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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Since the management of the environment requires the involvement of various stakeholders, it is essential to establish a balanced approach and a coordination mechanism. In Nepal, a high-level Environment Protection Council has been established under the chairmanship of the Rt. Honorable Prime Minister. The Secretariat of the Council is located in the Ministry of Population and Environment.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Nepal Environmental Policy Action Plan (1993) has been succesful in integrating environmental concerns into different programmes and institutions.

There have been efforts to integrate environment into development-related decision-making.  The Rio Declaration has stimulated environmental concerns at the policy-making level.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The Ministry of Population and Environment (established in 1995), sectoral ministries, the National Planning Commission (responsible for environmental monitoring and management), NGOs, the private sector, and local authorities all participate in decision making.

Programmes and Projects 

A number of important measures have already been adopted to tackle some of these problems, but there is a need to develop detailed sectoral action programmes to integrate environment and development into decision-making.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Awareness of environmental issues has grown perceptably.  

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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MAJOR GROUPS

WOMEN

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Women and Social Welfare was established in September 1995 in order to allow women to participate in the main stream of development, to increase their involvement in every sector of development and to improve their social, economic, academic, political and legal status.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Policies, guidelines, strategies and plans are being drawn up to achieve equality in all aspects of society, including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.

At present, there are no plans to establish mechanisms to assess implementation and impact of development and environment policies and programmes on women.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Unfortunately, Nepalese women have been unable to contribute in an expected way to development activities due to illiteracy, poor health, poverty and a traditionally conservative attitude towards them.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Curricula and educational material are being revised to promote dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge;

Productive employment opportunities have been provided for them by increasing their efficiency through appropriate knowledge and skills, and appropriate environment and infrastructures have been created so that women are provided with an opportunity to play a decisive role at all levels from the local to the national.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

Nepal signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrim= ination Against Women on 5 February 1991 and ratified it on 22 April 1991.

 

 

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture was established in September 1995, and, recognising the role of the youth in nation building, a high-level work-team was set up. The work-team recently prepared a report on the issue and submitted it to the Ministry. In accordance with the recommendations of the report, plans and programmes have been formulated such as infrastructural development, setting up of a National Youth Council, conducting youth awareness programmes in the districts, a Youth Day celebration, and youth exchange programmes. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

A large number of social organizations have conducted various youth activity programmes in order to promote and develop the dynamic vigour of today's youth for productive purposes.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Various activities for the preservation and promotion of languages, literature, arts and cultures of different ethnic groups and communities will be taken up by the Archaeology Department, Royal Nepal Academy, Cultural Corporation and various non-governmental agencies.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

There are now thousands of NGOs operating in Nepal, and Nepal considers NGO inputs important for the implementation of Agenda 21. It is important to note, however, that despite the increase in the number of NGOs, they still operate on a limited scale and work only in a small minority of communities. Thousands of local self-help NGOs are involved in activities as diverse as the management of community forests or providing access to credit and agricultural labour exchange. They can mobilize local resources very effectively, since the projects are implemented by the beneficiaries themselves. They also have a large geographical sphere of operation, which can have a significant impact on the development of Nepal.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Provisions encouraging the greater involvement of women working in the governmental and non-governmental service sectors in the policy-making process at the local level will be included in policies and regulations.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Per ILO Convention No. 114, a National Labour Advisory Committee, under the chairmanship of the Honorable Minister of Labour, has been established. 

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The Labour Act (1992) has a provision calling for a Labour Relation Committee which aims at promoting bipartite relationships in maintaining and improving the working environment at the enterprise level.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Provisions encouraging the greater involvement of women working in the governmental and non-governmental service sectors in the policy-making process at the local level will be included in policies and regulations.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

Nepal has ratified ILO Convention No. 114 on tripartite consultation.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Industrial Pollution Control/Management Control has components such as minimization of waste of raw materials and energy and exchange of waste from some industries as inputs to other industuries.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Nepal has governmental policies for increasing the efficiency of re= source use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of waste per unit of economic output.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

An Energy Efficiency Project audits the use of energy in various industrial sub-sectors to minimize the amount of waste.

Status 

A growing number of people are exposed to pollution from industrial enterprises. A number of factors contribute to this process: industrial plants sited inappropriately close to population centres; insufficient emphasis given to fuel efficiency; little, if any, pollution abatement equipment used to reduce emissions, and a total lack of industrial pollution standards. To date, very little pollution abatement equipment has been used by industries in Nepal.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Special attention will be given to the development of traditional indigenous technology. In this regard, the improvement, development and fine-tuning of existing technologies in rural areas will be encouraged. 

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

In support of the programme on Science and Technology, His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N) has sought financial and technical assistance from Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammen Arbeit (GTZ), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and UN agencies to implement Integrated Pest Management and Pesticide Management Programmes.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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FARMERS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Government of Nepal is working on policy measures to empower farmers for the development, transfer, and use of technology in sustainable agriculture and rural development. The IPM Programme is an example of these measures.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Institute of Science and Technology will make necessary arrangements for the fulfilment of the needs of competent scientists and technical manpower by widening the sphere of research at the national level, and by improving the provisions needed or raising the level of competence of the people at the Central Department of the Institute and the Campuses under the Institute.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

Priorities for Nepal in the area of science include:

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

It is natural that a nation that is still predominantly rural in character has a need to develop its agricultural sector also in terms of science and technology. In fact, it has become necessary to develop science and technology in a manner which facilitates the development of local skills and technology and allows the mobilization of available natural resources.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

Research on major productive issues confronted at the national level will be encouraged, including the establishment of graduate study programmes under the Institute of Science and Technology. 

Financing 

Presently, only one-tenth of one percent of national domestic product is used for research and development. This needs to be improved by allocating a minimum of one percent of national domestic product.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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INFORMATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies    

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level
Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor Remarks
2. International cooperation and trade X
3. Combating poverty X
4. Changing consumption patterns X
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability X
6. Human health X
7. Human settlements X
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making X
9. Protection of the atmosphere X
10. Integrated planning and management of land resources X
11. Combating deforestation X
12. Combating desertification and drought X
13. Sustainable mountain development X
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development X
15. Conservation of biological diversity X
16. Biotechnology X
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living resources NA
18. Freshwater resources X
19. Toxic chemicals X
20. Hazardous wastes X
21. Solid wastes X
22. Radioactive wastes X
24. Women in sustainable development X
25. Children and youth X
26. Indigenous people X
27. Non-governmental organizations X
28. Local authorities X
29. Workers and trade unions X
30. Business and industry X
31. Scientific and technological community X
32. Farmers X
33. Financial resources and mechanisms X
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building X
35. Science for sustainable development X
36. Education, public awareness and training X
37. International cooperation for capacity-building X
38. International institutional arrangements X
39. International legal instruments X
40. Information for decision-making X

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

No information is available.

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

The National Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines take into account industrial development, hydropower establishments and road work constructions. Environmental legislation has been passed in the Parliament in the context of the developmental needs of today.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.


Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising 

Since the 1970's, the public awareness of environmental concerns has increased, and this can also be seen in the policy formulation, enactments, and guidelines. 

Information 

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available.

Financing 

No information is available.

Cooperation

Nepal is a party to several major international conventions relating to the environment. These conventions have stimulated the development of national legislation and regional cooperation.

* * *

This information is based on Nepal's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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