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INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MONGOLIA

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INTEGRATED DECISION-MAKING

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Since the Spring of 1990, Mongolia has undergone a major political and economic transformation, moving from a socialist to a democratic form of government, and from a centrally-planned to a free market system based on private enterprise. The Government of Mongolia is continuing the policy of furthering the economic and political transformation process, promoting the privatization of state property and establishing laws protecting private ownership. Awareness of environmental aspects has been growing rapidly in the field of development in Mongolia. Environmental Impact Assessment procedures have been developed and are being used in development projects. The Government has adapted comprehensive master plans for energy and agriculture in which environment-related issues are included. The Government, NGOs and the private sector have been quick to see and respond to the inter-connectedness of environment and development issues. The Government, with World Bank support, has developed an environmental action plan in which the relationship between development and the environment is considered. There is a need to establish a comprehensive information framework at the national level by integrating environmental and development information.

For the purpose of implementing the goals of Agenda 21, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992), countries are giving their attention to economic development with an orientation to environment and ecology. In this connection, the Capacity 21 programme was established to help incorporate sustainable development concepts into developing countries. As requested by the Mongolian Government, the Capacity 21 programme is providing financial assistance for the project "Sustainable Development of Mongolia", known as MAP21. Project activities began in June 1996 and will continue until 1998.

Under this project, the National Council for Sustainable Development was established. Its members include the Prime Minister, the Minister of Fianance and the Minister of Nature and the Environment. Other Ministries and agencies involved are : the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare, of Enlightenment, of Infrastructure Development and of Agriculture & Industry, the Cabinet Secretariat, Ulaanbaatar City Governor's Office and the Eastern, Central and Western Region aimag Governor's offices. The main tasks of the Council include managing and coordinating the implementation of MAP-21 and drawing conclusions and making recommendations with regard to the proposals prepared by the Managment Coordination Group which is responsible for providing daily coordination. A Sustainable Development Advisory Committee has also been established and is responsible for reviewing documents within project activities and for providing recommendations on them. Representatives from different sectors have been involved in the Committee.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Certain measures are being taken to involve government officials, NGOs, the private sector, scientists and professionals in the activities concerning the development and implementation of the National and Aimag Action Programmes for the 21st century. Attention is being given to the integration of project activities with other project activities that affect Mongolia's economy.

Programmes and Projects

The following are the main activities that are being carried out in the context of the Capacity 21 Project:

Cooperation

Mongolia cooperates with neighboring countries on conservation of the environment. The Mongolian Government is actively involved in UNEP activities and Mongolia has become one of the main supporters of different UN Conventions such as the Convention to Combat Desertification, Ozone Depletion and Biodiversity Conservation.

 

National Decision-Making Structure

1. National Sustainable Development Coordination Body: YES
2. National Sustainable Development Policy: YES
3. National Agenda 21/other strategy for SD: YES
4. Local/Regional Agenda(s) 21: YES
5. Environmental Impact Assessment Law: YES
6. Major Groups involved in Sustainable Development Decision-Making: YES

National Instruments and Programmes

1. Sustainable. Dev. or environmental education incorporated into school curricula: IN PROCESS
2. Sustainable Development Indicators Program: IN PROCESS
3. Ecolabel Regulations: YES
4. Recycle/Reuse Programs: NO
5. Green Accounting Program: YES
6. Access to Internet: YES
7. Access to World Wide Web: YES
8. A national World Wide Web Site for Sustainable Dev. or State of the Environment: http://www.idrc.org.sg/pan/mne/index.html
http://www.mongoliaonline.mn/map21/
http://www.un-Mongolia.mn

Policies, Programmes, and Legislation

Does your country have either a policy, programme, and/or legislation consistent with Agenda 21 in:  
1. Combatting poverty: YES
2. Changing consumption and production patterns: YES
3. Atmosphere: YES
4. Land Use Planning: YES
5. Forest and Deforestation: YES
6. Desertification and Drought: NO
7. Sustainable Mountain Development: NO
8. Sustainable Agriculture: YES
9. Biological Diversity: YES
10. Biotechnology: IN PROCESS
11. Oceans and Coastal Areas: NO
12. Freshwater Management: YES
13. Toxic Chemicals: YES
14. Hazardous Wastes: NO
15. Solid Wastes: YES
16. Radioactive Wastes: IN PROCESS
17. Energy: YES
18. Transport: YES
19. Sustainable Tourism: IN PROCESS

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th, 6th and 7th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last update: November 1998

Mongolia's Agenda 21
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MAJOR GROUPS

Women

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The policy of the Mongolian State aimed at ensuring equal rights for women is being implemented through a series of laws such as: the Constitution of Mongolia, the Civil Code, Family Code, Labour Law, Social and Health Insurance Law, Education Law and other relevant laws and regulations. Article 16 of the Constitution provides that "Men and women shall enjoy equal rights in political, economic, social and cultural fields and family relations. The State shall protect the interests of the family, motherhood and the child".

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Among Mongolia's accomplishments in this area already are the following:

The mechanism for the implementation and monitoring of the National Programme of Action for the Advancement of Women should be improved, strengthened and implemented under the State budget in order to be put into practice. As there is still misunderstanding of this issue at all levels, the first stage has been to focus on gender-relevant issues in Government policy.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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CHILDREN AND YOUTH

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

During the Second Forum of the Mongolian Youth Federation the program meeting the priority challenges of young people - "New Generation-New Policy" - was determined and approved in order to increase youth participation in the development of the country. In November 1996, the Mongolian Youth Federation's Forum took place to review the results of activities following the previous forum and determine further policy and activities.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Youth are advisory participants in the national sustainable development process as shown by:

The main activities of the MYF are the following:

Status

Unfortunately, in 1996, youth unemployment represented 75% of all unemployment, but the government is committed to ensuring that by the year 2000, more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to appropriate secondary education or vocational training.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Although indigenous people do participate on an ad hoc basis in national policies, no formal process is currently in place to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through policies and legal instruments for example. However, such mechanisms to involve indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the national and local level are being discussed.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Status

At present, NGO inputs in the conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation are ad hoc. However, mechanisms are being planned to involve NGOs in decision making and implementation.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Government plans to support local agenda 21 initiatives.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

WORKERS AND UNIONS

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Workers do not yet formally participate in National Agenda 21 discussions and implementation, but the Mongolian Trade Unions' Association supports sustainable development policy. The following activities regarding worker participation should be undertaken in order to achieve sustainable development :

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Challenges

The equipment of processing factories has been used for more than 30-40 years. In order to produce cleaner products and protect the environment, the Government and enterprises should:

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Realistically, in view of evaluating the advantages of Mongolia's present level of development, geographical position, enormous natural resources, scientific and research potential and staff, and infrastructure that the Government has achieved during the last 30-40 years, the Government believes that efforts must be concentrated on whatever is truly possible to implement.
The Ministry of Enlightenment presented drafts of the Mongolian Science and Technology development policy and concept to the Great Hural. There are great demands to improve science and technological management, financing, and to extend privatization in this field. Another urgent need is to improve the legislation base of the Mongolian Science and Technology development.
Mongolian Science and Technology policy would develop according to the priority trends which were defined in the documents.

Status

Not much has changed in the area of improving the exchange of knowledge and concerns between the science and technology community and the general public. In 1996, Tg 1.5 billion was spent on science and technology. At present, there are over 100 research, scientific, training, experimental and production institutions in Mongolia with 3600 staff members. Since 1992, all funding for research institutes became project-based. The Science and Technological Foundation exists under the Ministry of Enlightenment. In 1996, there were over 300 research projects funded by this foundation.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

FARMERS

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

In order to enhance the participation of farmers in the design of development policy, national and regional workshops will be organized to focus on their opinions. In the future, through scientific organizations and agencies, farmers will have access to new technology and best farmer practices. The Government has been involved in short-term training courses on strengthening farmer skills before 1990. In 1996, workshops for the managers and specialist were organized in the 6 aimags (provinces), involving 1200 persons.

Status

There is insufficient financial support for the improvement of farmer efficiency and achievement; therefore, farmers unable to attain additional investment are compelled to not strictly observe sound practices and lack intensive measures. During the last few years, only 20-30,000 hectares of land was treated with herbicide.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

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SCIENCE

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The Ministry of Education of Mongolia is funding research programmes to promote sustainable development. All Ministries in Mongolia have research institutes. The main purpose of the research institutes is to conduct research in the field of applied science and use the research results in the promotion of management at all levels of the country. The Academy of Science, part of the Ministry of Education, is funding research programmes related to basic science programmes. Science for sustainable development also includes university research.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

The Academy of Natural Sciences, the Institute for Mongolian Bio-diversity and Ecology, the Mongolian University and the Ministry for nature and Environment help facilitate the dialogue between the scientific community, the government and the public. Scientific organisations' comments are considered in the decision-making process for sustainable development but in an ad hoc manner.

Programmes and Projects

The Ministry of Nature and Environment has established an environment conservation fund for sustainable development activities which includes research programmes for climate change, desertification, biodiversity and natural disaster mitigation, and others. The results of the above research are being applied to the conservation of natural resources and environmental management in Mongolia.

Capacity-Building, Education, Training and Awareness-Raising

Steps taken to enhance scientific understanding, improve long-term scientific assessment, building of capacity and capability include:

Research and Technologies

Scientific organizations have been conducting research in the field of sustainable production and consumption patterns. One of the important research areas is cleaner production through new technologies. For instance: The Research Institute of Wool and Cashmere Processing is researching environmentally sound technologies for wool and cashmere processing by using consistently available power in rural settlement conditions; the Institute of Renewable Energy has studies on alternative energy accumulation equipment and technology; the Energy Institute of the Science Academy is producing studies about the heating supplies of cities.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th and 6th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 and 1998. Last update: 18 February 1998.

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For information on The Energy Efficiency Institution in Mongolia:click here:
For information on Mongolian Technical University click here:
For information on Camel Trophy Ecological Project click here:

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INFORMATION

Status

Availability of sustainable development information at the national level

Agenda 21 Chapters Very good Good Some good data but many gaps Poor
2. International cooperation and trade     X  
3. Combating poverty   X    
4. Changing consumption patterns     X  
5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability X      
6. Human health X      
7. Human settlements X      
8. Integrating E & D in decision-making     X  
9. Protection of the atmosphere X      
10. Integrated planning and management of land X      
11. Combating deforestation   X    
12. Combating desertification and drought X      
13. Sustainable mountain development     X  
14. Sustainable agriculture and rural development   X    
15. Conservation of biological diversity     X  
16. Biotechnology   X    
17. Oceans, seas, coastal areas and their living       X
18. Freshwater resources   X    
19. Toxic chemicals     X  
20. Hazardous wastes     X  
21. Solid wastes     X  
22. Radioactive wastes     X  
24. Women in sustainable development X      
25. Children and youth X      
26. Indigenous people X      
27. Non-governmental organizations   X    
28. Local authorities   X    
29. Workers and trade unions   X    
30. Business and industry X      
31. Scientific and technological community   X    
32. Farmers   X    
33. Financial resources and mechanisms        
34. Technology, cooperation and capacity-building   X    
35. Science for sustainable development X      
36. Education, public awareness and training X      
37. International cooperation for capacity-building     X  
38. International institutional arrangements     X  
39. International legal instruments     X  
40. Information for decision-making     X  


The availability of data is "good"or "very good" with some gaps in certain areas. 

Information

The National Council for Sustainable Development Secretariat, inaugurated in May 1996, was created to specify the goals for sustainable development in more detail in conjunction with other government bodies. Economic and social data, statistics and geographical data is published in the form of a statistical yearbook. Since 1996, a State of the Environmental Report has been published annually. GIS technology is a tool for decision making and is widely used in different areas of the country. Networks and computers with access to international information systems are generally available in Mongolia.

This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997

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INTERNATIONAL LAW

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Mongolia has ratified the following international conventions and contributes to their implementation:


This information is based on Mongolia's submission to the 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.


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