated in the 1998/99 financial year. Public Good Science is defined as that which:

Crown Research Institutes (CRIs), universities, polytechnics, Research Associations (RAS), Research Organisations (ROS), businesses and private individuals who have the ability to undertake a research programme and are based in New Zealand may apply for PGSF support.

Marsden Fund: The Marsden Fund was established to support excellent research and researchers and to enhance the quality of the research environment by creating increased opportunity to undertake research that is purely curiosity-driven. Research funded from the Marsden Fund is not subject to priorities set by government. The Marsden Fund places emphasis on high quality research on fostering the best researchers, including young scientists, and on enhancing the international reputation of New Zealand science. The Marsden Fund complements the Public Good Service Fund (PGSF) and in doing so is not expected to fund research which is clearly more appropriate to the PGSF.

Sustainable Management Fund: The Ministry for the Environment administers a Sustainable Management Fund (SMF) to pay for research needs in the area of sustainable management. The SMF has an annual budget of approximately NZ$5.0 million to support community initiatives that help achieve the Government's environmental management priorities. Among the initiatives funded are:

Lotteries Board: Environment and Heritage Grants.

Voluntary adoption of eco-efficient and cleaner production practices by industry is generally self-funded.

Cooperation  

New Zealand participates in international fora, including, CSD, OECD, APEC, UNEP, the Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC), and the South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP), the work programmes of which (particularly CSD and OECD) often involve sustainable consumption and production matters.

* * * 

 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th and 7th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: December 1998.

Click here for the Ministry for the Environment (including MfE publications listed above):

For national information on pollution and waste management, click here:

Click here for information on waste in New Zealand.

For information on New Zealand's waste management policy, click here.

Click here for the website of the Auckland Regional Council.

Click here for an update on recycling initiatives in New Zealand.

For information on the Environmental Choice eco-label, click here.

For information on New Zealand's environmental education strategy, click here.

Click here for New Zealand's public procurement policy.

Click here for more information on consumer legislation.

For more information on climate change economic instruments, click here.

For more information on the environmental performance indicators programme, click here.

Information on indicators is also available here.

Click here for information on specifications for products being registered under the Environmental Choice eco-label.

Click here for Cleaner Production (Auckland Regional Council)

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

Through the Official Development Assistance (NZODA) programme, New Zealand contributes to the promotion of sustainable development in developing countries. Many New Zealand development assistance projects have helped to address environmental problems and provide strategies for sustainable development. These include agro-forestry, soil conservation, land-use planning, water resources management, fisheries research and management, aquaculture, geothermal and hydro-electricity planning, environmental education and management training, and forestry conservation.

The small island states of the South Pacific are the major focus of New Zealand's ODA program. Some 47% of the total ODA figure, that is about NZ$77 million, goes towards programs in the South Pacific. The main part of this allocation consists of NZ$64.9 million for bilateral country programs in the Pacific. This assistance goes mainly to the Polynesian and Melanesian countries with which New Zealand has traditional links, mainly as members of the Commonwealth. Some NZ$2.3 million goes towards regional programs which includes sectoral programmes in education, health, women-in-development, agriculture, good governance, economic development and trade, as well as programs in private sector development. In addition, NZODA contributes some NZ$9.5 million to the work of regional agencies in the South Pacific. The regional agencies receiving NZODA support include:

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

In the context of NZODA, capacity building is one of the guiding principles of NZ's development assistance programme. In the Pacific region (the main focus of NZODA) there is a new programme of assistance under development which has capacity development for environment management as its underlying theme. Key policy within this framework is for fully participatory project design and implementation, and for flexibility in the programme to assist the process of participation at appropriate paces and lengths of commitment.

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

In terms of tools and methodologies that have been developed to assess and monitor progress in the area of capacity-building, for NZODA projects participatory monitoring is developed at the project level, and mid term reviews and evaluations provide for periodic adjustment/better targeting of projects. Management Services Consultants are contracted by NZODA to supply oversight, facilitation and technical input to major project areas. Regional networking, information exchange ,workshopping and tool development is supported by NZODA for regional priorities such as the development of community based approaches to sustainable development.

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

The New Zealand Government recognises the urgent need for international cooperation to achieve sustainable social and economic development. At UNCED, New Zealand agreed to commit new and additional resources for sustainable development projects of global environmental benefit and has since taken a decision to contribute financially to the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), including an amount of NZ$10.4 million to the 1994-96 replenishment. About half of this is supplementary to the assessed share.

At UNCED, New Zealand joined other developed countries in reaffirming its commitment to reach the accepted UN target of 0.7 % of GNP for ODA. It noted, however, that the availability of additional ODA resources would have to be considered by the Government in the context of domestic economic circumstances. In 1995/96, the total ODA allocation of New Zealand was approximately 0.23% of the country's GNP. The major part of this (over 80%) is an allocation of NZ$164.670 million for the bilateral and multilateral programmes, administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.


* * * 

 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and 1998. Last update: April 1998.

For information on the New Zealand Sustainable Management Fund, click here:
For information on other national financing issues, click here:
and here:
For information on participating States in the Global Environment Facility, click here:
For information about issues and projects in Asia and and the Pacific from the World Bank, click here:

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TECHNOLOGY

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry for the Environment is investigating options for information on, and encouragement towards, cleaner production techniques. The Ministry, working with industry, regional and local authorities, and other sector groups, has also established a number of cleaner production demonstration projects throughout the country. Although there are no central databases on environmentally sound technologies, nor any Government initiatives targeted specifically at environmentally sound technologies, information on environmentally sound technologies is held by a wide variety of independent and quasi-government agencies. Some examples include the Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) for building-related technologies; Telarc, for environmentally- friendly products; and Tradenz for commercial ventures. Some sector-based government departments and regional councils are active in promoting and distributing information on specific aspects of environmentally sound technology, such as energy conservation and efficiency.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Legislation is in place to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) and include the Patents Act 1953, the Designs Act 1953 and the Trade Marks Act 1953. These are compatible with applicable international agreements. However, the Acts are not specifically concerned with promoting investments related to the transfer of technologies.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no overall government mechanism for identifying and promoting environmentally sound technologies. Government policy has avoided intervention in terms of evaluation and promotion of particular technologies. It has been decided that the market provides the most effective mechanism for achieving this, because individual firms are in the best position to assess their needs and to influence market outcomes. Government policy has been against the establishment of cumbersome and bureaucratic mechanisms such as might be required to attempt centralised efforts to identify and promote environmentally sound technologies. The Government believes that historical deficiencies have arisen when institutions have been supply-driven (rather than demand-driven). When government has intervened, it has been on specific issues, such as energy efficiency, and has involved promoting objectives rather than specific technologies. Government policy has also been aimed at lowering the costs of doing business in and from New Zealand and removing impediments to business. For example, the Government's tariff reduction programme would assist those companies importing EST's in that tariffs are essentially a tax on imports and the majority of EST's are imported.

Broadly, however, there are incentives to identify and implement the most environmentally sound technologies available for any particular activity. In the context of the Resource Management Act which is effects based and concentrates on the environmental effects of human activities, rather than on the activities themselves. This means that, regardless of who carries out an activity, it is the environmental effects that result from the activity that are the determining factor as to whether an activity is permitted in any particular location. It also means that, if a particular industrial activity can meet a communities environmental standards, that business should be able to operate in the area. Resource users must consider how their activity will effect the environment. Thus, focusing on environmental outcomes rather than activities provides incentives for resource users to come up with efficient and creative ways to achieve good environmental results. People can be rewarded for devising new ways to use resources while promoting environmental sustainability

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

No information is available

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

New Zealand has a sophisticated library and communications system which allows ready access to most publicly available sources of information on environmentally sound technology, both in New Zealand and overseas but there is no centralised process for evaluating the range of technologies being developed overseas. Such evaluation is done on an ad hoc basis, and further work would be required to assess any gaps and deficiencies in the quality and accessibility of information on environmentally sound technologies.

With regard to energy efficiency, the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) is the main information source. The EECA holds information about energy efficient technologies to support government activities and provides information and support services of high quality and easy accessibility to clients. The needs of clients are continuously being reviewed and updated to ensure that the information systems are relevant.

Research and Technologies   

The Ministry of Agriculture (MAF), under its Sustainable Agriculture Facilitation program, commissions research and distributes information on environmentally sound technology through a publication series. An example of this is a recent report on Treatment of Dairy Shed Effluent which examines each disposal method and the outcomes of using each method. The Ministry of Agriculture has also commissioned research into identifying farm-level constraints and designing strategies to facilitate adoption of new sustainable technologies and farm management practices that are environmentally and economically sustainable. Although there have been similar studies done in the past, this study will concentrate on farmers identifying the constraints to technology uptake and both farmers and researchers providing solutions.

Various agricultural industry organisations such as the Meat Research and Development Council (MRDC) and the New Zealand Dairy Board provide information on environmentally sound technologies at the national level. The MRDC runs monitor farms which test technologies and management methods. The results of these practical trials are then published widely so farmers can use the information in running their farm.

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation  

No information is available

* * * 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th and 6th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update:  April 1998.

Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here to link to biosafety web sites in the European Union.

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Biotechnology

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

In New Zealand the management and control of hazardous substances and new organisms, including those derived from biotechnology, has been done by several agencies and under several different laws and until recently there was no legislation in New Zealand that specifically covered Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). The lack of specific legislation for the management of modern biotechnology prompted the reform and drafting of new legislation covering both hazardous substance and new organisms. The control and use of biotechnology has been an integral part of this law reform.

The result of long and careful consultation with many sectors of the community, the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Bill introduced to Parliament in November 1994 was enacted on 10 June 1996. The HSNO Act provides for a coherent overall system for the management of hazardous substances and new organisms so as to provide for the health and safety of people and the environment.

Among matters of importance spelt out in the Act are:

To administer the legislation, the HSNO Act establishes a new agency, the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA). The ERMA is responsible for assessing hazardous substances and new organisms, including GMOs, before they are manufactured, developed, imported or released into the New Zealand environment. Until the ERMA is fully operational, the Ministry for the Environment will continue its responsibilities for administration of two advisory committees: - the Advisory Committee on Novel Genetic Techniques (ACNGT), which is responsible for contained laboratory and glasshouse manipulation work; and the Interim Assessment Group (IAG) for the field testing or release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available

Programmes and Projects   

No information is available

Status   

In summary, New Zealand has responded to the advent of biotechnology by establishing mechanisms, comparable to similar developments overseas, to safeguard the environmental and public health concerns against possible consequences of an undesirable GMO release into the environment, but at the same time allowing research and development to proceed.

Challenges  

No information is available

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

No information is available

Information   

No information is available

Research and Technologies   

No information is available

Financing   

No information is available

Cooperation

No information is available

* * * 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update:  April 1997.

For information on genetically modified organisms in New Zealand, click here:

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INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no specific overarching Government policy to promote green industries in New Zealand. However, there are several programmes and initiatives that encourage improved environmental performance by businesses and industries. These include cleaner production initiatives; voluntary waste reduction agreements (e.g. on packaging and waste oil); and "Environmental Choice" (a voluntary ecolabel). The Ministry for the Environment's Sustainable Management Fund is available to all sectors, including industries, and has funded the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS). The Government's Coalition Agreement also calls for the development of a range of options for company environmental reporting. The MFE is currently developing environmental performance indicators for all resource users, which will allow the measurement of progress towards achieving environmental goals and policies by all sectors.

In general, green industries would benefit from the Government's overall economic policies which are aimed at creating an environment that is conducive to sustainable economic development and growth along with maintaining an open and internationally competitive economy. Key components include: responsible fiscal management; low inflation; trade liberalisation; reducing the cost of doing business; reducing taxes and tariffs and fostering innovation by marrying up the research and science community with the private sector.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

* * *

 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 6th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1998. Last update: 15 April 1998.

Information on the manufacturing sector can be found at:

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TRANSPORT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Government Transport Sector Structure

 

The Ministrry of Transport (MOT) is the primary transport policy adviser to the government.  Operational implementation of government policy is undertaken by the Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), Maritime Safety Authority ( MSA), Transfund and Transit, via legislation and transport rules.  See www.ltsa.govt.nz, www.caa.govt.nz, www.msa.govt.nz, www.transfund.govt.nz, www.transit.govt.nz.  

The Transport Accident Investigation Commission has no direct policy development role, however, the Commission may make recommendations on policy procedures which may impact on policy development.

The LTSA, CAA, MSA, CAA, Transfund and Transit are contracted by the Minister of Transport to carry out specific tasks, which contribute to the achievement of the overall goal of safe, sustainable transport at reasonable cost.  The Minister of Transport also has a performance agreement with the Commissioner of Police for the delivery of Traffic Safety and Economic Compliance Outputs. The Police have a transport policy development role through the National Roads Safety Committee.

The government’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority EECA) provides operational programmes and related policy advice designed to promote greater uptake of energy efficient practices and technologies in all sectors of the economy, including transport. See www.eeca.govt.nz.  

Current government policy is that decision making be delegated to the lowest level.  In some instances it is delegated to the LTSA, CAA, MSA, CAA, Transfund, Transit and local authorities.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations  

The major legislative instruments are:

These Acts have not been reviewed with the purpose of achieving protection of the atmosphere etc, because the Resource Management Act 1991 covers environmental issues from the transport sector. 

Rules have been developed pursuant to the Maritime Transport Act 1994 to address safety concerns, which have consequential benefits for the environment (for example by avoiding oil tanker collisions and therefore avoiding oil spills).  Marine protection rules have also been made pursuant to this Act, which are expressly designed to implement obligations under international marine protection conventions and to provide for marine pollution prevention.

Rules are in varying stages of development pursuant to the Civil Aviation Act 1990, to address aircraft noise, aerodrome noise and aircraft engine emissions.  

No standards etc are in place as yet, however New Zealand is looking to adopt international emission standards. 

The Ministry of Transport is in the process of developing land transport policy that is likely to involve a review of funding for better public transport, cycling and walking facilities.  Incentive measures to induce public participation in environmentally friendly transport are also being undertaken by a number of government agencies.  Some examples of this is the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority’s Rideshare Software, which facilitates carpooling and efforts by Regional Council’s to encourage the use of public transport.

The New Zealand Government has indicated that it wishes to develop a New Zealand Transport Strategy to provide overall direction for the transport system, based on the principle of sustainable development. The strategy would integrate environmental, economic and social goals, apply to all transport modes and involve co-operation between central, regional and local government.

New Zealand intends to consider these issues through the development of a New Zealand Transport Strategy. A draft of the New Zealand Transport Strategy will be developed for consideration by government in 2002.

The National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy, to be completed by 1 October 2001, will include a wide range of measures to improve transport sector efficiency, and will form an important component of the government’s strategic approach to transport issues.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The following policy initiatives are currently being undertaken:

Patronage funding of public transportCentral government funding for public transport has been significantly increased under a new patronage funding based scheme.  Under this scheme a regions public transport will be funded according to patronage, and will receive increased rates of funding for increases in patronage over an agreed baseline.

Review of land transport management policy – Ministry of Transport - one of the aims of the review is to improve the environmental and safety standards of land transport, through improved road safety management systems and environmental accountability.

Review of the specifications of NZ transport fuels – Ministry of Economic Development - The fuel specifications are regulated for consumer protection and environmental protection purposes.  The review will address their purpose and appropriateness and whether there is a need for a revision of the specifications.

Climate Change initiatives – Ministry of Transport, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority, Ministry for the Environment – investigation of the potential introduction of average vehicle efficiency standards and other energy efficiency measures.

Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS) – Ministry of Transport - available at website www.govt.nz under the Ministry of Transport. Initiatives are:

For Air Quality -Review and develop local air quality guidelines, ensure that the Environmental Performance Indicators approach is implemented for air quality, develop consistent methods to measure and monitor local air quality.

To Improve Individual Vehicle Performance - introduce progressive emissions standards for vehicles first entering the fleet (including new and used imports), improve the means to identify excessively smoky vehicles on the road, encourage improved maintenance of vehicles, in conjunction with the vehicle servicing.

To Improve Traffic Conditions - provide information to territorial local authorities and other roading agencies on actual vehicle emission rates, promote the use of Environmental Capacity Analysis to measure the effect of different traffic management techniques (such as bus lanes and improved flow), on traffic emissions from busy roads.

The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) is currently undertaking the following transport sector initiatives aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the transport sector:

Dedicated traffic force - In 1992 a dedicated traffic force was established, which was merged with the Police and enable a greater level of road safety enforcement.

Road Safety Strategy 2010 – Ministry of Transport – Development of a road safety strategy for the next 10 years that builds on the existing road safety programme.  This strategy, which will include a focus on non-motorized modes of transport , will be completed in mid 2001.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement    

There are legislative requirements for the government to undertake public consultation in the Resource Management Act, rules and in transport legislation. Statistically valid market research of public opinion is regularly being used as input to major transport investment and policy decisions.

The major groups consulted about policy, other than government, are referred to as stakeholders.  Depending on the nature of the consultation being undertaken these could include industry groups such as transport operators, vehicle manufacturers and resellers, or the vehicle service industry; it could include organisations with an interest in transport safety or environmental outcomes; or it could involve the general public, or specific components of the public, such as motorists, pilots or lobby groups.  All have the right under New Zealand law and the expectation under New Zealand culture to expect to be consulted on policy issues.

Auckland, Northland and the East Cape/Napier have the greatest and most urgent need for an improved transport system.

The private sector has a large role in shipping, aviation, rail and public transport. In roading there is less private involvement. This reflects the ownership of these sectors.

Programmes and Projects   

New Zealand Road Safety Programme – the Police and the Land Transport Safety authority undertake various projects aimed road safety, including advertising campaigns backed by police enforcement on such issues as drink driving, seatbelts, speed control and traffic speed cameras.  The Police also undertake general road patrol.

The following research programmes are being undertaken:

Currently Transfund is conducting a major review of the Project Evaluation Manual benefits using conjoint analysis with more focus on road user and passenger transport user benefits.  The outcome of this project will impact on the mix of transport projects approved for funding in the future.

Foundation for Research Science and Technology transport related research initiatives include projects to Identify Factors to Change People’s Transport Use and Sustainable Transportation.

Status   

The provision of transport services is generally adequate, but a number of problems have been identified:

The current New Zealand transport system has gone through a substantial period of reform over the last 20 years, which has made major improvements to the efficiency of the system. Many transport operations have been divested to the private sector in a competitive framework where appropriate; while other public operations have been turned into company structures. The drive to improve transport efficiency has reduced costs to industry and users, and is continuing in order to support New Zealand’s export industries and individual mobility demands.

Fuel use in the domestic transport sector, by fuel type in Petajoules for the year ending 31 March 2000 (source = NZ Energy Data File, July 2000, Ministry for Economic Development)

LPG/NGL

1.80

Motor Gas

101.10

Diesel

61.00

Fuel Oil

3.73

Av Fuel/Kero

5.99

Total

173.62

Leaded gasoline has not been on the New Zealand market since 1996.

Percentage of emissions from NZ transport sector as a percentage of New Zealand emissions in 1999.

Type of Emission

 

Road

%

Rail

%

Air

%

Maritime

%

Total

%

CO2

38.9

0.6

1.9

0.8

42.2

CH4

13.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

13.2

N2O

61.6

1.0

1.1

0.7

64.4

NOx

50.4

1.0

1.2

3.2

55.8

CO

87.6

0.1

0.1

0.0

87.9

NMVOC

86.8

0.3

0.1

0.2

87.5

Source:  Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MED 2000)

Challenges  

Road transport: primarily emissions.

The principle obstacle to improving transport efficiency in New Zealand is currently the structure and management of the road system. Roads are priced at levels that are less than efficient; inadequate infrastructure is provided for pedestrians and cyclists; and investment systems are overly bureaucratic.

The major obstacles to reducing emissions are pricing and cost, however New Zealand has already committed to a programme of reducing local air emissions from road transport, and legislation to this effect will be introduced early in 2001. The Government has already made a commitment to ratifying to the Kyoto protocol in 2002, and a substantial programme of work is in progress to enable the Government to make the necessary interventions to achieve this goal.

Lower socio-economic people are over represented in road crash statistics.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

The media (newspaper and television) report on events that relate to the environmental impacts of transport and often quote the policies or environmental guidelines of government agencies.

EECA has undertaken public education initiatives.

Regional Council’s and Non-government organizations have, in recent years, provided public information on the impact of transport on the environment.  Local and regional government in New Zealand has a major role to play in managing the provision of public transport services via private sector providers.

Central government funding for public transport has been significantly increased under a new patronage funding based scheme.  Under this scheme a regions public transport will be funded according to patronage, and will receive increased rates of funding for increases in patronage over an agreed baseline.

Many of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority’s transport sector initiatives – cited in response to Question 9 above – are predicated on the need to better inform decision-makers. Information is particularly central to initiatives relating to vehicle fuel efficiency labeling, carpooling, fleet management guidelines and government leadership activities.

The New Zealand Police and the Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) are both funded from the National Roads Fund (NRF) to undertake extensive public education, communication and advertising campaigns on road safety.  This includes:

In the 2000/01 financial year the funding the Police and LTSA receive for road safety increased.  This has allowed the LTSA in its community road safety programme to place special emphasis on building stronger partnerships with Maori and Pacific Island communities through well targeted local education initiatives.  This increase in funding also allowed the LTSA to join the Australian New Car Assessment Programme and ensure the dissemination and publicity of comprehensive information about the safety performance of new vehicles.  This will enable the public to make better informed decisions when purchasing vehicles.

The school curriculum is non-prescriptive.  Students learn about the environment in science and social studies though teaching of generic values and attitudes.  Specific topics such as transport and the environment are therefore not specified as a subject within the curricula, however the relationship between transport and the environment could be picked up on by individual schools as part of a discussion on the environment.

Most of this is provided and co-ordinated by the industries involved, for example the Motor Industry Training Organization programmes in schools, technical institutes, and universities. Utilization is also made of specialist university courses in Australia for traffic engineering and Transport Management.

In other instances actual agencies undertake training initiatives.  Some examples are: the Maritime Safety Authority undertakes an oil spill response, the Airlines Pilot Association undertakes various pilot training programmes, the Land Transport Safety Authority trains staff for compliance activities such as dangerous goods enforcement.

Information   

The National Traffic Database (NTD) is an inventory of New Zealand’s traffic volume counts and road functional classification. The NTD data is a mixture of counts and estimated annual average daily traffic (AADT), one per road asset management system (RAMM) carriageway section, based on 1994 sectioning supplied by Road Controlling Authorities. Work is underway on the possibility of introducing a new database using a Transport Information System (TIS) to enable timely and accurate information gathering, processing and distribution of information to agencies responsible for the planning, funding, construction and operation of the public road network, and others with road sector interests.

The Land Transport Safety Authority maintains a database of all motor vehicles registered to go on the road, and a database of all injury and some non-injury crashes.

Scientific data on vehicle emissions is also available from the Ministry of Transport through the New Zealand Traffic Emissions Rates (NZTER) database which is available on CD-ROM for a nominal price from the Ministry. 

Trial use of real-time feedback on road conditions using signage is being implemented in Wellington to provide drivers with traffic conditions information.  Normally feedback to drivers on traffic conditions and congestion is provided via regular radio reports from airborne observers (i.e. drive time radio).

Research and Technologies   

The Ministry of Transport is proposing to investigate the introduction of average vehicle efficiency standards.  The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority has a broad mandate to promote the deployment of energy efficient technologies. New initiatives include the development of criteria for the possible development of a new contestable fund which could be used to promote the early introduction of energy efficient vehicles by fleet owners and operators, which could include technologies using alternative energy sources.

Spurred by climate change imperatives Government bodies are expected to develop a detailed work programme, by the middle of next year, to investigate measures to encourage the uptake of eco-efficient vehicle technologies, including research into alternative fuels.

New Zealand is currently considering proposals to introduce electronic road pricing systems for heavy vehicles, based on GPS systems, so that these vehicles can be charged the full marginal cost of their use. In addition, work is continuing on the use of mobility pricing in urban areas, together with improved passenger transport systems. The Government is currently consulting on a Road Safety Strategy to 2010, which sets a target of reducing the social costs of road accidents by 50%.

The Land Transport Safety Authority and the transport industry are developing a safety rating system for transport operators which will apply incentives for safe operators and penalties for less safe operators as a means of improving road safety.

Vehicle Fleet Control Strategy (VFECS) measures to Improve Traffic Conditions:

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) technology is being implemented, for example Electronic message signs and real time traffic monitoring and information provisions.

Financing   

All modes of transport other than road transport (rail, ports, air) are privately owned and generally privately funded.  The main area that still receives public funding is road transport.  However other areas such as public transport (rail, bus, ferries) receive some public funding.

Research and development of alternative fuels and transport efficiency:

Undertaken by a number of government agencies and departments, funded through their own research funds as well as a number of cross government contestable funds e.g. Green package / Research, Science and Technology Fund / Vote Energy.

Enforcement of regulations and standards:

Partly funded by central government and partly funded by operators within the industries.

Investment in all transport sectors other than road infrastructure is a matter for commercial judgement and negotiation between the operator and financial institutions, related to demand. There are no significant barriers to foreign investment in these sectors.  Work is proceeding on ways in which the public funding of road infrastructure can be made more flexible, and private sector capital introduced to enable timely investment.  Decisions on this are scheduled for the first half of 2001.

Cooperation

Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements

New Zealand is party to a large number of multilateral transport-related international agreements across all the transport modes.  Due to the fact that New Zealand is an island nation (and does not have any land borders), most of these agreements relate to the maritime and aviation modes.

New Zealand has bilateral air services agreements with 45 countries and territories.  However, New Zealand is not a party to any bilateral maritime or land transport agreements, except for the following general agreements:

New Zealand’s Participation in International Organisations and Fora

New Zealand is a member and participates actively in many international organizations and other transport related fora, including:

   

* * * 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 9th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update:  March 2001.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The organizations responsible for sustainable tourism in New Zealand are the Department of Conservation, the Office of Tourism and Sport, and the New Zealand Tourism Board. The Ministry for the Environment and the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment also have interests in the subject (e.g., ME's work on Cleaner Production in the Tourism Sector)

At the local level, Regional Councils and Territorial Local Authorities are responsbile.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The RMA is based on sustainable management of the environment. Legislation is effects based. Various consents are required for activities that effect the environment. Tourism operators are required to ensure that their activities conform with the bottom line of sustainable management contained in the RMA. They have a general obligation under the Act to avoid, mitigate or remedy any adverse environmental effects of their activities.

Under the Resource Management Act, the statute which controls the use of land, air and water resources, there is an obligation on the relevant authorities to monitor the use of resources and a general obligation to ensure that the aim of sustainable resource management is achieved. In addition, the Department of Conservation monitors activities in National Parks to ensure that they are in line with the appropriate management plans.

The Resource Management Act 1991 states, "the purpose of this Act is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources." Sustainable management is defined as "managing the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources in a way, or at a rate, which enables people and their communities to provide for their social, economic and cultural wellbeing and for their health and safety while (a) sustaining the potential of natural and physical resources to meet the reasonably foreseeable needs of future generations; (b) safeguarding the life supporting capacity of air, water, soil and ecosystems; and (c) avoiding, remedying or mitigating any adverse effects of activities on the environment."

About thirty percent of New Zealand's land mass is set aside as national parks (some of which have World Heritage status). Activities in these areas are controlled by the National Parks Act which states, "Parks to be maintained in natural state, and public to have right of entry -- (1) It is hereby declared that the provisions of this Act shall have effect for the purpose of preserving in perpetuity as national parks, for their intrinsic worth and for the benefit, use and enjoyment of the public, areas of New Zealand that contain scenery of such distinctive quality, ecological systems or natural features so beautiful, unique or scientifically important that their preservation is in the national interest."

The Resource Management Act and the National Parks Act contain detailed guidelines on how to perform an Assessment of Environmental Effects when applying for consent to develop land, water or air or establish a business in a national park. Territorial Local Authorities prepare District Plans (which are essentially resource policies or plans) to guide all resource development, and regional councils prepare a range of policy instruments. Central government can also prepare National Policy Statements on any issue in regard to resource use. No plan has been produced for tourism at this stage.

The Department of Conservation also has an Environmental Care Code which is applied to all activity in the National Parks and which stresses day-to-day environmental care.

The RMA may impose fines of up to $200,000. Further fines of $10,000 per day are payable for continuing offenses. In addition, a sentence of imprisonment of upto two years may be imposed.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

There is no specific national strategy or policy, but sustainable management is an integral purpose in the Resource Management Act (RMA) and National Park Plans, which cover land, water and air use across New Zealand. These cover all resource use.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

All Major Groups can participate in production of the plans and policies that guide resource use. The Resource Management Act sets down a very open and consultative framework to follow. Further, individual applications for resource consent (essential permission to use a resource) are, in some circumstances, opened for public comment.

Programmes and Projects 

Major programmes to promote sustainable tourism include the following:

New Zealand's "clean and green" image is a cornerstone of the country's international marketing programmes. Eco-tours and environmentally-friendly activities are widely available. Individual companies such as Whale Watch Kaikoura are earning an international reputation for their approach.

Environmental Hotels of Auckland is a successful pilot to a wider Environmental Hotels of New Zealand Programme. Hotels are voluntary members, and the scheme provides information on energy savings and resource savings for commercial accommodation establishments.

Status   

Overall, the need to act in a sustainable manner, to protect the resource that makes tourism possible, appears to be generally and widely accepted.

Tourism currently plays the following role in the economy:

(data drawn from various sources)

Fom 1988 to 1998, tourism in New Zealand grew by 58 percent, as follows:

New Zealand recognizes that the Maori heritage has an important role to play in tourism. This role is constantly being defined and refined over time.

Challenges  

Sustainable tourism is being pursued on many varied fronts; however, some commentators have noted the lack of a co-ordinated strategic approach. Such an approach may help improve sustainable management.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising   

Education on the environment and sustainability is widespread in schools, polytechnics and universities.

Awareness programmes on sustainable tourism are carried out through the Department of Conservation's Environmental Care Code. The Department of Conservation also has visitor centres of various sizes in most national parks. At popular parks these centres serve upwards of 100,000 people per annum. The centres contain a wide range of information on nature and the environment and on caring for the environment/appropriate use of national parks, etc.

Aspects of New Zealand's marketing campaigns are specifically geared to attract environmentally-conscious tourists. Further, as noted previously, New Zealand's whole marketing strategy is underpinned by an image on New Zealand as "clean and green" environment.

Information   

Internally, the Ministry for the Environment, Department of Conservation, Office of Tourism and Sport, New Zealand Tourism Board and the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment promote -- through publications, web sites, and their routine contacts with relevant stakeholders -- the concept of sustainable tourism.

A wide range of information is available from best practice manuals (APEC, Ministry for the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry), to policy and academic literature.

District and regional resource plans cover the whole country. They are not tourism specific but offer an inventory of resources and ecosystems which vary in quality and depth of detail. LINZ (Land Information NZ) has various topographic maps of various levels of detail for the whole country. Individual regions may have tourism resource inventories of their own. Various organisations such as botanical societies, entomological societies and other specialist interest groups have assembled flora and fauna inventories and ecosystem information for areas where tourism occurs. DOC also holds such information.

There is no single point of access for information, which varies across the country. Potential users will find a variety of information by use of standard web search techniques.

The Ministry for the Environment's Environmental Indicators Programme, while not specific to tourism, will provide useful information for tourism, a resource user. FRST sponsored projects will also contribute significantly in this field.

Research and Technologies   

Environmental Hotels of Auckland was a successful pilot study that looked at energy savings and waste minimisation in selected Auckland Hotels. This pilot is in the process of being taken "national" by the New Zealand Tourism Industry Association. It is a voluntary programme.

Financing   

Various finding arrangements exist. Some government funds are available e.g. through science funding for research and limited funding for some non-commercial development. Industry associations provide some funding for information provision and assistance. Tourism marketing funding is provided by Government and industry. For the most part, there are no external assistance programmes.

Cooperation  

Cooperation with local authorities takes place as outlined in terms of resource management in previous questions. The private sector is active in promoting New Zealand's "clean and green" image and in pursuing sustainable developments.

New Zealand's Official Development Assistance (NZODA) programme contributes to the promotion of sustainable development in developing countries. Many NZODA projects have helped to address environmental problems and provide strategies for sustainable development. These include work on eco-tourism. Full details (including programme profiles) can be found at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade's Development Cooperation Division's web site (see below).

New Zealand provides assistance to ecotourism in both the Pacific and Asia regions.   Under the NZODA bilateral programme a number of specific projects are supported including:

    Solomon Islands - World Heritage Project
    Fiji - Koroyanitu and Bouma Projects
    Project design is proceeding for ecotourism projects in the Philippines.

Under regional funding New Zealand has recently established a new programme, the Pacific Initiative for the Environment which has prioritised ecotourism within sustainable resource use for particular assistance.  To date regional training has been assisted and a regional review workshop of Pacific ecotourism development has been run.   Outputs from the workshop are expected to attract further requests for funding assistance from this programme.

 

* * * 

This information is based on New Zealand's submission to the 7th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1999

Click here for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade's Development Cooperation Division Web Site.

Click here for inforamtion on the Wahle Watch Kaikoura


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