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ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MYANMAR

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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

No information is available.

 

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TRADE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

Related to Trade, technical and financial assistance are in great need in the areas of trade facilitation, human resource capacity building, setting up of export promotion organization etc.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

The e-mail address of Ministry of Commerce is myan.com@mtpt400.stems.com.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the government of Myanmar to the 8th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

There is no specific decision-making authority for consumption and production patterns. However, the National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA) has guidelines for sustainable consumption and production patterns in the Myanmar Agenda 21 prepared and published in 1997.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

There are some sectoral laws that address issues related to production and consumption patterns. Standards and codes of practice are yet to be set. The same is true for specific policy and economic instruments. Myanmar is in the process of developing Natural Environmental Framework Legislation that world address aspects of sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

This national Agenda 21, published by the NCEA, outlines programmes and activities for sustainable consumption and/or production patterns. Guidelines are also included on the following issues:

The Myanmar Agenda 21 contains guidelines to address the above-mentioned issues.

Among the major programmes contained in the Myanmar Agenda 21 are these:

These programmes focus on environmental, economic, social or cultural aspects of sustainable consumption and production.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Major Groups are involved in decision-making through promotion of public education and awareness.

Status

Current levels of efficiency in the usage of energy, water and other materials by industries and by households are not high.
There are no national targets for enhancing energy and material efficiency, waste reduction, recycling, public transport and quality of life. The ministries concerned established their own sectional targets for enhancing energy and material efficiency.
With respect to methods or processes that have been adopted by industry, industries have their own means in accordance with their capacities to attain sustainable production.
Private individual as well as government departments carry out R & D as well as demonstration projects on a small-scale basis.
A few examples of projects and activities that have had significant impacts in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns are the following:

Challenges

Priority constraints to implementing effective programmes to address the issues related to promoting sustainable consumption and production are

Capacity-Building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising

Workshops and seminars are organised to promote public education and awareness.

Information

Decision-makers are provided information through the distribution of relevant material and documents and through the media.
There is as yet no auditing or monitoring system in place to oversee enforcement of relevant laws, regulations and standards.
The development of indicators is being considered within the context of the preparation of Natural Environmental Framework Legislation that world address aspects of sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Research and Technologies

Clean and environmentally sound technologies are promoted and applied in production through training and incentives.
Progress, however, is constrained by a lack of know-how.

Financing

The activities in this area are financed by the national budget and external assistance.

Cooperation

Myanmar does not participate in any special cooperative programme that focuses mainly on sustainable consumption and production patterns.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Myanmar to the seventh session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1999.

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FINANCING

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Myanmar Investment Commission on 17th June 1994, notified that all projects already permitted by the Commission under the Union of Myanmar Foreign Investment Law 1988, shall compulsorily install Sewage Treatment Plant, Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant and other pollution control procedures soonest and abide with the sanitary and hygienic rules and regulations set by the authorities concerned.

In the future proposals that are to be submitted to the Commission, either under the Union of Myanmar Foreign Investment Law or the Myanmar Citizens Investment Law, shall incorporate the provision in their contracts that they shall undertake proper sewage and industrial wastewater treatment systems and other environmental control systems. The systems so used shall be in accordance with the rules and regulations specified by the respective Development Committees and local authorities.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the government of Myanmar to the 8th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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TECHNOLOGY

No information is available.

 

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INDUSTRY

No information is available.

 

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TRANSPORT

No information is available.

 

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The the national level, the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism is responsible for decision-making in this area. At the local level, it is the Directorate of Hotels and Tourism and the Forestry Department of the Ministry of Forestry.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The Myanmar Tourism Law was enacted in 1990 to ensure the development of sustainable tourism. This Law contains some penalties to businesses for practices that damage the environment.
Eco-tourism and nature based tourism are being promoted by undertaking projects in locations which are more or less close to existing tourist destinations so that more opportunities for tourism promotion are expected. For example, Fopa mountain park, Sein Ye Camp and Inlay water birds sanctuary sanctuary are new sites for Eco-tourism.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The National Commission for Environmental Affairs ( NCEA ) has formulated and published the Myanmar Agenda 21, which is the plan of action for sustainable development in the country.
Among other issues, this national Agenda 21 addresses the following:

Both eco-tourism and nature-based tourism are integral parts of the national Agenda 21.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Tourism plays a pivotal role in the Myanmar Economy, creating employment opportunities and having a multiplier effect within the economy. In terms of foreign exchange, Myanmar received US $ 34 million from the tourism sector in 1997-98.
Visitor arrivals have shown a significant growth in recent years. In 1987-88, there were 41,000 visitors. During 1998, tourism arrivals through Yangon gateway stood at 200,000 and 300,000 through the border checkpoints along Thai-Myanmar and China-Myanmar, totalling 500,000. The projection in the future is 500,000 through Yangon gateway alone.

Challenges

Priority constraints include a limited budget allotment for infrastructure development and the lack still of a world-wide awareness of Myanmar.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising

Training that is available for employees in the tourism industry to assist them in understanding, applying and promoting sustainable tourism includes the following:

In addition, the Directorate of Hotels and Tourism is negotiating with Lincoln University of New Zealand to implement a tourism training project to educate policy-makers in the concept and develoment of sustainable tourism.
To promote sustainable tourism, the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism publishes brochures, pamphlets and other literature.

Information

The following information is available to assist both decision-makers and the tourist industry in promoting sustainable tourism:

  1. The inventory published by the central statistics.
  2. Reports of the conferences and seminars held abroad on Eco-Tourism attended by Myanmar government officials.
  3. Reports on Cultural Heritage and Tourism Conference organized by NCEA in Yangon, including:

Research and Technologies

The Yangon City Development Committee, chaired by the Mayor of Yangon, sends directives to Hotel and Tourist establishments for environmental management.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Encouragement is given to private sector to participate in PATA, WTM, ITB, ATM, Cultural and Travels in South East Asia and Pacific.
Myanmar is a Member of the ASEAN and BISMT-EC and participates in bilateral agreements on tourism cooperation with Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Myanmar to the seventh session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: April 1999.



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