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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Many of the Ministries and Departments are included in trying to eradicate absolute poverty; almost half (49%) of Nepal's population lives below the absolute poverty line. The Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-97) has set a target to reduce poverty by 7 per cent by the year 1997. The following strategies have been outlined in the Plan to meet the target:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A number of projects aiming at poverty eradication have been launched by different ministries in His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N). Most of the projects are in the field of employment, vocational training, rural and adult/women's education, rural banking and finance, food for work, labour-intensive, small development projects in irrigation, roads, power, agriculture, basic health and rural self-help programmes.

Two types of programmes have been carried out to alleviate poverty in Nepal:

 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Population and Environment and the National Population Committee are most directly concerned with this issue. The reduction of the rate of population growth is a national priority for Nepal. The population of the country increased from 15 million in 1981 to 18.5 million in 1991, an annual growth rate of 2.08%. Some 9.2% of the total population lived in urban areas in 1991. The large size of Nepal's population relative to its resource base, and its high growth rate are at the root of many environmental problems in Nepal. In some areas agricultural land is reaching the saturation point, and the labour force is expanding faster than the off-farm jobs. As a consequence, poverty is increasing. Measures to curb population growth are therefore critical to the success of any development and environmental programmes.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

Primary health care services are not reaching those who most need them, resulting in high rates of infant and maternal mortality. There is also considerable evidence that the demand for family planning services is not being adequately met though family planning. An effective policy to control the influx of external population and urban management as well as industrial growth are the means to bring a balance between population and economic growth. Programmes for developing women's capabilities as well as for encouraging them to educate themselves more and to win competitive jobs, will have important impacts in the long run.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Nepal cooperates with the UN Fund for Population Activities.

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning are most directly concerned with health in Nepal.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In the area of health services, to keep its national and international commitments, the Government must provide these services for everyone by the year 2000. To this end, the National Health Policy (1991) has been reformulated with the objective of providing effective health services at the local level.

The basic primary health services in Nepal include preliminary treatment of common diseases, immunization against infectious diseases, maternity and child health care services, family planning services, and management of essential medicines. In addition, the Government provides health education, information about food, nutrition, clean drinking water, and about sanitation and environmental practices which have been singled out as the major factors contributing to the poor state of health in Nepal.

In line with the call by WHO for eradicating polio from the globe by the year 2000, a vaccination programme for children has been carried out through the observation of a special immunisation day all over the Kingdom.

A Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS Programme was launched in the fiscal year 1988-1989 in order to control the social and economic hazards emerging from the increase in the number of people suffering from such communicable diseases.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

In general, the health status of the population in Nepal is poor. The lack of potable water and sanitation, adulterated food supplies and paucity of medical facilities are major contributing factors resulting in the poor state of health.

The lack of clean water, in particular, is imposing a high cost on the economy in terms of its impact on human health and productivity. The country's rapidly growing population is also placing a stress on available water resources. It is necessary to initiate policies and to revise procedures, legislation and regulations in order to improve water supply management and to put sanitation into practice extensively. The main aim of HMG's Drinking Water and Sanitation Programme is to provide basic knowledge of sanitation and sanitaryfacilities to the maximum number of people to facilitate them to take up cleaning and conservation exercises.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Nepal cooperates with the World Health Organization.

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

In Nepal, environmental education is integrated into social sciences and health and population education at primary, lower secondary and secondary levels. It is called Social and Environmental education (including health education) at grades 1-3; Environmental Science and Health Education at grades 4-5, Population and Environmental Education at lower secondary level (6-8), and Science and Environmental Education at High Schools (grades 9-10). Environmental education represents some 14% of the curricula except at the lower secondary level where the percentage is only seven.

As in all other areas, education and awareness-raising is critical for shaping people's preceptions, attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. These efforts at reorientating education towards sustainable development enables individuals to appreciate more environmental policies, legislation and regulations, and to foster individual responsibility towards sustainable resource management and development. Relevant environmental concerns need to be incorporated into the programmes of different training institutions, and His Majety's Government has already initiated programmes towards this end.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

In the Nepalese government human settlements are the concern of:

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

In general, the adoption of the Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP), and the constitution of the Environment Protection Council (EPC) are significant contributions to the implementation of Agenda 21 in this area. Nepal's participation in the Habitat II Conference (City Summit) in Istanbul, Turkey 3-14 June 1996, along with the commitments on priority issues included in the National Plan of Action and Best Practices reports, are important achievements towards the realization of sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Finance is provided by HMG sources, municipal and local bodies, and multilateral and bilateral financing. Cooperation is undertaken through the SAARC framework and with Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/United Nations Centre on Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); other UN bodies; Global Programmes; UMAP; UMP; CITYNET; Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program (MEIP), and others.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:


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